Key Findings and Final Reports

Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys
Data Interpretation, Further Analysis and
Dissemination Workshop
MICS Key Findings Report
MICS Final Report
Session Objectives
To gain knowledge on using the MICS report
templates and tabulation
To gain tips and advice on what needs to be paid
attention to in order to use these templates to
produce good quality high level reports
The MICS Report Templates
There are two templates available in MICS which
can be customized by countries depending on the
content of the survey:
1. Key Findings Report
2. Final Report
Templates are/will
be available in:
Why use the MICS templates?
To facilitate the efficient production of MICS reports
so countries do not have to “reinvent the wheel” and
spend time on the design of tables, indicator
explanations etc.
To ensure the production of comparable reports that
can be used easily to draw comparisons between
To increase confidence among users in the survey;
MICS is a recognised household survey programme
with an internationally accepted methodology
The Global MICS Report Review Process
Step 1
Datasets and tables are technically
reviewed by Global MICS Team
Step 2
Based on templates, first draft of report(s)
generated at the country level (and here)
Step 3
Draft report are technically reviewed by
Regional office and Global MICS Team
Finalization of reports at country level
Step 4
The Key Findings Report
Why produce a Key Findings Report?
To disseminate all national level results on all
indicators to stimulate interest in the survey
 To provide quick results to bide time while
working on the final report
 To release the most critical results, such as on
mortality and malnutrition, to allow for possible
programme response as soon as possible
What is in the Key Findings Report?
A data-oriented and visual report that needs no
text/writing or substantial work on customising
the tabulation plan.
 The tables contain all national level results on all
MICS indicators.
 The graphs present key indicators and provide
critical disaggregation, not available in tables.
Drafting the Key Findings Report
An expected output of this workshop is your Key
Findings Report.
 Each group work session must include time for
you to customise the template.
 The first of such sessions immediately follows to
introduce you in detail to the work ahead.
Drafting the Key Findings Report
Drafting the Key Findings Report
Drafting the Key Findings Report
The Final Report
What is the Final Report objective?
To convey the results of the survey to a wide
audience which includes government agencies,
non-governmental organizations, other
multilateral donors, the press, and the general
What is in the final report?
Describes the current situation of children and
women taken from all indicator results included
in the survey
 Includes detailed information on survey
methodology and implementation to allow
readers to fully understand the methodology and
tools used and how the findings are produced.
Who should write the Final Report?
Typically the MICS implementing agency and/or
members of a stakeholder/technical committee
write the report. Chapters can be divided among
different people. It is useful to have people familiar
with subject matter.
Experts in various fields should be consulted and
asked to review the tables in order that the key
messages and any unusual findings are addressed
and dealt with properly in the report and that
technical terminology is appropriately used.
Content of the Final Report Template
Executive Summary
Front Matter (contents, summary table, foreword, etc.)
Sample and Survey Methodology
Results Chapters (presented by theme)
Sample Design
Personnel Involved
Estimates of Sampling Errors
Data Quality Tables
Indicator List
Final Report Templates
Final Report Examples
MICS4 surveys from
Summary Table of
Characteristics and Findings
The Executive Summary
Readers usually only have time or interest to read
the executive summary, yet typically this part of
the report is very weak
The executive summary needs to highlight the
key findings of the survey and present
information to a potentially non-technical
audience of decision and policy makers
The Executive Summary
Poorly written executive summaries are usually a
collection of bullet points that are simply a copy
and paste of sentences in the main report,
regardless of how important those findings are
Strong executive summaries are those that give a
brief description of the survey and go on to
provide a short narrative for each theme
highlighting indicator results at the national level
and then providing the most severe disparities
A brief chapter providing background and
objectives of the survey.
Sample and Survey Methodology
A well written and comprehensive description of
the sample design and methodology will lend
credibility to the results even if it raises some
possible limitations
Anyone reading the sample design, even if they
have little knowledge of sampling issues, should
be able to understand what was done at each
stage of the design to select households
Sample and Survey Methodology
Should not remain generic and only based on the
template. Issues that arose in fieldwork or issues
that may have caused some bias in the final
results should be raised.
Relevant MICS indicators that have been
excluded, perhaps due to inclusion in other
recent surveys, should be mentioned and other
sources referenced.
Sample and Survey Methodology
Country specific additions to questionnaires
should be included as non-MICS additions.
If a survey has not followed MICS standard
protocols and guidelines fully then it is expected
that this will be documented in the final report in
The Results Chapters - Tables
Tables are within the results chapters and not at
the end of the report
 Do not import all tables into the final report until
they have been checked and verified through the
global MICS program. From countless experiences,
lots of unnecessary double work can be saved!
 Export the data from SPSS to the excel tabulation
plan first to check the tables format before
exporting to the word document
The Results Chapters - Tables
All tables should be run weighted and un-weighted.
The size of the un-weighted denominators should be
checked for each table
 Results based on denominators of 25-49
unweighted cases should be put in parentheses,
e.g. (43.2)
 Results based on denominators of less than 25
unweighted cases should be denoted by an asterisk
in parentheses: (*)
The Results Chapters - Table Conventions
Background variables can be recoded into fewer
categories if necessary
e.g. wealth quintiles – Richest 40%, Poorest 60%
Categories of background variables with very few
cases i.e. less than 25 can be omitted from the
table with a footnote provided to explain this
e.g. 3 unweighted cases with missing mother’s education not
All indicator numbers (both MICS and MDG
indicators) should be provided as table notes
The Results Chapters - Narrative Text
First, consult other sources of data as much as
possible to make sense of results, but do not
present the other sources
 Next, report the value of each indicator. Point
out subgroups or regions that may be lagging
behind others
 Describe patterns across age, education and
socio-economic groups, particularly if these
patterns are consistent and substantial
The Results Chapters - Narrative Text
It is not recommended to use the report to
perform and present trend analysis, but keep
comparisons with other surveys in mind.
Wherever possible, support findings from data
with policy interventions – but only to the extent
of a couple of sentences. Acknowledge puzzling
or inconsistent results. Indicate if there is an
unexpected finding which was also observed in
another survey
The Results Chapters - Narrative Text
It is not necessary to take every table and
comment on them one at a time, use a narrative keep all results of that section from all tables, or
from other topics in mind
Need to be careful with using background
variables to describe data i.e. ethnicity is always
of household head which should be borne in
mind when describing women and child tables.
Wealth index is of the whole household etc.
The Results Chapters - Narrative Text
Always use the right and the same terminology
for the variables and their categories names (e.g.
Wealth Index: The richest and not the richer)
The template provides suggestions for describing
findings in the table but can only ever be used as
a guide as sentences in the template may not
match the country specific data.
The Results Chapters - Narrative Text
When possible, sampling error tables should
be used in order to make sure that differences
being emphasised in the text from the tables
are not within sampling errors. If need be,
emphasise instead that results are within
sampling errors – in text or in graphs – by
using the calculated confidence interval.
The Results Chapters - Narrative Text
Transparency is vital! Don’t cover up any irregular
or surprising findings. These should be
mentioned even if explanations cannot be given a clause for further analysis and investigation
should be included. Do not invent explanations!
 If for any reason tables/indicators are not
included in the main report, but the questions did
appear in the questionnaire, then the reason for
their exclusion needs to be stated in the report.
Example of an inaccurate use of template
About one in five young women age 15-19 years is currently
married (%% per cent). This proportion does not vary much
between urban (%% per cent) and rural (%% per cent), but is
strongly related to the level of education.
Example from a Final Report:
About one in five young women age 15-19 years is currently
married. This proportion does not vary much between urban
(27 per cent) and rural (31 per cent), but is strongly related to
the level of education.
Further tips!
It is usually good practice that a single committed
individual is coordinating the report writing: It
improves harmonisation of text and adherence to
deadlines, as well as providing a clear link
between table production and text production.
Use people who want to write (and can write). If
you can, avoid people who must write.
Further tips!
Keep a list of issues as they appear. This will help
keeping track and serve as a memory bank of the
many topics for further analysis that always are
inspired by report writing.
Try to finalise the chapters one by one. Report
writing is straight-forward, but is also known to
become delayed. By keeping a structured
approach, the process towards a final report flows
Further tips!
To increase the quality of the report it is worth
considering employing a editor/proof reader. This
will also minimise the time spent in reviews by all
Further tips!
An important detail: Copying straight from SPSS
Output (Crtl-C) to Excel can give problems
between some versions (e.g. does not copy over
table notes). Use the automated syntax to export
to Excel and use the customized tabplan!
And finally: Follow the Technical Assistance
Framework of MICS. Take advantage of UNICEF’s
Regional Office.
Step 21: Report Writing
RO mobilises
household survey
expert to provide
support in
country as
Due to MDG
additional TA is
provided to
anticipated to not
complete the
report in 12
months after data
Draft of final main report produced
Draft shared with RO for review
(Feedback provided within 2 weeks)
Draft shared with RO for Global MICS Team HQ
consolidated review and feedback (within 2 weeks)
Main Report finalised
Step 22: Printing
Print ready version sent to RO
for final feedback
(within 7 days)
Report Printed
(Hard copies sent to RO and HQ)
pdf version shared with RO for Global dissemination
Group Work
Teams will work in groups to start editing and
customizing the Key Findings Report template by
inserting survey specific information and deleting
those that are not applicable
Your facilitator will introduce you to the tools and
guide you on the first work of customisation
You will continue this work throughout the week