4030 Respiration

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Breathing and Speech Production
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
Learning Objectives
• Possess a basic knowledge of respiratory
anatomy sufficient to understand basic
respiratory physiology and its relation to
speech sound generation.
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
Respiratory System
Components
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Structure and Mechanics of Respiratory
System
• Pulmonary system
– Lungs and airways
• Upper respiratory system
• Lower respiratory system
• Chest wall system
– Necessary for normal vegetative and speech
breathing
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Chest wall system
•
•
•
•
Rib cage wall
Abdominal wall
Diaphragm
Abdominal contents
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Chest wall-Lung relation
•
•
•
•
•
Lungs not physically attached to the thoracic walls
Lungs: visceral pleura
Thoracic wall: parietal pleura
Filled with Pleural fluid
Ppleural < Patm - “pleural linkage” allows the lungs to move with
the thoracic wall
• Breaking pleural linkage Ppleural = Patm - pneumothorax
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Thorax
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Abdomen
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Diaphragm
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Respiratory muscles
• Diaphragm
• External intercostals
• Internal intercostals
(interosseus & intercartilaginous)
• Costal elevators
• Serratus posterior superior
• Serratus posterior inferior
• Sternocleidomastoid
• Scalenes
• Trapezius
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor
Serratus anterior
Transverse throacis
Rectus abdominis
External obliques
Internal obliques
Transversus abdominis
Quadratus lumborum
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
Learning Objectives
• Describe how physical laws help explain how
air is moved in and out of the body.
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Moving Air
Patm: atmospheric pressure
Palv: alveolar pressure
Vt: thoracic volume
P = k/V: Boyle’s Law
 Vt =  Palv
 Vt =  Palv
Palv < Patm (- Palv)
Palv > Patmos
P differential = density differential  air
molecules flowing into lungs =
inspiration
(+ Palv)
P differential = density differential 
air molecules flow out of lungs =
expiration
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Changing thoracic volume
(Vt)
Strategies
• ∆ Length
• ∆ Circumference
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Changing lung volume ( Vlung)
• pleural linkage:  Vlung =  Vthoracic
•  Vthoracic is
– raising/lowering the ribs (circumference)
• Raising:  Vthoracic = inspiration
• Lowering:  Vthoracic =expiration
– Raising/lowering the diaphragm (vertical dimension)
• Raising: Vthoracic =expiration
• Lowering:  Vthoracic =inspiration
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Science
Biomechanics of the chest
wall
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Learning Objectives
• Contrast the goals of non-speech breathing
and speech breathing.
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“Goals” of Breathing
• Non-speech (e.g. rest) Breathing
– Ventilation
• Requires exchanging volumes of air
• Speech Breathing
– Ventilation
• Requires exchanging volumes of air
– Communication
• Requires regulating alveolar pressure on expiration
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Learning Objectives
• Outline the output variables associated with
breathing.
• Briefly describe the methods used to measure lung
volume change.
• Describe the functional subdivisions of the lung
volume space.
• Be aware of the lungs volumes required for various
respiratory activities.
• Differentiate speech and rest breathing in terms of
volume measures.
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Output Variables: Volume
• “Wet” Spirometer
– Volume measured
directly
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Output Variables: Volume
• Pneumotachograph
– Sometimes called “dry”
spirometry
– Vented mask the covers
mouth and nose
– Airflow signal is then
integrated to determine
volume
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Output Variables: Volume
(REL)
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Lung Volume Terminology
•
Tidal Volume (TV)
– Volume of air inspired/expired during rest breathing.
•
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
– Volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled, “below” tidal volume.
•
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
– Volume of air that can be inhaled, “above” tidal volume.
•
Residual Volume (RV)
– Volume of air left after maximal expiration. Measurable, but not easily so.
•
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
– Volume of air enclosed in the respiratory system (i.e. TLC=RV+ERV+TV+IRV)
•
Inspiratory capacity (IC)
– TV + IRV
•
Vital Capacity (VC)
– Volume of air that can be inhaled/exhaled (i.e. VC=IRV +TV+ERV)
•
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
– Volume of air in the respiratory system at the REL (i.e. FRC=RV+ERV)
•
Resting Expiratory End Level/Resting Lung Volume (REL or RLV)
– Place in lung volume space where resting tidal volume typically ends
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SPPA 4030 Speech
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Output Variables: Volume
Rest Breathing vs. Speech Breathing
Typical Volume Values
• Vital Capacity: 4-5 liters
• Total Lung Capacity: 5-6 liters
• REL: 40 % VC (upright)
Rest Breathing
• Tidal Volume: ~ 10 % VC
• Insp/Exp Timing: ~50:50
• Respiratory Rate: 12-15
breaths/minute
Speech Breathing
• Tidal Volume: 20-25 % VC
• Insp/Exp Timing: ~10:90
• Respiratory Rate: variable
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
Learning Objectives
• Briefly describe the methods used to
measure/infer alveolar pressure.
• Contrast speech and rest breathing in terms of
alveolar pressure.
• Be aware of the alveolar pressure required for
various respiratory activities.
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
Output Variables: Pressure
• Termed Manometry
• pressure transducers
may be placed at
various locations in the
body
–
–
–
–
Mouth
Trachea
Thoracic esophagus
Abdominal esophagus
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Quantifying aerodynamic Pressure
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Output Variables: Pressure
Typical Values
Resting Tidal Breathing
Palv: +/- 1-2 cm H20
Speech Breathing
Palv: +8-10 cm H20 during expiration
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
Learning Objectives
• Briefly describe methods used to measure
changes in chest wall shape.
• Be aware of the factors that influence changes
in chest wall shape.
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Output Variables: Shape
• Rib cage wall and abdominal walls are free to
move
• Changing either can influence lung volume
• A wide variety of chest wall configurations are
possible.
• Configurations appear to be a function of
biomechanical and task-based factors.
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Output Variables: Shape
SPPA 4030 Speech
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SPPA 4030 Speech
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Output Variables: Shape
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Volume, pressure and Shape Changed
during speech breathing
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Learning Objectives
• Describe the elasticity of the respiratory
system and its relation to REL.
• Apply the bellows analogy to the respiratory
system.
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Respiratory System Mechanics
• It is spring-like (elastic)
• Elastic systems have an equilibrium point (rest
position)
• What happens when you displace it from
equilibrium?
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Displacement away from equilibrium
Restoring force back to equilibrium
equilibrium
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Longer than
equilibrium
Displacement away from equilibrium
Restoring force back to equilibrium
Shorter than
equilibrium
equilibrium
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Displacement away from equilibrium
Restoring force back to equilibrium
Shorter than
equilibrium
equilibrium
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Longer than
equilibrium
Equilibrium point ~ REL
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Displacement away from REL
Restoring force back to REL
Lung Volume
Below REL
REL
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Lung Volume
Above REL
Is the respiratory system heavily
or lightly damped?
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Respiratory Mechanics: Bellow’s Analogy
• Bellows volume = lung volume
• Handles = respiratory muscles
• Spring = elasticity of the respiratory system – recoil or
relaxation pressure
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
• No pushing or pulling on the handles ~ no exp. or insp. muscle
activity
• Volume ~ REL
• Patmos = Palv, no airflow
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At REL
muscle force
elastic force




pull handles outward from rest
V increases ~ Palv decreases
Inward air flow
INSPIRATION
SPPA 4030 Speech
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muscle force
At REL
muscle force
elastic force




push handles inward from rest
V decreases ~ Palv increases
outward air flow
EXPIRATION
SPPA 4030 Speech
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muscle force
Respiratory Mechanics: Bellow’s
Analogy
Forces acting on the bellows/lungs are due to
• Elastic properties of the system
–
–
•
Passive
Always present
Muscle activity
–
–
Active
Under nervous system control (automatic or voluntary)
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
Learning Objectives
• Use the modified pressure-relaxation curve to
explain the active and passive forces involved in
controlling the respiratory system.
• Provide muscular solutions for producing target
alveolar pressures at various regions of the lung
volume space.
• Differentiate between volume and pulsatile demands
during speech breathing.
• Outline the differences in the muscular strategies
used for rest and speech breathing.
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Forces due to elasticity of system
(no active muscle activity)
•
•
•
Recoil forces are proportionate to the amount
of displacement from rest
Recoil forces ~ Palv
Relaxation pressure curve
– Plots Palv due to recoil force against lung volume
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Traditional Relaxation Pressure Curve
Hixon, Weismer & Hoit
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Relaxation Pressure Curve
(Our modified version)
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Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)
60
40
20
REL
0
-20
-40
-60
100
80
60
40
% Vital Capacity
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20
0
Breathing for Life: Inspiration

pulling handles outward with net
inspiratory muscle activity
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Breathing for Life: Expiration


No muscle activity
Recoil forces alone returns
volume to REL
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Breathing for Life
Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)
60
40
20
0
~ 2 cm
-20
-40
-60
100
10 %
80
60
40
VitalSpeech
Capacity
SPPA%4030
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20
0
Respiratory demands of
speech
• Conversational speech requires
– “constant” tracheal pressure for driving vocal fold
oscillation
– brief, “pulsatile” changes in pressure to meet
particular linguistic demands
• emphatic and syllabic stress
• phonetic requirements
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Respiratory demands of
speech
• Conversational speech
– Volume solution
• Driving analogy
– Volume solution
• Constant tracheal
pressure 8-10 cm H20
– Pulsatile solution
• Maintain a relatively
constant speed
– Pulsatile solution
• Brief increases
above/below constant
tracheal pressure
• Brief increases/decreases
in speed due to moment
to moment traffic
conditions
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Breathing for Speech: Inspiration


pulling handles outward with net
inspiratory muscle activity
Rate of volume changeSPPA
is greater
than
4030 Speech
rest breathing
Science
Breathing for Speech
Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)
60
40
20
0
~ 8-10 cm
-20
-40
-60
100
20 %
80
60
40
VitalSpeech
Capacity
SPPA%4030
Science
20
0
Breathing for Speech
Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)
60
40
20
0
~ 8-10 cm
-20
-40
-60
100
20 %
80
60
40
VitalSpeech
Capacity
SPPA%4030
Science
20
0
Breathing for Speech: Expiration
Expiratory muscle activity & recoil
forces returns volume to REL
 Pressure is net effect of expiratory
muscles (assisting) and recoil forces
(assisting)

SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
60
Prelax > Palv
Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)
40
Requires
“braking”
Add Pinsp to
Meet Palv
Optimal region
Prelax > 0
assists Palv
Below REL
Prelax < 0
opposes Palv
Add Pexp to
Meet Psg
Add Pexp to
meet Palv
& overcome
20
0
Prelax
Target Palv ~ 8-10 cm
-20
Prelax: relaxation pressure
Palv: target alveolar pressure
Pexp: net expiratory muscle pressure
Pinsp: net inspiratory muscle pressure
-40
-60
100
20 % VC
change
80
60
40
% Vital Capacity
20
0
Summary to this point
Muscle activity for Inhalation
• Life
–
•
Active inspiration to overcome elastic recoil
Speech
–
–
Active inspiration to overcome elastic recoil
Greater lung volume excursion
•
–
Longer and greater amount of muscle activity
Rate of lung volume change greater
•
Greater amount of muscle activity
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
Summary to this point
Muscle activity for exhalation
• Life
–
–
•
Minimal active expiration (i.e. no muscle activity)
Elastic recoil force only
Speech
–
–
Active use of expiratory muscles to maintain airway
pressures necessary for speech (8-10 cm water)
Degree of muscle activity must increase to offset
reductions in relaxation pressure
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Learning Objectives
• Explain how the respiratory system is “tuned” for
speech breathing.
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Speech breathing demands a ‘welltuned’ respiratory system
• Brief, robust expiratory muscle activity
• Chest wall must be ‘optimized’ so that rapid
changes can be made
• Optimal environment created by active muscle
activity
• This is our ‘modern’ view of speech breathing
SPPA 4030 Speech
Science
History of Speech Breathing
Studies
• “Classic” studies of speech breathing
– University of Edinburgh
– Draper, Ladefoged & Witteridge (1959, 1960)
• “Modern” studies of speech breathing
– Harvard University
– Hixon, Goldman and Mead (1973)
– Hixon, Mead and Goldman (1976)
SPPA 4030 Speech
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How do we tune our system?
• Abdominal wall is active
throughout the speech
breath cycle –even during
inspiration!
• Why??
• Speculations include
– Stretches diaphragm and rib
cage muscle to a more
optimal length-tension
region, which increases ability
for rapid contraction to meet
pulsatile demands.
– During expiration, a strong
abdominal platform prevents
energy being ‘absorbed’ by
the abdominal contents.
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Optimizing the chest wall
SPPA 4030 Speech
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Rib Cage Wall (inspiratory)
Muscle Activity
Rib Cage Wall (expiratory)
Abdominal Wall
SPPA 4030 Speech
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So what?
• Suggests speech breathing is more ‘active’
than originally thought
• Passive pressures (recoil forces) of the system
is heavily exploited in life breathing
• speech breathing requires an efficient
pressure regulator and therefore relies less on
passive pressures
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Science
Summary: Muscle activity
Inspiration
Life
•
Active inspiratory muscles
Speech
•
COACTIVATION OF
–
–
•
•
inspiratory muscles
expiratory muscles
(specifically abdominal)
INS > EXP = net inspiration
System ‘tuned’ for quick
inhalation
Expiration
Life
• No active expiration (i.e. no
muscle activity)
Speech
• Active use of rib cage expiratory
muscles
• Active use of abdominal
expiratory muscles
• System “Tuned” for quick brief
changes in pressure to meet
linguistic demands of speech
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Learning Objectives
• Describe how body position can affect speech
breathing patterns.
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Role of Position on Breathing
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Role of Position on Breathing
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Role of Position on Breathing
Sustained Vowel
Upright Position
Sustained Vowel
Supine Position
Learning Objectives
• Describe how various respiratory impairments can
lead to diminished speech production abilities.
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Clinical considerations
•
•
•
•
Parkinson’s Disease
Cerebellar Disease
Spinal cord Injury
Mechanical Ventilation
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Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
• Rigidity, hypo (small) & brady (slow) kinesia
Speech breathing features
•  muscular rigidity   stiffness of rib cage
•  abdominal involvement relative to rib cage
•  ability to generate Ptrach
•  modulation Ptrach
• Speech is soft and monotonous
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Cerebellar Disease
• dyscoordination, inappropriate scaling and
timing of movements
Speech breathing features
• Chest wall movements w/o changes in LV
(paradoxical movements)
•  fine control of Ptrach
• Abnormal start and end LV (below REL)
• speech has a robotic quality
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Spinal cord injury
• Remember those spinal nerves…
• Paralysis of many muscles of respiration
Speech breathing features
• variable depending on specific damage
•  abdominal size during speech
•  control during expiration resulting in difficulty
generating consistent Ptrach and modulating Ptrach
• Treatment: Support the abdomen (truss)
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Mechanical Ventilation
• Breaths are provided by a machine
Speech breathing features
•  control over all aspects of breath support
• Length of inspiratory/expiratory phase
• Large, but inconsistent Ptrach
• Inspiration at linguistically inappropriate places
• Speech breathing often occurs on inspiration
• Treatment: “speaking valves”, ventilator adjustment,
behavioral training
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Other disorders that may affect
speech breathing
•
•
•
•
Voice disorders
Hearing impairment
Fluency disorders
Motoneuron disease (ALS)
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