Volk3-EnrolmentMgt - OK-AIR

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What We Know about Enrollment
Management in
American Higher Education
By J. Fredericks Volkwein
Center for the Study of Higher Education
Penn State University
1
The Importance of Enrollment Management
• E. M. has become a key strategic planning ingredient.
• The financial health of public and private institutions alike are
substantially enrollment-driven.
• Student recruitment, admissions, enculturation, and education
are expensive activities that become even more costly
under conditions of high turnover.
• E. M. serves as an important mechanism for promoting
student-institution fit.
• E. M. has become a means of accomplishing institutional
effectiveness.
2
Volkwein, Penn State: CSHE
THREE-STAGE
Attracting, Admitting,
and Enrolling Students
ENROLLMENT
MANAGEMENT
MODEL
Introduction and
Integration
Persistence, Graduation,
Success
3
Volkwein- Penn State, CSHE
Stage 1
Attracting, Admitting,
and Enrolling Students
THE TRADITIONAL CORE
• Student College Choice and Fit
• Admissions Marketing
• Applications Management
• Tuition Pricing
• Financial Aid Packaging
• Strategic Niche Building
4
Volkwein- Penn State, CSHE
Stage 2
Introduction and
Integration
THE FIRST-YEAR EXPERIENCE
• Orientation
• Advisement
• Curricular Access
• Remediation
• Support Services
Volkwein- Penn State, CSHE
5
INSTITUTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
• Student Learning and Academic Performance
• Satisfaction and Institutional Commitment
• Student Tracking and Retention
• Campus Climate
• Alumni Studies
• Improvement
Stage 3
Persistence, Graduation,
Success
6
Volkwein- Penn State, CSHE
System Dynamics Model of University Enrollment, Financial and Faculty Resources
An “Influence Diagram” Developed by Bruce P. Szelest, University at Albany
with Assistance from J. Fredericks Volkwein, Penn State University
and George P. Richardson, University at Albany.
Relative
Attractiveness
Applicants
Admits
Enrollments
Financial
Resources
Proportion of
apps admitted
Academic
Reputation
New Student
Quality
•The backbone of the Enrollment Management process can be depicted by a flow from Applications to
Admits, to Enrollees, to Financial Resources. Financial Resources are increasingly enrollment
dependent at public and private universities alike.
•Student selectivity (the admissions rate or proportion of applicants admitted) drives the fundamental
self-reinforcing process of university attractiveness via academic reputation and New Student Quality
indicators like SAT/ACT scores and high school rank.
•Dynamic Hypothesis: The admit fraction is a leverage point – adjusting the admit fraction is a shortterm control on the number of admits and also has longer-term implications for the university’s overall
Relative Attractiveness via its inverse relationship with Freshman Quality Indicators—the lower the
proportion of admitted applicants, the higher the Indicators, and the stronger the Academic
Reputation.
7
Perceived
Quality &
Success
Instruction &
Related Activity
Breadth & Depth of
Academic Programs
Student
Retention
FT Faculty
& Adjuncts
Relative
Attractiveness
Applicants
Admits
Enrollments
Financial
Resources
Proportion of
apps admitted
Academic
Reputation
New Student
Quality
•Financial resources enable the institution to purchase a mix of Full-time and Part-time Faculty that perform
Instructional & other activities (e.g., advisement, mentoring) which influence Student Retention and Student
Success. These faculty instructional activities thus exert influences, not only on the number of current Enrollees, but
also on future enrollments by influencing Institutional Attractiveness. Increasing the number of faculty enables the
institution to increase the breadth and depth of its academic programs, as well as to increase instructional quality.
•More resources enable the institution both to buy more faculty (thus lowering the student/faculty ratio) and to pay
them higher salaries (thus raising faculty quality by hiring the best full-time and adjunct faculty that are available in
the marketplace). Full-time Faculty provide more instructionally related activities than do Adjuncts, so the mix of
Adjuncts & Full-time Faculty will therefore have implications for student retention.
•Dynamic Hypothesis: Instruction and Instruction-Related Activities are a leverage point - increasing these
activities can increase student retention and success, the enrollment level, curricular diversity, perceived quality, and
relative attractiveness.
8
Academic
Governance
& Service
Perceived
Quality &
Success
Instruction &
Related Activity
Breadth & Depth of
Academic Programs
Student
Retention
FT Faculty
& Adjuncts
Relative
Attractiveness
Applicants
Admits
Enrollments
Financial
Resources
Proportion of
apps admitted
Academic
Reputation
New Student
Quality
•Faculty may also invest their time in Academic Governance, Program Review, and other
University Service Activities (e.g., honors programs, teaching and learning centers, faculty senates,
curriculum committees). By improving the quality of instruction and strengthening educational
policy, these activities eventually influence student retention and the perceived success of
graduates, which affect university Relative Attractiveness.
Thus, Faculty Academic Governance and Service activities can influence both current students
(via retention) and prospective students (via attractiveness), thus increasing enrollment and
financial resources.
9
Perceived
Quality &
Success
Academic Governance
&Service
Instruction &
Related Activity
Breadth & Depth of
Academic Programs
Student
Retention
FT Faculty
& Adjuncts
Relative
Attractiveness
Applicants
Admits
Proportion of
apps admitted
Academic
Reputation
New Student
Quality
Perceived Faculty
Quality
Enrollments
Financial
Resources
Indirect Cost
Recovery
Research
Infrastructure
Research &
Scholarly
Activity
Spending on Research Infrastructure, which positively influences Research Activity, competes with spending for
Adjuncts and Full-time Faculty. Research and Scholarly Activity also competes for the time of Full-time Faculty,
and influences overall Relative Attractiveness by increasing Perceived Faculty Quality and Academic Reputation.
Research Activity also promotes Indirect Cost Recovery which contributes positively to Financial Resources.
•Dynamic Hypothesis: Expenditures on Research Infrastructure are a leverage point. Expenditures on Research
Infrastructure positively influence Research and scholarly activity as well as indirect cost recovery. Faculty
instruction and academic governance service exerts the greatest influence on current students; and faculty research and
scholarship exerts the greatest influence on perceived faculty quality and academic reputation. Both sets of faculty
activity increase the attractiveness of the institution to prospective students, thus strengthening enrollment and
financial resources.
10
Perceived
Quality &
Success
Academic Governance
&Service
Instruction &
Related Activity
Breadth & Depth of
Academic Programs
Student
Retention
FT Faculty
& Adjuncts
Relative
Attractiveness
Applicants
Admits
Proportion of
apps admitted
Academic
Reputation
New Student
Quality
Perceived Faculty
Quality
Enrollments
Financial
Resources
Indirect Cost
Recovery
Other Financial
Expenditures
Research
Infrastructure
Research &
Scholarly
Activity
Outreach &
Public Service Exp.
Other Financial Expenditures include investments in External Outreach and Public Service (especially
common in fields like agriculture, business, education, engineering, public administration, and distance education).
Spending for Outreach and Public Service competes with spending for Faculty and Research Infrastructure.
Public Service and Outreach Activity also competes for the time of Full-time Faculty, and also influences
Academic Reputation via Perceived Faculty Quality that is associated with successful societal problem solving.
11
Perceived
Quality &
Success
Academic Governance
& Student Support
Services
Instruction &
Related Activity
Breadth & Depth of
Academic Programs
Student
Retention
FT Faculty
& Adjuncts
Relative
Attractiveness
Applicants
Admits
Proportion of
apps admitted
Academic
Reputation
New Student
Quality
Perceived Faculty
Quality
Enrollments
Student Centered
Service Capacity
Financial
Resources
Indirect Cost
Recovery
Other Financial
Expenditures
Research
Infrastructure
Research &
Scholarly
Activity
Outreach &
Public Service Exp.
• Other Financial Expenditures for Student Centered Services and Programs increase Student Integration and
Retention and positively influence the current Enrollments, Perceived Quality of the student experience, and
Relative Attractiveness. Student Centered Service Capacity competes with other expenditure categories for
Financial Resources, and indirectly influences enrollment and overall Relative Attractiveness.
12
Perceived
Quality &
Success
Academic Governance
& Student Support
Services
Instruction &
Related Activity
Breadth & Depth of
Academic Programs
Student
Retention
FT Faculty
& Adjuncts
Relative
Attractiveness
Applicants
Admits
Enrollments
Proportion of
apps admitted
Academic
Reputation
Financial
Resources
Indirect Cost
Recovery
New Student
Quality
Perceived Faculty
Quality
Competition-Oriented
Financial Aid &
Fund Raising Exp.
Student Centered
Service Capacity
Other Financial
Expenditures
Research
Infrastructure
Research &
Scholarly
Activity
Outreach &
Public Service Exp.
•Other Financial Expenditures channeled toward Competition Oriented activities positively affect the university’s
overall Relative Attractiveness to prospective students (e.g., financial aid, intercollegiate athletics, attractive recreational
and other facilities, marketing and recruitment, and private fund raising infrastructure). Some of these activities also
generate operating revenue, private gifts, and endowments for the institution.
•Dynamic Hypothesis: Expenditures on Competition Oriented Activities are a leverage point. Spending on these
activities positively influences the Financial Resources and Relative Attractiveness of the institution to prospective
students. These expenditures compete for Financial Resources with investments in Faculty, Research Infrastructure, 13
Student Services, and Public Service/Outreach activities.
Enrollment
Projections
Revenue
Projections
Research on
Student Choice
Assessing the student
experience
Financial Aid
Packaging
Tuition Pricing
Analysis-
Orientation &
Integration
Student Tracking
Enrollment
Management
Admissions
Yield Research
Admissions
Marketing Studies
Studies of Campus
Climate
Evaluating Support
Services
Research on
Feedback from Attrition/Persistence
/Graduation
alumni and
14
employers
Volkwein- Penn State, CSHE
Mission / Age / Size
Wealth / Resource Deployment
Faculty Salaries &
Admissions Selectivity
Recruitment
& Financial Aid
Faculty Research &
Student Outcomes
Scholarly Productivity
Alumni
Attainment &
Guidebook
Ratings
Reputation &
Prestige
15
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