如何選擇一所適合的大學? How to Select a College That Suits You Best? An Introduction to American Higher Education 季淳 (Tsung Chi, Ph.D.) 洛杉磯西方文理大學 (Occidental College) 政治系教授兼系主任 國立政治大學國際發展書院首任總導師 1. Rankings of Colleges and Universities: US News & World Report vs. Forbes 2. Origin and Evolution of American Higher Education: From Liberal Arts Education to Professional Education 3. Origin of Mass Higher Education: Public/Land Grant Universities 4. Introduction to Liberal Arts Education 5. Liberal Arts Colleges and Other Types of Colleges and Universities 6. Four Models of Liberal Arts Education in American Higher Education System 7. Liberal Arts Education in California Public University Systems： University of California vs. California State University 8. Residential Colleges in China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and Singapore 9. Best vs. Most Suitable 1. Rankings of Colleges and Universities: US News & World Report vs. Forbes US News (09/08/2014) Forbes (07/30/2014) National Comprehensive Universities 1. Princeton 2. Harvard 3. Yale 4. Columbia 4. Stanford 4. Chicago Combined Ranking 1. Williams 2. Stanford 3. Swarthmore 4. Princeton 5. MIT 6. Yale 7. Harvard 8. Pomona 9. US Military Academy 10. Amherst National Liberal Arts Colleges 1. Williams 2. Amherst 3. Swarthmore 4. Wellesley 5. Bowdoin/Pomona Forbes Ranking (continued) BC 36 Berkeley 37 UCLA 44 JHU 67 NYU 72 UW 73 USC 78 Occidental 80 Santa Clara 86 BU 89 2. Origin and Evolution of American Higher Education: From Liberal Arts Education to Professional Education Liberal Arts College (人文藝術學院 ) (Harvard College in 1636 and Williams College in 1793: theology, arts and humanities) • Classical education focusing on “whole education” (全人教育), including broad academic knowledge, cultural cultivation, self-identification and realization (“安身 立命”與”修身養性”) , and even moral/personality (道德/品格教育) training curriculum. • The term “liberal” refers to the nature of education for a freeman (自由人) as opposed to a slave who is intellectually blind (“識”盲的奴隸), while “arts” refers to the medieval, European disciplines of grammar, rhetoric, logic, geometry, arithmetic, music, and astronomy (文法、修辭、邏輯、幾何、算學、音樂和天 文學). • In the 17th Century America, liberal arts included the study of theology, arts and humanities (神學、藝術和人文學) only, as in the case of Harvard College. • In the modern time, in addition to theology, arts and humanities, mathematics, sciences, and social sciences (數學、科學和社會科學) have been added to the liberal arts curriculum. Two Historical Events that Challenged Liberal Arts Education in America • Reconstruction Era after the Civil War (1861-65) from 1865 to 1877 南北戰爭後的重建時期 (Note: 清華大學: 1911; 政治大學: 1927; 臺灣大學: 1928) • Great Depression from 1929 to the late 1930s (or early 1940s) 經濟大恐慌 • Now with the global recession and the rise of China? Evolution: Becoming Liberal Arts Colleges and Comprehensive Universities 分道揚鑣:文理大學 vs. 綜合性大學 Liberal Arts College (past:人文藝術學院 ) (Harvard College in 1636 and Williams College in 1793) Liberal Arts (Sciences) College (now: 文理大學) (Williams: arts, humanities, sciences and social sciences) (Comprehensive) University (liberal arts college + professional schools) (Harvard College + Engineering, Edu, Business, Law, and Med Schools) 3. Origin of Mass Higher Education: Public/Land-grant Universities 聯邦 ”授地”大學 • The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 granted federal land to the states for them to establish and endow "land grant" state colleges. Examples: Michigan State Univ. and Penn State Univ. (1855) first set up as models, and then Univ. of Illinois (1867), UC Berkeley (1868), Ohio State Univ. (1870), and so on. 4. Introduction to Liberal Arts Education 4.1 Goals of Liberal Arts Education 4.2 Liberal Arts Education vs. Core/General Education 4.3 Liberal Arts College General Education vs. Comprehensive University Professional Education 4.4 Performances of Liberal Arts College Graduates 4.1 Goals of Liberal Arts Education • • • Learn how to learn. Learn to be enlightened (明識) and audacious (膽 識). Develop a “life-long love for learning”. 4.1.1. Learn how to learn First and foremost goals: • Logically • Critically (with a discerning eye on standard of evidence 明辨) Secondary goals • Cross-culturally (global literacy/awareness) • Inter-disciplinarily • Civil engagement and community-based learning 4.1.2. Learn to be enlightened (明識) and audacious (膽識) • High School Education: Ordinary Person with Common Sense 常識 • College Education: Educated Person with Knowledge 知識 • General Education: Informed Person with Information 見識 • Liberal Arts Education: Enlightened Person with Vision 明識 • Be an Audacious Person with Audacity 膽識 何謂明識? 明 • 人貴自知，要有自知之 (to discover who you are)《老子》：「知人者智，自知者明」 明辨的現代公民 • 慎思 • 大學之道在於培養如何做一個「人」、做一個「公 民」、再談如何培養「士農工商」。 自知之 明 • Situate ourselves in the world as a freeman (安身立命的自由 人) rather than an intelligently “blind” person walking in the dark ( “識”盲之人在黑暗中茫然而行). • Situate ourselves by defining relations with self, family and peer, society and country, world, and the nature. • Situate ourselves in relation to our past and future, by knowing “where we are coming from” and “where we are going to”. 明辨 慎思 • Logically • Critically (with a discerning eye on the standard of evidence) “Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction.” (Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., 1947, at age of 18) • Therefore, to learn how to make logical arguments, both verbally and in writing, with strong evidence. 培養邏輯思考、明辨是非的能力 Play Devil’s Advocate 換位思考 • Devil’s advocate is someone who takes a position he/she does not necessarily agree with (or simply an alternative position from the accepted norm), for the sake of augument or to explore the thought further. 何謂膽識? 慎思、明辨、篤行而已 • “The hottest places in hell are reserved for those who in the times of great moral crisis maintain neutrality.” Dante (1265 1321) “地獄裏的至熱之地 是保留給那些在重大道德危機之時 仍 然保持中立之人.” 但丁 • Therefore, taking actions through community service and civil engagement (社區服務和公民參與). 4.1.3. Develop a “life-long love for learning” Since learning is more procedural than substantial (learn how to learn rather than learn something substantial), and learning is action-oriented, learning will become a life-long experience. 4.2 Liberal Arts Education vs. Core/General Education 文理/博雅書院教育 vs. 核心/通識教育 • The two are similar in that both are opposed to professional (專業), vocational (職業), technical (技能) and practical (實用) education, but they are not the same in that general education is part of or a more visible framework (形) of liberal arts education (神). • While general education is a knowledge-based process of broad exposure to various general disciplines (知識之學) which, understandably, can be somewhat measured both qualitatively and quantitatively, liberal arts education, on the other hand, is a personality-oriented process of selfidentification and self-realization (“安身立命”與”修身養性”之學) that can hardly be measured in any way. • Therefore, a good liberal arts college must have a solid general education (形神兼備), but a school even with a general education is not necessarily a provider of liberal arts education (有形無神). Its Faculty Members However, the very essence of liberal arts education goes much beyond a simple set of courses which can be “mechanically” offered; rather, it embraces a set of orientations, values, beliefs, and norms that require “human touches” by the faculty, such as, ideally, near unselfish devotion and commitment to liberal arts education. 博雅書院教育的精華不在於一套「機械式」地提供的課程 而在於教授們對於書院教育「春風化雨」 近於無私的承諾 與奉獻 Liberal arts education blows like a wind 如清風拂面 無形無蹤 但受者自當心領神會 4.3 Liberal Arts College General Education vs. Comprehensive University Professional Education 文理大學的「通才教育」vs. 綜合性大學的「專才教育」 • Education in liberal arts colleges (including Harvard College) is to produce generalists (通才教育) (as exemplified in the original meanings of the degrees of BA, MA, Ph.D., etc.) with a “whole education” provided by individualized instructions in a residential, intimate, small-class learning environment (usually 2,000 students or less), where extensive interactions between faculty and students and among students themselves foster a community of serious learning. 培養通才的精英(緻)教育包括個別化的指導、住宿學習、親密互動的學習、以 及小班制的教學 (Elite education 精英教育: Learn to be a well-informed 見識, enlightened 明識, and audacious 膽識 modern citizen 現代公民.) • Education in (especially public) comprehensive universities is to produce specialists (專才教育) with professional (專業), vocational (職業), technical (技能) and practical (實用) trainings in a much larger learning environment. (Mass education 大眾教育: Learn to be a working professional 專業人士.) 4.4 Performances of Liberal Arts College Graduates Although liberal arts college graduates are very small in number when compared to those of larger public universities, they are disproportionately represented among leaders in many spheres of American society. According to a 1998 study (http://www.collegenews.org/topliberalartscolleges.xml), even though only 3 percent (only 2% now) of American college and university graduates received education at a liberal arts college, alumni of these small colleges accounted for: • • • • • • 8 percent of the nation’s wealthiest CEOs in 1998 19 percent of U.S. presidents, including Presidents Nixon and Reagan. 23 percent of Pulitzer Prize winners in drama, 19 percent of the winners in history, 18 percent in poetry, 8 percent in biography, and 6 percent in fiction from 1960 to 1998 9 percent of all Fulbright scholarship awardees 24 percent of all Mellon fellowships recipients in the humanities 20 percent of Phi Beta Kappa, the oldest and most prestigious honors society in the United States, inductions between 1995 and 1997 The same study of 1998 also suggests that liberal arts college graduates are disproportionately represented in the American scientific community. These colleges have produced nearly twice as many students who earn a Ph.D. in science as other institutions. Nearly 20 percent of the scientists elected to the National Academy of Sciences in a recent two-year period were alumni of a liberal arts college. 5. Liberals Arts Colleges and Other Types of Colleges and Universities National Private University (R) (全國性私立大學): Harvard Univ. (Stanford) Reg’l Private University (T & V) (地區性私立大學): Loyola Marymont Univ. (Santa Clara) National Liberal Arts College (T) (全國性文理大學, n=125): Williams College (Occidental) (Where did McCain, H. Clinton and Obama go to college?) Regional Liberal Arts College (T) (地區性文理大學, n=600): Whittier College National Public University (R) (全國性州立大學): UC Berkeley (Michigan State) Reg’l Public University (T & V) (地區性州立大學): CSU, Long Beach (CSU, LA) The 7th Type: Professional Schools & Institutes • • • • The Juilliard School New England Conservatory of Music Long Island School of Design Pratt Institute • • • • Otis College of Art and Design California Institute of the Arts Art Center College of Design California Institute of Technology National Private University: Harvard University Regional Private University: Loyola Marymount University National Liberal Arts College: Williams College National Liberal Arts College: Occidental College Regional Liberal Arts College: Whittier College National Public University: UC Berkeley Regional Public University: CSU Long Beach 6. Four Models of Liberal Arts Education in American Higher Education System • Williams Model: A classic liberal arts college (Williams College) on its own. 威廉斯模式: 一所獨立的文理書院/大學 (無一遺漏) • Harvard Model: A liberal arts college (Harvard College) within an university (Harvard University) that includes ALL undergraduates. 哈佛模式: 綜合性大學之中的文理書院 (包括整個大學部 ; 無一遺漏) • MSU Model: An thematic elite college (James Madison College) within an university (Michigan State University) that includes a SMALL PORTION of the undergraduates. 密西根州大模式: 綜合性大學之中的精英書院 • UCSD Model: Six residential colleges within an university (University of California, San Diego) that include ALL undergraduates. 加州大學聖地亞哥分校模式: 綜合性大學之中的住宿學院 (包括整個大學部 ; 無一遺漏) (Current model for Taiwan to develop liberal arts education---取法乎下.) 7. Liberal Arts Education in California Public University Systems：UC vs. CSU University of California (UC) System (n=10) Berkeley, UCLA, San Diego Davis, Santa Barbara, Irvine Santa Cruz, Riverside, Merced San Francisco California State University (CSU) System (n=23) Long Beach, Fullerton, San Diego, San Jose, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly Univ.), Los Angeles, etc. University of California (UC) California State Univ. (CSU) Research Teaching Academic Training Professional Training Graduate Education Undergraduate Education Core/General Education Core/General Education Some Elements of Liberal Arts Education Few Elements of Liberal Arts Education • (Some) Elements of Liberal Arts Education at UC: More rigorous honors program (e.g., Davis Honors Challenge at UC Davis) Residential program (e.g., Integrated Studies Honors Program for first-year students at UC Davis) • (Few) Elements of Liberal Arts Education at CSU: Less rigorous honors program (with fewer specially designed honors courses) • Another example of liberal arts tradition in the UC system: among the nine UC campuses that offer undergraduate education, only Berkeley, San Diego, Irvine, and Riverside have business majors (professional programs designed to train specialists) for undergraduate students, while the other five campuses, including UCLA, only have an economics major (supposed to produce generalists in this area). 8. Residential Colleges in China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and Singapore • 北京大學「元培學院」 南京大學「匡亞明學院」 復旦大學「復旦學院」 浙江大學「竺可楨學院」 中山大學「博雅學院」 西安交通大學「彭康書院」 ……… • 香港中文大學五所新設的書院 • 澳門大學的住宿學院 Residential Colleges in Taiwan (similar to the UCSD Model of residential colleges) • • • • • • • 政治大學「政大書院」(2008) 清華大學「清華學院」(2008) 東海大學「博雅書院」(2008) 中正大學「紫荊書院」(2009) 亞洲大學「三品書院」(2009) 中華大學「中華學院」(2010) ……… The Singapore Model (similar to Williams/Harvard Model) 新加坡傾舉國之力，於 2013年正式成立耶魯—國立新加坡大學學院 (Yale-NUS College with 1,000 students and 100 faculty members)，總理李顯龍先生於 2011 年四月主持兩校合作的簽約儀式。該學院成立的願景如下: • • • Create a new model of residential liberal arts education, contextualized to Asia in the 21st century; Foster the habits of mind and character needed for leadership in all sectors of society; and Be a center for new thinking and scholarship and a catalyst for innovation and leadership in liberal arts education. (http://www.ync.nus.edu.sg/Vision.html) Yale-NUS College在上述的願景中，清楚地標明是以培養未來新加坡社會在各 個領域所需要的領導人才為目的。該學院並提供百分之廿的名額，向亞洲各 國甚至全世界招生，以期進一步國際化新加坡的高等教育。 Yale-NUS College The First Liberal Arts College in Asia 2012 Suggestions to the Government 新加坡如此培養人才，那我們臺灣的社會在未來 二、三十年需要什麼樣的人才來保護臺灣、引領 大陸？這些人才又在那裡？要如何培養？ 後學於前年五月應聘返國客座以來，感到不僅是 我們的大學教育在日益「職業化」與「庸俗化」 的風氣之下，不易培養「既深且廣」的未來領袖 人才，就是後學和各校同儕努力推動的「住宿教 育」或是所謂的「博雅書院教育」，也因為在教 育理念上、在教學質量上、在人事和課程的制度 上、和在經費上都碰到極大的困難，而躊躇不前， 即使能夠在艱難中躑躅前行，恐怕也對於國家人 才之培育緩不濟急。 是故，懇請政府主導我國博雅書院教育的發展， 推動一個全面國際化且架構完整的 National Taiwan Liberal Arts College (而非 Residential College) 。該校可以單獨設立 (如 Williams Model)， 也可附屬於現有的體制 (大學或中央研究院) 之內 (如 Singapore Model)，以期培養我國下一代的領 袖人才。該等博雅書院的規模遠較一般大學為小 (如 Yale-NUS College 預期一年招收 250位學生)， 如果能夠在數十年之間培養出數千位、甚至只要 數百位能在各個領域引領風潮的真正精英人才， 就可足供我們未來的社會所需。 A Well Structured Liberal Arts College: 3 colleges and 14 majors with 100 faculty members and 1,000 students • Arts and Humanities: Literature, History, Philosophy, Arts, and Music • Sciences: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Psychology • Social Sciences: Politics, Sociology, Anthropology, and Economics 9. Best vs. Most Suitable • Extreme Financial Difficulties? • Professional/Practical Training vs. Whole Education? • Engineering? • Undergraduate Degree only? • Aggressive/Motivated/Mentally Strong?