T9 Risk Factors & Preventative Measures

SHMD 249
Muscle Injuries
*Risk Factors
*Preventative Measures
Extrinsic Risk Factors
external to the
body that can
cause injury
Risk Factors
A physical aspect of the
athletes body that can
cause injury
Pg 260-262
Extrinsic Risk Factors
Inappropriate coaching or instruction
• Coaches:
– Give incorrect instructions - which lead to injury.
– Must have in-depth knowledge about sport & be up-to-date to
maintain highest & safest standards.
– Must be able to communicate effectively.
• Current rules/regulations must be interpreted correctly &
appropriately enforced.
Pg 260-262
Extrinsic Risk Factors
Incorrect Advice on Technique
• PE teacher/trainer/coach gives guidance on specific sport
skills techniques.
• If coach does not correct technique at right time, sport
participant will adopt bad habits (skill level & performance) =
• Example: weightlifting & back injuries from poor technique.
Pg 260-262
Extrinsic Risk Factors
Environmental conditions
• Environment: the area in which the sport is performed.
• Including: field/hall, playing surface, lighting & temperature.
• Environment in which sport is performed can have a big impact on sustaining
• Example:
• Poor lighting = player misjudging attacking/defensive moves & injuring
themselves or another player.
• Wet surface = player more likely to slip = injury.
Pg 260-262
Extrinsic Risk Factors
Other sports players
• Some sports (contact sports) are more susceptible to incurring
injuries as rules allow for tackles, scrums (rugby) etc.
• contact sports: few bruises from tackling or being tackled.
• Non-contact sports: injuries from a foul tackle (soccer) or
accidental collisions.
Pg 260-262
Extrinsic Risk Factors
Equipment, clothing and footwear issues
• Always use equipment needed to play sport correctly.
• Example:
correctly = serious injury to themselves/other people.
• Some sports require protective clothing.
• Example: shin pads for football, gloves & helmet for cricket
• Other sports need clothing which is very flexible and needs to allow full
range of movement.
• Example: gymnastics. If restrictive clothing is used which
limits movement, could cause injury.
Pg 260-262
Extrinsic Risk Factors
Equipment, clothing and footwear issues
• Essential to use correct footwear for correct surface.
• Specialized footwear for all sports, made to be supportive to
player & totally suitable for surface required for sport
Pg 260-262
Extrinsic Risk Factors
Equipment, clothing and footwear issues
• However, footwear may still be the cause of injury.
• Example: studs plant the foot in the ground, so if the
person is turning on a planted foot they can twist
their knee.
• Incorrect footwear = injury.
• Example: marathon runner needs a very cushioned
shoe to absorb impact of constant running.
Intrinsic Risk Factors
Inadequate warm-up
• Very common cause of sports injury.
• Warm-up prepares body & mind for exercise to come. Gradually
takes body from non-active state to being ready for exercise.
• Will vary from person to person, level of fitness, and the
environment (cold surroundings = longer warm-up).
Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors
Inadequate warm-up
• 3 components of Warm-up:
– Get blood flowing more quickly around body to help
warm-up muscles to make them more flexible.
– Mobiliser: joints taken through full range of motion.
– Main muscles to be used should be stretched.
Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors
Muscle Imbalance
• One muscle in an antagonistic pair is stronger than the other.
• Example: footballers who have strong quadriceps muscles, but
weak hamstring muscles = knee injuries (when striker goes to
score they over-kick which hyperextends knee = injury).
Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors
Poor Preparation
• Players’ fitness levels specific to sport.
• Poor fitness = increase risk of injury, as they become tired
develop poor sport techniques.
• Must also acclimatize (train in) to environment in which
competition will take place (hot/cold).
Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors
Postural Defects
• Some people are born with postural defects e.g. one leg longer
than the other, or their spine having the wrong
• = more strain on one side of the body = more susceptible to
injuries after long periods of exercise.
• Postural defects can also occur due to incorrect training
techniques over a long period of time.
Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors
Poor Technique
• Related to an individual’s performance without the use of
equipment (as opposed to incorrect techniques related to misuse
of equipment).
• Using incorrect technique over a long period of time may lead to
• Example: swimming performing free-style incorrectly
could be prone to shoulder or elbow injuries.
Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors
• Every time you exercise, you place your body under strain, thus
the body needs time to repair itself afterwards.
• Overuse injury occurs when you don’t give your body enough
recovery time.
• When you don’t rest & allow the
body to repair itself, it gets weaker
& eventually gets injured.
Pg 260-262
Intrinsic Risk Factors
• Young children most common injuries occur due to falling.
• Older children the most common injuries result from
collisions and violence.
• Older age groups and top-level sportsmen, there are
fewer acute injuries and more overuse (chronic) injuries due
to intrinsic factors.
Pg 260-262
! ! ! PREVENTION ! ! !
Preventative Measures
• Improving & maintaining fitness.
• Adequate & appropriate warm-up.
• Wear protective clothing & appropriate shoes (stipulated by
governing bodies).
• Always remove jewelry.
• Supervision by suitable qualified coach:
– Correct techniques.
– Design appropriate training programs for performers needs.
– Ensure equipment & environment appropriate for training.
Pg 260-262