Building Commun ital - Martin B. Tracy

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Building Community and Social
Capital
Martin B. Tracy, Ph.D.
Social Insurance Research
International
1519 Canterbury Drive
Murray, Kentucky 42071-3250
[email protected]
Five Types of Capital
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Physical (equipment, buildings, tools)
Financial (money, fiscal resources)
Human (education, training, experience)
Cultural (knowledge, music, language, art)
Social (a relational process that generates physical,
financial, human, and cultural capital)
Source: Richard Estes, 2003
Definition of Social Capital

Institutions, relationships, and norms that
shape the quality and quantity of a society’s
interactions (World Bank, 2000).
Definition of Social Capital

___ formal and informal social networks
among individuals who share norms and
values, especially the norm of reciprocity
(mutual assistance) (Wallis, 1998).
Definition of Social Capital

Mutual relations, interactions, and networks
that emerge among groups, as well as the
level of trust within a group or community. An
understanding that social capital will enhance
learning, economic development, social
mobility, or community vitality (Wall,
Ferrazzi & Schryer, 1998).
Definition of Social Capital

“Features of social organizations, such as
networks, norms, and trust that facilitate
action and cooperation for mutual benefit.”
Source: Robert Putnam 1993 cited in Alejandro Portes 1998.
Three Aspects of Social Capital in
Social Service Delivery

Bonding

Bridging

Linking
Examples of Bonding in Social
Services






Family therapy
Parenting education
Job training for people with disabilities
Day care for people with disabilities
Support for adoptive and foster families
Early intervention programs
Examples of Bridging
Developing networks among:





Social service agencies
Local community
Self-help groups
Faith community
Volunteers
Examples of Linking



The process of developing government-NGO
partnerships to delivery social services.
The creation of working relationships of
communities with government and NGOs for
care of at-risk populations.
The use of social enterprise to engage the
agency in the process of generating income
through business and labor.
Examples of Linking in International
Programs

Social capital projects of PHARE Program,
Open Society Institute, WHO, World Bank.

Many international charity foundations that
develop community-based initiatives:

Ford, Janus, Kellogg, Casey, Save Our Children,
etc.
Two Primary Indicators of Social
Capital

Direct measurable
outcomes.

Process measured as an
outcome.
Direct Measurable Outcome Indicators
of Social Capital




Extent of development of other types of
capital (physical, financial, human, cultural)
Level of inclusion of diverse partners in
decision-making and implementation.
Extent of viable community-based
partnerships.
Extent of self-sustained social service NGOs.
Process Indicators of Social Capital

Measurable direct outcomes are important,
but the process is itself an outcome that can
be measured.
Measurable Processes


Existence of processes that are in place for
building trust and creating sustainable
networks based on inclusion and transparency.
For example: the size and membership of a
NGO advisory board responsible for making
decisions in a community-based partnership.
Social Capital’s Linkage to Democracy

A critical element of democracy is the system
of formal and informal community networks
that are established on trust that, in turn, is the
result of inclusion, open and transparent
dialogue, accountability, and attempts at
consensus building.
Conditions that Facilitate the
Development of Social Capital

Local community responsibility and authority
for implementation and administration.

Government involvement as a contributing
partner, not as a controlling partner.

Community ownership of the social problem.
Conditions Continued



Alternative social services.
Specific areas of responsibility for each
partner.
Multiple community partners (businesses,
trade unions, local officials, social work
professionals, educators, clients) who are
involved in the process.
Conditions Continued

Regular meetings among partners to exchange
ideas and concerns.

Informal networks of partners.

An environment that rewards innovation and
creativity.
Conditions Continued



Flexibility in decision making by direct
service providers.
A focus on what can be learned from
experience and how each partner can use the
lessons to improve services.
Systematic processes for gathering and
disseminating information.
Conditions Continued

Systematic in-service training.

System of volunteers.

Reward successes.
Final Points


Social capital results from cooperation on the
part of individuals and groups for addressing
the common ills of their common lives and
for achieving common goals.
This shared activity makes possible the
emergence of shared values and thus gives
rise to the possibility of a fuller community.
John Dewey
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
ATTENTION AND
PARTICIPATION
GOOD LUCK TO YOU ALL
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