Team working Problems with managing Clever People What is a team? More than one person So the crowd at at a football match? Is a team different to a group? Or a community? More than one person working on a shared task, in which the process is improved because of the involvement of different people with different perspectives, skills and aptitudes What do we need to do when working in teams? Identify and evaluate approaches to selfmanaging and team management Characterise yourself and your team in terms of alternative approaches. Appreciate the conditions and needs for managing particular categories and mixtures of relationships encountered by managers and consultants. First Know thyself To understand a team you first need to know yourself SSP Blackboard site has details on: Learning styles http://students.shu.ac.uk/services/career s/job/psychometric.html Only then can you begin to wonder about others, and how you interact with them in a team So if you havent already visited these pages, do so asap! What is in it for me? And them? Maslow (1943) idendified a hierarchy of needs which can also be seen as motivational factors: Physiological Safety Self esteem, respect of others Self-Actualisation Partnership, friendship, groups Esteem Stability, law, structure, clarity Belongingness Food, water, shelter, sleep Meeting challenges, fulfilling promise Need to know Aesthetic needs Lifecycle of a Team Different sources point at the same basic model. Tuckman(1965) He describes four key stages in a team's development: Forming Storming Norming Performing Tuckman Forming Team depends on leader for direction, purpose and guidance. Individual roles unclear Objectives need clarifying and reinforcing boundaries and roles tested Tuckman Storming Much inter-team conflict Decisions don't come easily Uncertainty persists, but there is the beginnings of understanding of purpose and goals Task focus is used to avoid distraction of relationship issues Tuckman Norming Roles and responsibilities are clear Consensus broadly achieved Some delegation used Important decisions taken jointly Commitment and team spirit at its highest Team working style openly discussed Task can sometimes take second place Tuckman Performing Shared vision Task clearly understood Disagreements settled positively and internally No instruction required Delegation happens naturally and members often seek to overperform Lifecycle of a Directed Team Hersey and Blanchard (1977) Theory of Situational Leadership Again, four key stages in a leaders relationship to a team's development: Directing Coaching and selling Supporting and participating Delegating Managing Clever People Like Hurding Cats Drucker (1999) states that knowledge workers are NOT the same as manual workers They are assets to be sweated not costs to be reduced Managing Clever People • Cloke and Goldsmith (2002) suggest some key questions: • Who are we? (team identification) • Why are we here? (task identification) • Where are we going? (Vision) • How do we get there? (Objectives and goals) • What is in the way (Challenge identification) Managing Clever People • Cloke and Goldsmith (2002) Continued: • How do we know we are working well (CSF setting) • Who will do what? (Planning) • How will we learn? (Feedback and quality control) • What worked? What didn’t? (evaluation) • Good work! What is next? Managing Clever People • Cloke and Goldsmith (2002) go on to suggest skills required: • • • • • • • • • • Self management Communication [Appropriate] leadership Responsibilty Planning Shaping successful meetings Supporting diversity Conflict resolution Feedback and evaluation ENJOYMENT! Team roles • Belbin suggests that: members of a team have: "A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way. • “http://www.belbin.com/belbin-teamroles.htm • The suggestion is that a good team has an appropriate mix of of roles • A team full of leaders is useless! Team roles • Belbin suggests that: members of a team have: "A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way. • “http://www.belbin.com/belbin-teamroles.htm • The suggestion is that a good team has an appropriate mix of of roles • A team full of leaders is useless! BELBIN Team-Role PLANT CO-ORDINATOR MONITOR EVALUATOR IMPLEMENTER COMPLETER FINISHER Strengths Creative, imaginative, unorthodox. Solves difficult problems. Mature, confident, a good chairperson. Clarifies goals, promotes decision-making, delegates well. Sober, strategic and discerning. Sees all options. Judges accurately. Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient. Turns ideas into practical actions. Painstaking, conscientious, anxious. Searches out errors and omissions. Delivers on time. BELBIN Team-Role RESOURCE INVESTIGATOR SHAPER TEAMWORKER SPECIALIST Strengths Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities. Develops contacts. Challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure. The drive and courage to overcome obstacles. Co-operative, mild, perceptive diplomat. Listens, averts friction. Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Provides knowledge and skills in rare supply. So what about us? You are in a team now How do actual roles map back to Belbin? Do you recognise the maturing of your team? Have you the skills required?