Big Ideas Unit 4 Big Idea #1 China was the most isolated of all the ancient civilizations. Mountains and deserts provided physical barriers Isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was the center of the earth and referred to themselves as “The Middle Kingdom” Big Idea #2 Ancient China had a very ethnocentric attitude when they referred to themselves as “The Middle Kingdom” Ethnocentrism – the belief that your culture is superior to all others Big Idea #3 Between 1100 & 1000 BCE, the Zhou people overthrew the Shang Dynasty and set up their own dynasty that lasted 800 years. They claimed that the Shang dynasty lost the Mandate of Heaven, a divine right to rule. Big Idea #4 Chinese speak Mandarin Chinese, but there are many dialects (language differences) throughout China. Written Chinese are characters or pictures. Big Idea #5 Confucianism: a philosophy based on the idea that people are naturally good & education is the path to advancement in society. Five Relationships: tell people their place in society. Big Idea #6 Daoism- Philosophy that wants to end conflict and find the balance and harmony in nature. Legalism- Philosophy that “the nature of man is evil”. Big Idea #7 Confucianism: Social Order and Family are basis for all relationships and government Daoism: The Dao, or the Way guides all things Legalism: People are evil. Punishments are needed Big Idea #8 By 221 BCE, Shi Huangdi, leader of the Qin people proclaimed himself the “First Emperor” of China & centralized power. Big Idea #9 Emperor Shi Huangdi had the Chinese people build the Great Wall to keep out the Mongols. People who died as they worked on the wall were thrown inside it for fill. “The world’s longest graveyard”. Big Idea #9 China’s Golden Ages Tang & Song DynastiesCivil service exam based on Confucian philosophy Grand Canal linked Huang He and Yangzi Rivers Big Idea #10 In the 10th century in China, a prince began the practice of foot binding. “Lily feet” as they were called were thought to be very dainty and beautiful. By 1911 Foot binding was outlawed. Big Idea #11 China’s Golden Ages - Tang & Song Dynasties Genghis Khan- World Emperor Courageous warrior and skilled horseman conquered much of Asia Big Idea #12 Japan is an archipelago-chain of islands Ring of Fire- Tsunamis & volcanoes Shintoism- worship of the kami- spirits found in all living & nonliving things (nature). Big Idea #12 Japan’s Golden Age Tokugawa Shogunate- ruled Japan for 300 years Centralized feudal government New farming techniques Population increased extras Big Idea #11 The Great Wall was built to keep out Mongolian invaders from the north. Thousands of workers worked for years to build the wall. Big Idea #12 Daoism: a philosophy based on the idea that people need to learn to live in harmony with nature. There is a balance between yin and yang. Big Idea #13 A golden age is a time of peace and prosperity. There are many achievements made during these times.