Lecture 5 American Literature Definition of literature --Literature encompasses poetry, fiction (novels, short stories) , drama, prose 诗歌 小说 戏剧 散文 --14th c.-18th c. literature was a synonym for literacy( 文化知识) Lecture 5 American Literature --18th c. –the term’s meaning changed: it referred to books and other printed texts – the scope of literature was broad, encompassing all public writing -- 19th c. imaginative, creative writing Lecture 5 American Literature 1.Early fiction (post Revolutionary period)早期 小说 mythmaker, myth-hero (1)Washington Irving (华盛顿. 欧文） History of New York 《纽约外史》 Rip Van Winkle 《瑞普凡.温克尔》 The Legend of Sleepy Hollow 《睡谷的传说》 Tour on Prairies 《草原漫游记》 Lecture 5 American Literature (2) James Fenimore Cooper 费尼莫.库珀 Leather-stocking Tales 《皮袜子故事集》 The Spy 《间谍》 Lecture 5 American Literature 2. Transcendentalists 超验主义者 19th c. (1) Ralph Waldo Emerson 拉尔夫.沃尔多.爱默 生 Nature 《 论自然》 (2) Henry David Thoreau 亨利.大卫.梭罗 Walden 《瓦尔登湖》 Lecture 5 American Literature Lecture 5 American Literature Lecture 5 American Literature 3. Power of imagination 想象力 (1) Edgar Allen Poe 爱德加.艾伦.破 The Masque of Red Death《 红死病的假 面舞会》 The Fall of the House of Usher《厄舍尔 厦的倒塌 》 Lecture 5 American Literature I had taken but few turns in this manner, when a light step on the next staircase attracted my attention. I presently recognized it as that of Usher. In an instant afterwards he knocked gently at my door, and entered, carrying a lamp. His face, as usual,was wan—but there was a look of madness in his eyes. Although his appearance appalled me, anything was preferable to the loneliness which I had so long endured, and I even welcomed his p r e s e n c e a s a r e l i e f . Lecture 5 American Literature ( 2) Nathaniel Hawthorne 纳撒尼尔. 霍桑 The Scarlet Letter 《红字》 (3) Herman Melville 赫尔曼.梅尔维尔 Moby Dick 《白鲸》 American masterpiece Lecture 5 American Literature 4. New Vision of America 美国新构想 Walt Whitman 惠特曼 poet Leaves of Grass 《草叶集》poetry Lecture 5 American Literature Daffodils by William Wordsworth 《水仙》威廉.华兹华斯(英） I wander’d lonely as a cloud That floats on high o’er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Lecture 5 American Literature 《水仙》威廉.华兹华斯(英） 我独自徘徊，如一朵云霞 高高漂浮于青山翠峡， 忽见一丛丛， 一簇簇金灿灿的水仙， 在碧水畔，绿树下 迎风起舞，轻盈潇洒 Lecture 5 American Literature 5. Reform and liberation 改革和自由 Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin 《汤姆叔叔的小屋》 --antislavery novel Lecture 5 American Literature Regionalism 地方主义 （1）Mark Twain 马克．土温 satire/ humor The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn 《哈克贝利.费恩历险记》 Lecture 5 American Literature （2）Emily Dickinson (poet) gaiety / gloom 6. A new wave 新浪潮 Henry James The American 《一个美国人》 Portrait of a Lady《女士的画像》 The Wings of the Dove 《鸽翼》 The Ambassadors《专使》 The Golden Bowl 《金碗》 Lecture 5 American Literature 7. Rebellious spirit 反叛精神 20th c. (1) Sherwood Anderson舍伍德.安德森 Winesburg, Ohio 《俄亥俄州的瓦恩斯堡》 (2) Sinclair Lewis --first American winner of Nobel Prize for Literature Main Street 《大街》 Lecture 5 American Literature 7. The modernists 现代主义作家 T.S.Eliot (T.S 艾略特) The Waste Land《荒原》 8. Lost Generation 迷惘的一代 (1) F.Scott Fitzgerald 弗.斯科特.菲兹杰拉德 The Great Gatsby 《了不起的盖茨比》 Lecture 5 American Literature (2) Ernest Hemingway 厄内斯特.海明威 The Sun Also Rises 《太阳照样升起》 A Farewell to Arms《告别了，武器》 For Who the Bell Tolls《丧钟为谁而鸣》 simple language Lecture 5 American Literature In Another Country “ What will you do when the war is over if it is over?”he asked me. “Speak grammatically!” “I will go to the States.” “ Are you married?” “No, but I hope to be.” “ The more of a fool you are,” he said. He seemed very angry. “ A man must not marry.” “ Why must not a man marry?” Lecture 5 American Literature “ He can’t marry. He cannot marry,” he said angrily. “If he is to lose everything, he should not place himself in a position to lost that. He should find things he cannot lose.” He spoke very angrily and bitterly, and looked straight ahead while he talked. Lecture 5 American Literature 9. Depression , realism and Escapism 10. Postwar voice and the “Beat Generation”垮掉 的一代 11. New American Voices Black women writers Toni Morrison –Nobel Prize winner Alice Walker Chinese-American – Maxine Kong Kingston Lecture 5 American Literature Question : What do you know about American literature?