Politics and Society Late 1800s - Early 1900s

Politics and Society
Late 1800s - Early 1900s
Economic Theories
Part 1
Issues During This Time Period
 Social – How do we help the poor? Is it our job
to help the poor?
Science – Scientific theories emerge to explain why
things are the way they are
Women – demanding equal rights
 Political – decisions the government will make
re: economic & social issues. Will they pass laws
to help the poor? Or continue their laissez-faire
 Economic – capitalism, communism, socialism.
Which economic theory will best solve our social
 We are going to review material on capitalism,
communism, socialism from three different
 Get a text book, I will pass out two other sources
 Feel free to work in small groups/pairs
 Using the information from the book and packets
create & fill out a chart that compares/contrasts
each economic philosophy
 Focus on similarities/differences – is it easy to
divide up the three?
-progress, move up,
American dream
-laissez faire idea – do what
you want (self-interest $$)
helps us and the economy
-Little govt intervention
--adam smith =
-- classless society
-- re-distribute wealth –
people equal
-- no private property
-Rights? If we have quality
we are giving up some
-Person can live own life
without govt. intervention
-- make more $ - taxed
-- MIX?
 • Maximizes liberty
 • Adam Smith – 1776 – “The Wealth of Nations”
 • “Free Enterprise” – everyone is free to pursue
 any economic activity
 • Laissez-Faire – do not interfere in the economy
 • Freedom to succeed and freedom to fail
 • Private ownership of capital (means of
 production)
• Profit is the motivator, competition is the
regulator (not government)
• Under pure capitalism, almost all goods would be
provided by the private sector (small
government) – police, courts, military (even
schools and the fire department could be private
• Do not tax the rich more than the poor – no
redistribution of income
• Good of the individual is above society
• Bill Gates and Hobo Joe
• Maximizes Equality
• Karl Marx – 1848 - “The Communist Manifesto”
• Industrial Revolution – Europe – horrible working
conditions - critique of capitalism
• 1. View of History – class struggle (bourgeoisie and
• 2. Labor Theory of Value – all value comes from labor
• 3. Nature of the State – the state (government) always
sides with the rich
• 4. Dictatorship of the Proletariat – poor must overthrow
the government and set up a classless society
• Public (government) ownership of the means of
• “From each according to his ability, to each
according to his need.”
• Workers run the factories – everyone earns an
equal amount
• Lots of government intervention in the economy
to promote equality
• Good of society is above the individual
• Bill Gates and Hobo Joe
• Mix of Equality and Liberty
• Between pure capitalism and pure communism
• Some private ownership and some public
ownership of property
• Some government intervention in the economy
• Redistribution of income – high taxes on the rich
to provide lots of government services
– Examples of government programs like this in the
Bill Gates and Hobo Joe?
Charles Darwin –
Social Darwinism
Part 2
Charles Darwin
 1809-1882
 English Naturalist
Studied nature, plants in environment
 Determined that all species of life have
descended over time from common ancestors
 One of the first to form a scientific argument for
the theory of evolution
 Darwin = created important evolution theories,
determined humans had evolved from lower,
nonhuman species
Evolution versus Creationism
Creationism: the religious belief that
humanity, life, the Universe are all the
creation of a supernatural being (God)
The biblical account of creation found in
Genesis says that God created the
universe, animals, plants and humans in
six days
Creationism: God created life on earth
Turn & Talk
How do you think Creationists will respond
to Darwin’s theories on evolution? Why?
Are these issues still debated/discussed
 December 1831-1836 aboard the H.M.S. Beagle
 Traveled through South America and some
Pacific Islands collecting & classifying animal &
plant life
 His discoveries led to his conclusions re:
 Darwin’s discoveries in South Am. led him to
believe in evolution and speak out about it
Darwin & Natural Selection
 Darwin believed that there was a continual
struggle for existence within nature
 The stronger, faster or fittest species has the
advantage over the weaker, slower ones
 Those more fit to survive pass along the
advantageous trait to offspring
 Darwin’s theory of natural selection (survival of
the fittest) explains why some members of a
species survive and reproduce while others
Take away notes from last slide
Natural selection: the stronger species
have an advantage over the weaker, the
stronger reproduce while the weaker die
Turn & Talk
How do you think this theory of natural
selection could have been used during the
Industrial Revolution?? Who would the
theory have helped? Hurt?
Eugenics Gallery
Women’s Rights
Part 3
A right or a privilege?
What’s the difference?
Suffrage = right to vote
Suffragette = members of women’s
suffrage movement
Universal suffrage = all citizens of a
certain age have right to vote
Women’s Suffrage in Great Britain
Became a national movement in 1872
National Society for Women’s Suffrage
National Union of Women’s Suffrage
Societies (1897)
Women’s Social and Political Union
(WSPU) 1903
 Founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst
 Militant group
 “Deeds not words”
 Broke off from non-militant suffrage group
 Women-only group
WSPU’s flag
Emmeline Pankhurst
Emmeline Pankhurst
Founded WSPU
Displeased with other suffrage groups, not
getting the job done
Her daughters Christabel, Adela & Sylvia
were also part of the group
Named one of the most important people
of the 20th century by Time
“She shaped an idea of women for our
Not a political party (in fact, often worked
against them)
Aggressive & militant
Members smashed windows and
assaulted police officers
Several members were imprisoned several
times, hunger strikes, forced feeding
Brought a lot of attention to suffrage
Began to dissolve in 1917, largely over
issues of WWI
Support the men abroad? Keep fighting for
women’s rights?
Right to Vote
In Great Britain
1918 – women over 30 who owned property
could vote
1918 – all men could vote
1928 – all women over age 21 could vote
In United States
1870 15th Amend. Cannot deny a citizen right to
vote based on color
1920 19th Amendment Cannot deny a citizen
right to vote based on sex
More recently…
2005 Kuwait – women who meet age &
citizenship requirements can vote.
Separate polling locations for men &
Saudi Arabia – announced that women will
be permitted to vote beginning in 2015
Pankhurst Speech January 1912