Historical Terms and Definitions Students will gain an understanding of the meaning of important historical terms. Students will learn the definitions of words that are key to understanding United States history. Students will comprehend how interpreting maps helps to clarify the meaning of many historical terms and concepts. 1. Manifest Destiny http://www.historyonthenet.com/American_West/manifest_destiny.htm A 19th century American belief that it was the destiny of the United States to expand its territory over the entire North American continent 2. Spiro Mounds A prehistoric Native American archaeological site in Southeastern Oklahoma where twelve mounds can be found on the 150 acre protected site Photo by Glenda Sullivan 3. Louisiana Purchase http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/18/United_States_Louisiana_Purchase_states.png 4. Nullification Crisis http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_BZFYe98kpkk/S-vDQaJACUI/AAAAAAAAC4k/WNZ1txQdZ-U/s400/Destruction+of+the+Snake+South+Carolina.jpg A situation that arose in 1832 during the presidency of Andrew Jackson when leaders of South Carolina, led by John C. Calhoun, advanced the idea that a state did not have to follow a federal law and could “nullify” the law 5. Underground Railroad http://historyscoop.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/map16.gif A network of people who helped the escaped slaves on their way to freedom in the northern states or Canada http://www.tntwebs.com/escapeslavery.jpg 6. Abolitionist Movement A movement whose goal was the immediate emancipation of all slaves and the end of racial discrimination and segregation http://www.alomani.com/knowledge/history/us/images/Abolitionists.jpg http://tdl.org/txlor-dspace/bitstream/handle/2249.3/617/images/image20.jpg http://www.history.com/images/media/slideshow/slavery-the-battle-over-slavery/united-states-1854.jpg 7. Sectionalism http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/314/flashcards/1391314/jpg/sectionalism1355492663453.jpg The belief that one section or region of a country is better than any other section of region of that country Example: North vs. South led to Civil War http://www.soldierstudies.org/images/webquest/civil%20war%20soldiers.jpg 8. http://jackiewhiting.net/AP/Images/Missouri_Compromise_map.jpg An 1820 congressional agreement that regulated the extension of slavery in the United States--The territory of Missouri was admitted as a slave state. The territory of Maine was admitted as a free state. The boundaries of slavery were limited to the same latitude as the southern boundary of Missouri, 36º30´ N. Ku Klux Klan 9. http://media.photobucket.com/user/kacup/media/0050_ku_klux_klan_03.jpg.html A secret society organized in the South after the Civil War advocating maintenance of white supremacy by violent methods 10. State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965 that mandated racial segregation in many public and private facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy http://www.mrnussbaum.com/civil_war/jim_crow2.jpg Jim Crow laws http://envisioningtheamericandream.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/racist-sign-31-swscan10607.jpg https://woodward8.wikispaces.com/file/view/restrooms.jpg/39680354/restrooms.jpg 11. Chinese Exclusion Act http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/d7348b276f38bc340409f1705c35c412_1M.png A federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur in 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers Nativism 12. http://www.zcommunications.org/nativism-is-big-business-by-meghan-conley.html The policy of protecting the interests of native born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants 13. Industrialization http://historoda.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/2121487586_f3af3a15ae.jpg The process by which a country transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services 14. Labor Movement http://www.cartoonwork.com/unions_g54-employee_free_choice_act_p317.html http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Wjilb5KunI0/UhwNIt6pjNI/AAAAAAAACE8/uL7tdRXs4GU/s1600/labor+day2.jpg A movement from 1865-1919 in the United States to protect the common interests of workers and to get them better wages, reasonable hours, and safer working conditions--The movement was initiated by strikes that began because of wage cuts, new inventions of machinery, and the depersonalization of workers. 15. Progressive Movement The demand for change or progress in an effort to cure many of the ills of the American society that had developed during the great spurt of industrial growth in the last quarter of the 19th Century http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/112824118.png 16. Muckrakers http://cache2.artprintimages.com/p/LRG/30/3032/KYVBF00Z/art-print/cartoon-of-president-theodore-roosevelt-as-a-muckraker-cleaning-up-the-meat-scandal.jpg A term coined during the Progressive Era based on a literary character who was so busy cleaning and raking up the muck and dirt that he didn’t see the good things that were above his head 17. Suffrage The right to vote in political elections http://staff.harrisonburg.k12.va.us/~cwalton/USHisto ry/suffrageparade.jpg http://americanwiki.pbworks.com/w/page/12595194/Black%20Suffrage http://bsumaps.blogspot.com/2010_08_01_archive.html http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P-488-488-90/61/6184/ZT81100Z/posters/women-ssuffrage-1920.jpg 18. Temperance Movement A movement led mostly by women in the 19th & early 20th centuries to encourage moderation in the consumption of alcoholic beverages or to prohibit the use of alcohol completely http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large-5/temperance-movement-1890-granger.jpg http://www.tenontours.com/assets/Irish-Temperance-Movement.jpg 19. Democracy A form of government in which people choose leaders by voting http://greece.mrdonn.org/athensdemocracy.html http://cathysvoicenow.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/printelect-i-voted-today.jpg http://www.themomoftheyear.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/MP9003848741.jpg 20. A social organization in which all economic & social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single political party Communism Photo by Glenda Sullivan http://c3e308.medialib.glogster.com/media/57/57a08fbf9147da3dd3caed5de51d376d7ad64838fca19058f49e771cd7201bc6/westward.jpg In summary, as we study historical geography, keep in mind the correlation between the two disciplines. For example, the historical term westward expansion is an example of one of the five themes of geography: Movement of goods, people and ideas from place to place.