American Revolution Museum

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Welcome to the American
Revolution Museum
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Lobby:
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Causes of the War
Places
People
Events
People
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http://www.reformation.org/secrets-of-the-bank-of-rome.html
http://isd.ingham.k12.mi.us/~99mich/histfig.html
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jlc5f/charlotte/kronung.html
George Washington

Who was he?
– From Virginia
– At 21 in 1754, he was sent by
a British lieutenant to order
the French to leave the area
known as the Ohio Valley and
protect a newly built fort-1st
major event of his military
career
– Chosen in 1775 by the 2nd
Continental Congress to lead
the Continental Army
– 1st president of the United
States


More on Washington
Role in Revolution
– General of Continental Army
– Led the training of
inexperienced soldiers
– Faced hardships with his
soldiers at Valley Forge in the
winter of 1777
– Led Continental Army to
victory over Britain
– http://www.georgewashington.si.edu/life/chronology.ht
ml
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Benjamin Franklin

Who was he?

– From Pennsylvania
– Author of Albany Plan-one of
the first proposals for uniting
the colonies
– Published the “Join, or Die”
cartoon

Role in Revolution
– Delegate from Pennsylvania to
the Continental Congress
– Part of the Committee to write
the Declaration of
Independence
– Known as one of our Founding
Fathers
More on Franklin
– http://bensguide.gpo.gov/benfranklin/
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Chief Pontiac

Who was he?

– Chief of Ottawa tribe
– Wanted to stop the loss of
Indian hunting lands

Role in Revolution
– United tribes of the Great
Lakes and Ohio Valley region
against the British
– Leader of Pontiac’s Rebellion
More on Chief Pontiac
– http://www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/page/p/po
ntiac.shtml
King George III

Who was he?

– King of England

Role in Revolution
– Heavily taxed “British”
colonists
– Passed new laws to raise
money to support expenses
from the French and Indian
War
More on King George III
– http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1480.asp
Places
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http://www.backpackers.com.au/worldmap/images/europe-map.gif
http://www.traveleze.com/travel_planning/fortnecessity.jpg
Ohio Valley

Information about it

– Stretched for about 1,000
miles along the Ohio River
from the Appalachian
Mountains to the Mississippi
River
– Inhabited by Native Americans
– French and British each
believed this land belonged to
them because of early
exploration and settlement

What happened there during
the Revolution?
– Fighting between British and
French/Indians
More on Ohio Valley
– http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/artcenter.aspx
Fort Necessity

Information about it

– Makeshift fort that George
Washington and Virginian
army built in case of attacks
from French
– Located in Pennsylvania

What happened there during
the Revolution?
– 600 French soldiers and 100
of their Indian allies attacked
it
– The Virginians and
Washington surrendered,
outnumbered, and returned to
Virginia
More on Fort Necessity
– http://www.nps.gov/fone/
Paris

Information about it

– Capital of France
What happened there during
the Revolution?
– Negotiations between French
and British after French and
Indian War, British and
Americans after the
Revolutionary War
– Signing of Treaty of Paris of
1763
– Signing of Treaty of Paris of
1782

More on Paris
–
England

Information about it

– Country in Europe
– Island off the coast of France
What happened there during the
Revolution?
– British Parliament and King
George III met and passed new
laws for the colonies
– Home base for British soldiers

More on England
Events
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http://www.iath.virginia.edu/seminar/unit1/images/tar.jpg
French and Indian War

What was it?

Importance in Revolution
– Victory led King George III to
issue the Proclamation of 1763
which stated that colonists could
not buy land west of the
Appalachians and settlers living
there to leave at once
– Led to first step in angering
colonists and wanting
independence
– War fought between
French/Indian Allies and
British
– Fought over the Ohio Valley
region
– British wanted region as an
area for trade and growth
– French saw region as an
important link between
France’s holdings in Canada
and Louisiana

More on French and Indian War
Pontiac’s Rebellion

What was it?

– Led by Chief Pontiac and
united tribes, they attacked
British forts in the Ohio Valley
region after the French and
Indian War
– Purpose was to attack forts
and gain guns and supplies to
use against the British
– Chief Pontiac wanted to stop
settlers from settling Indian
hunting lands
Importance in Revolution
– Led King George III to pass
the Proclamation of 1763
because he thought it was the
backcountry traders and
settlers fault

More on Pontiac’s Rebellion
Treaty of Paris of 1763

What was it?

– Ended the French and Indian
War when the French and the
British signed this peace treaty
– Terms:
Importance in Revolution
– Led settlers to move further
west, which caused Pontiac’s
Rebellion
 France gave Britain:
– Most of it’s land is present
day Canada
– Most of the land between
Mississippi River and the
Appalachian Mts.
 Spain gave Britain Florida

More on Treaty of Paris of 1763
Proclamation of 1763

What was it?

– Order from King George III to
the colonists to stop settling
lands west of the Appalachian
Mts. and for those who
already had, to leave
immediately
– Passed in the hope of
preventing more wars
between colonists and Native
Americans
Importance in Revolution
– Angered colonists because
they thought their rights had
as citizens had been taken
away

More on Proclamation of 1763
The Acts

What were they?
– The Sugar Act: added a tax
on sugar and other goods
coming into the colonies from
other places
– The Stamp Act: placed a tax
on newspapers, almanacs,
pamphlets, all kinds of legal
documents, insurance policies,
licenses, and even playing
cards
– Townshend Acts: laws placed
taxes on lead, glass, paint,
paper, and tea brought into
the colonies

Importance in Revolution
– Angered colonists because
they felt like they had no voice
in deciding on this tax law
– They led to the slogan “No
Taxation Without
Representation”
– Also led colonists to boycott,
or refuse to buy, British goods
– Led a group of leaders to
write their rights and
grievances to the king

More on The Acts
Beginning of the War
Places
People
Events
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People
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Sam Adams

Who was he?

– Cousin of John Adams
– Member of Massachusetts
legislature

Role in Revolution
– Member of the Sons of
Liberty-secretly attacked
British officials and agents and
their homes and businesses
– Helped plan the Boston Tea
Party
More on Adams
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
British Soldiers

Who were they?

– Professional soldiers from
England
– Had the best training and the
most experienced officers
– Nicknamed “Lobsterbacks”
and “Redcoats” by colonists
Role in Revolution
– Fought against the Continental
Army during the Revolutionary
War

More on British Soldiers
British Parliament

Who were they?

– Lawmaking body of the British
government in London,
England

Role in Revolution
– Made decisions along with the
King of England, King George III,
that dealt with the war and new
laws for the colonists
More on British Parliament
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Paul Revere

Who was he?

– Boston silversmith

Role in Revolution
– Painted portrait of Boston
Massacre
– Made the Midnight Ride
– Member of the Sons of Liberty
More on Revere
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Crispus Attucks

Who was he?

– Former slave
Role in Revolution
– Many people considered him
the first person to be killed in
the struggle for American
liberty in the Boston Massacre

More on Attucks
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2
Continental Congress
Who were they?

– Representatives from the
colonies
– 56 delegates were present at
Philadelphia’s Carpenter’s Hall
– They met at first to discuss
ways they might respond to
the British threat, later to
work on the new
independence of America
Role in Revolution
– Wrote a peace petition and
sent it to the British
Parliament and King George
III
– Formed the Continental Army
– Approved the Declaration of
Independence
– Set up the new government
for America under the Articles
of the Confederation

More on Continental Congress
Minutemen

Who were they?

– Massachusetts colonists who
formed a special militia unit
– Got their name because they
could be ready in a minute to
defend Massachusetts
Role in Revolution
– Fought at Lexington and
Concord against the British,
“The Shot Heard Around the
World”, it marked the
beginning of the Revolutionary
War

More on Minutemen
Places
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Boston

Information about it
– Located in the colony-then,
state-now of Massachusetts


What happened there during the
Revolution?
– British troops home base
– Boston Massacre
– Boston Tea Party
More on Boston
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Boston Harbor

Information about it
– Located on the east coast of
Boston
– Leads into Atlantic Ocean
– Ships continually went in and
out with imports and exports


What happened there during
the Revolution?
– The Boston Tea Party
More on Boston Harbor
Lexington & Concord

Information about them

– Cities located in
Massachusetts

What happened there during
the Revolution?
– First battles that marked the
beginning of the Revolutionary
War
– Shot Heard Around the World
More on Lexington
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html

More on Concord
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Philadelphia

Information about it

– City in Pennsylvania
What happened there during
the Revolution?
– Housed the Continental
Congress at Carpenter’s Hall,
later Independence Hall
– Declaration of Independence
signed and read here

More on Philadelphia
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
http://www.iath.virginia.edu/seminar/unit1/images/boston.jpg
Events
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Boston Massacre

What was it?

– Violent crowd of colonists
gathered across from British
soldiers shouting insults at
them and throwing snowballs
– A fight breaks out and shots
are fired
– 5 colonists are killed

Importance in Revolution
– Angered colonists even more
More on Boston Massacre
Boston Tea Party

What was it?

– Members of the Sons of
Liberty boarded the British
ships in the Boston Harbor,
disguised as Mohawk Indians,
and broke open 342 tea
chests and dumped the tea
into the harbor

Importance in Revolution
– Angered King George III and
the British Parliament
– Provoked England to pass
more laws like the Boston Port
Bill-which closed the port of
Boston until the colonists paid
for the destroyed tea
More on Boston Tea Party
Shot Heard Around the World

What was it?

– General Thomas Gage of the
British army learned that two
of the Sons of Liberty were
meeting in a village in
Lexington and that Minutemen
were storing weapons in
Concord
– The British army marched to
Lexington but were met by
the minutemen, shots were
fired

Importance in Revolution
– Marked the first battles of the
Revolutionary War
More on Shot Heard Around the World
Midnight Ride

What was it?

– Paul Revere rode through the
streets from Lexington to
Concord to warn the Sons of
Liberty and the minutemen
that the British were coming

Importance in Revolution
– Prepared the minutemen, so
that they were ready when
the British showed up
More on Midnight Ride
During the War
Places
People
Events
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People
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Continental Army

Who were they?

– Colonial soldiers who had
never fought as an army
before

Role in Revolution
– Fought against the British
army in the Revolutionary War
More on Continental Army
Mercenaries

Who were they?

– Soldiers who serve for pay in
the military of a foreign
government
– Most were from Germany,
many were Hessians, from the
Hesse region of Germany

Role in Revolution
– King George III ordered them
to be hired to enlarge the
British army to fight the
colonists
More on Mercenaries
Thomas Jefferson

Who was he?

– Continental Congress delegate
from Virginia

Role in Revolution
– Chief writer of the Declaration
of Independence
More on Jefferson
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Thomas Paine

Who was he?

– Colonist who published the
pamphlet, Common Sense

Role in Revolution
– People read his pamphlet and
began to urge for
independence
More on Paine
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
John Adams

Who was he?

– Massachusetts delegate of the
Continental Congress
– Later, 2nd president of the
United States

Role in Revolution
– Part of the committee chosen
to write the Declaration of
Independence
– Known as one of the Founding
Fathers of America
More on Adams
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
John Hancock

Who was he?

– Colonial leader and delegate
from

Role in Revolution
– President of the Continental
Congress
– Member of the Sons of Liberty
– Signed the Declaration of
Independence first
– Signed it so big so that King
George III could read it, John
Hancock now means a
person’s signature
More on Hancock
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Patriots

Who were they?

– Those colonists who
supported independence

More on Patriots
Role in Revolution
– Fought in the war
– Ran businesses and farms
while men were away
fighting
Loyalists

Who were they?

– Those colonists who remained
loyal to King George III and
England

More on Loyalists
Role in Revolution
– Housed British soldiers
– Fought in the war
Francis Marion

Who was he?

– Nicknamed “The Swamp Fox”
by the British because they
could never catch him

More on Marion
Role in Revolution
– Led daring raids against the
British in South Carolina
Nathan Hale

Who was he?

– Young Continental Army
soldier from Connecticut

Role in Revolution
– Volunteered to spy as a Dutch
school teacher to get
information Washington
needed
– Was captured and later hung
by the British
– Quoted as saying: ”I only
regret that I have but one life
to lose for my country”
More on Hale
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
www.wpi.edu/.../MilSci/BTSI/ Hill/bhill_obj.html
Places
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Breed’s Hill

Information about it

– In Massachusetts, near Boston
What happened there during
the Revolution?
– Battle of Bunker’s Hill

More on Breed’s Hill
Independence Hall

Information about it
– Located in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania
– Once called Philadelphia’s
Carpenter’s Hall


What happened there during
the Revolution?
– Congress met here to sign the
Declaration of Independence
– Declaration of Independence
was read out loud here on
July 8, 1776
More on Independence Hall
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Valley Forge

Information about it

– In Pennsylvania, near
Philadelphia
– During Winter of 1777

What happened there during
the Revolution?
– General Washington set up
headquarters here for the
winter
– His ragtag army almost was
wiped out by cold, hunger,
and disease
– Many died here
– Troops were trained hard here
and were ready to go by
Spring
More on Valley Forge
–
http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Saratoga

Information about it
– Located in New York

What happened there during
the Revolution?
– Battle of Saratoga, an
important Continental Army
defeat of British

More on Saratoga
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Events
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Battle of Bunker Hill

What was it?

– Actually took place on near by
Breed’s Hill, but it was
misnamed Bunker Hill and the
name stuck
– Massachusetts soldiers began
to build earthworks, or walls
of earth and stone, to protect
themselves against the British
– General Gage of the British
heard about this and ordered
an attack

Importance in Revolution
– Although in the end the
colonists lost, it showed the
British that fighting the
colonists would not be easy
More on Battle of Bunker Hill
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Common Sense

What was it?

– A pamphlet that Thomas Paine
wrote
– In it, Paine questioned the
right of any king to rule over
anyone, called for a
revolution, and challenged the
British colonists to cut their
ties with the British
government

Importance in Revolution
– Colonists read and talked
about this amongst
themselves and began to urge
for independence
More on Common Sense
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Declaration of Independence

What was it?

Importance in Revolution
– Took Thomas Jefferson 17
– All delegates of the 13
days to write it
colonies signed it, making it a
unanimous document stating
– Several parts to it
that the colonies were free
– Preamble (1st part) he states
and independent states
why the Declaration was
needed
– 2nd part he describes the
colonists’ main ideas about
government
– 3rd part he listed the colonists
grievances, or complaints,
against the British king and
Parliament
 More on Declaration of Independence
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Battle of Saratoga

What was it?

– A battle that took place in
New York
– October 1777
– The Americans defeated a
British army of more than
5,000 soldiers led by British
General John Burgoyne
– There the British had one of
their worst defeats in the war

Importance in Revolution
– Patriots were overjoyed at the
news
– It became a turning point in
the war- it caused important
and dramatic change in favor
of the Continental Army and
the colonists
More on Battle of Saratoga
End of the War
Places
People
Events
People
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General Cornwallis

Who was he?

– From England
– Educated and moved through
the ranks of the British army

Role in Revolution
– General of the British army
– Was defeated and forced to
surrender at the Battle of
Yorktown
– Ultimately blamed for the loss
to the colonists during the
Revolutionary War
More on Cornwallis
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Alexander Hamilton

Who was he?

– Born in the West Indies
– Got is education in New York
– Moved through the ranks of
the Continental Army at an
early age

Role in Revolution
– Colonel in the Continental
Army
– Defeated General Cornwallis
with help from French troops
in the Battle of Yorktown
More on Hamilton
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Places
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Yorktown

Information about it

– Located in Virginia
– British and General Cornwallis
set up headquarters at here

What happened there during
the Revolution?
– The last major battle of the
Revolutionary War
– Americans defeated the
British, Cornwallis was forced
to surrender
More on Yorktown
– http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/archive.html
Annapolis

Information about it
– Located in Maryland

What happened there after the
Revolution?
– United States Naval Academy
was opened here

More on Annapolis
Events
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http://www.americanpresident.org/history/johnadams/biography/resources/images/TreatyofParis.image.jpg
The Surrender

What was it?

– Battle of Yorktown
– French and American troops
surrounded Cornwallis on land
– French navy took control of
the Chesapeake Bay
– Now the British army was
trapped

Importance in Revolution
– Cornwallis surrendered
– British soldiers marched out of
Yorktown and laid down their
weapons
– Although the war did not end
here, it was clear at this point
who had won the war!
More on The Surrender
Treaty of Paris of 1783

What was it?

– Peace treaty signed in Paris
between the British and the
Americans
– America wanted the British
king and Parliament to accept
American independence and
remove all British soldiers
from American soil
– America also wanted the
British to pay the colonists of
any damage during the war

Importance in Revolution
– It officially ended the
Revolutionary War and named
the United States of America
as a new country and
described its borders from
Florida in the south to the
Great Lakes in the north and
west to the Mississippi River
More on Treaty of Paris of 1783
Effects of the War
Places
People
Events
People
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Other Countries

Who were they?
–
–
–
–
Dutch
French
Spanish
Portuguese

Role after the Revolution
– Began to trade freely with
America

More on Other Countries
Settlers

Who were they?

– Colonists who wanted to move
west into the new territory like
Ohio and Indiana

More on Settlers
Role after the Revolution
– Began to expand the United
States population
Places
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Appalachian Mountains

Information about it
– Located from Georgia to
Maine on the east coast of the
United States


What happened there after the
Revolution?
– Settlers began to move into
this land and build permanent
settlements
More on Appalachian Mountains
Events
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Westward Movement

What was it?

– Settlers began to move from
the bustling towns in the New
England and Mid-Atlantic
colonies to the new territory
along the Appalachian Mts.,
following Indian trails and
making there way through the
tough terrain

Importance after the
Revolution
– Opened up a whole new idea
to America on expanding the
land
More on Westward Movement
Military Expansion

What was it?

– Congress later established a
regular, full time army
– They also provided leaders for
the military by establishing
schools to train the officers
like West Point in New York
and United States Naval
Academy in Annapolis,
Maryland

Importance after the
Revolution
– The military and revolution
became a model for later
revolutions by other countries,
including those in South
America
More on Military Expansion
Articles of Confederation

What was it?

– Laws for the new country to
follow under the federal
government
– They were passed by
representatives in Congress

Importance after the
Revolution
– First constitution for the new
country
– The government hoped to
bring together the 13
independent states into “a
firm league of leadership”
More on Articles of Confederation
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