sr estuactsart irercirdnibng snvsaW ear iem oem w d im bygyM JR S oo tu hreg eennli Fll S lrC ip sl bae en r g p rs ost adt arurcir e ni nd g gb KM ye ve Gil enGoCir bo g sseot Lnuecr a s Angles • Originally occupied parts of Germany • Invaded by Britain with Saxons & Jutes (from Jutland) in 5th Cent. • Formed people who became known as English (The name England is derived from them) Anglo-Saxons • 450-Present • “Volkerwanderung” • Drove out Britons, Celts • Gave name “Welsh” – strangers • Divided into 7 kingdoms (Kent, Sussex, Essex) – Brought Important Documents Christmas Berry Mocha Fudge - A Heavenly treat 1/4 lb. butter 12 oz. can of evaporated milk 3 1/2 Cups of sugar 1 heaping tablespoon of INSTANT COFFEE 10 oz. Hershey's Raspberry chocolate chips 2 oz. bittersweet chocolate 7 oz. Marshmallow cream 1 tsp. Vanilla In a heavy saucepan melt the butter. Add evaporated milk, sugar, and coffee. Bring to a rolling boil, stirring constantly until the temperature reaches 235 degrees. Remove from heat and and raspberry chocolate chips and the bittersweet chocolate. Stir the mixture until all ingredients are melted. Add the marshmallow crème and stir until blended. Stir in the vanilla. Pour into a lightly greased 9 X 13 inch pan. Cut in bite sized squared when cooled. • Hero of the Geats • of the Danes • 5th- 6th C. • Battles 3 Foes (Grendel, Mother, Dragon) • Epic Tale written in England (700-1000 AD) - 700 AD – All of England Christian (St Patrick) religious unity before political - 7 Stable Kingdoms established -Alfred the Great - Divides into Shires (counties) - 700 AD – All of England Christian (St Patrick) religious unity before political - 7 Stable Kingdoms established -Alfred the Great - Divides into Shires (counties) Rules by an Earl Broke into hundreds, ruled by Thegn JUSTICE SYSTEM ESTABLISHED WItAN (council of earls, thegns) thegn Judge Doomsmen Jury EDWARD THE CONFESSOR Told to many secrets, ha King Arthur • Arthur Pendragon, Artorius, Aurelianus • Figure of Mythology • Ideal King in War & Peace • Born in 5th C. Arthur • Celtic Legend? • Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain • Excalibur • Merlin, Guinevere Arthur • Knights of the Round Table • Camelot (Avalon) • Much Myth and Fiction • Exciting Tale of Medieval History English Rule • Edward the Confessor (1042-1066) • Last Anglo-Saxon King • Westminster Abbey (1042) – First Major Gothic Church in England • King Edward the Confessor (no heir to throne) Last Anglo-Saxon • 3 way struggle for English Throne Harold Godwinson Harald Hardrada (king of Norway) Duke William William fights E.C. Weather (curse or blessing?) Meanwhile… Harald defeated by Harold at Battle of Stamford Bridge Battle of Hastings Harold rushes down William Wins Results • Harold killed, Normans win • England Oriented toward Europe, not Scandinavia • French Becomes language of the Courts • Basic unit of govt remains shire, now ruled by shire reeve (sheriff) • All estates of Saxons • Lords serve or • Feudalism William’s King Edward. Where Harold, Earl of the English, and his retinue ride to Bosham. Harold sails to Stamford Bridge to meet Hardrada Where Harold gave his oath to Duke William. The death of King Edward the Confessor A bad omen, a comet appears in the sky Eustace. Here the French do battle. And those who were with Harold fell. Here King Harold was killed. And the English fled. Achievements • 1086 DOMESDAY BOOK Gave clear record of land holdings Castle Building begins • Curia Regis set up (council of clergy & Barons) Contract w/vassals (forerunner of Parliament) Feudalism System of govt. w/land, estate contractual ownership • Lord – dukes, marquis, counts, earls, viscounts, barons, etc. • Vassal – serve the lord • Carolingian (8th & 9th C.) based on wealth (stirrup) vs. • Classical (11th C.) hereditary lineage • Responsibilities? Feudalism • • • • • • Obligations of the Vassals Give 40 days/nights annually (scutage –shield money) Contribute to lord’s expenses (knighting, wedding, ransom) Work the land, give “contributions” Entertain and maintain estate Absolved if Lord (tries to kill, enslave, steal, or seduce wife) • • • • • • Obligations of the Lords Could wage war, coin $, collect tolls, make alliances Grant land (fief) Protect, provide castle Lead vassals & knights into battle Maintain roads, bridges, defenses William William Rufus (Hunter) Henry I (Momma’s Boy) Robert (Eldest, Crusader) Henry is last of sons and will rule as an uneventful king! Heir to the Throne - William, sister Matilda, other illegitimate children (22 total) Geoffrey William Henry I Matilda Stephen William is now in trouble, but wait… He grabs a ride on one of the row boats, but wait… He goes back, WHAT the #&@* !!!! Bye, bye, bye Stephen (1135-54) • Weak Ruler • Constant fighting with Barons • Power struggle with cousins • Young Henry II (cousin succeeds him) Henry II (King of England) • 1164 issues Constitution of Clarendon Clergy member may be punished by Royal Court No appealing sentences to Pope without King’s Permission • Concept of Juries (Grand & Petit) and Exchequer, Common Law • Thomas ‘a Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury) Opposed Constitution Murdered by Henry’s Knights (4) Henry II • Fight for the Throne • Sons all want it William , Henry , Richard , Geoffrey , John WHO WILL WIN? Richard I (the Lion-Hearted) • Seems to win fight for crown (1189-99) • Unknown to English – 6 months of 10 yr reign in England – 3rd Crusade v. Saladin – Captured in Austria (Leopold V) • Imposed heavy taxes (nearly bankrupted) • Shot and Killed w/ arrow King John • Richard’s younger bro (1199-1216) • Fought many battles w/ French • Dispute with Pope Innocent III • Imposed illegal dues on his barons – Pay for war and bro • Barons were upset, had enough in 1215! Magna Carta • 1215 • Barons forced John to sign document • Defined Rights & Responsibilities • Protected Barons against unnecessary taxes • Clergy allowed to choose their own bishops • Could appeal to Pope for justice *It did nothing for the large population (serfs) • Eventually led to provisions for all citizens of England Parliament • Issue of taxes led to Parliament • Divided into 2 Houses House of Lords - bishops & nobles House of Commons - knights & burgesses Civil War in England • King Edward I sits on the Throne • North the Scottish want Independence • One Man is about to change History! • Here is his Story Scottish Independence • William Wallace (1272-1305) • Hero of Scotland • Battles - Stirling Bridge - Falkirk - Captured at Falkirk • Robert the Bruce (king of Scotland) 'Tell your commander that we are not here to make peace but to do battle, defend ourselves and liberate our kingdom. Let them come on, and we shall prove this in their very beards.’ FREEDOM!!!!! • Robert the Bruce becomes King • Scotland Gains Independence 1314 • Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton (1328) Notre Dame Cathedral • Paris, France • One of the 1st Gothic Cathedrals • Use of Flying Buttress • Construction 1163-1345 • The bell "Emmanuel" in the south tower weighs over 28,000 pounds. The clapper alone weighs about 1,100 pounds. • It is said that when "Emmanuel" was recast in 1631, women threw their gold and other jewelry into the molten metal, giving the bell its unique, pure F sharp tone. • The main vault inside the cathedral is 112 feet high. • The towers of the western façade are 226 feet tall. • 422 steps in a spiral staircase lead to the very top of the bell tower. Hundred Years War • 1337-1453 • Two families fought for French Crown • House of Valois v. House of Plantagenets • 3 Phases of War • Significant Influences to World – Warfare, Weapons, Nationalism Major People & Events • Cavalry replaced by Standing Army No need for horses with longbow, later firearms • Joan of Arc (1412-1431) •Savior of France, burned at the stake • Henry V (English King) bloody revolt to take France back • French eventually win in 1453 History of Cup - Joseph of Arimathea - Taken to Britain (bodyguards) Legends - develop 12th-13th c. - Chrétien de Troyes - Arthurian Legend - Knights Templar Four medieval relics 1. Jerusalem – silver chalice in reliquary (7th c.) 2. Constantinople – costly dish captured in 4th crusade, lost in Fr. Revolution 3. Genoa* - carved from emerald, brilliant green dish 4. Valencia* - gold chalice, brought by St. Peter to Rome * these survive today This tapestry is entitled The Quest for the Holy Grail. This tapestry was designed by Edward Burne-Jones and woven by Morris & Co. in 1895-96 and is one of six panels illustrating the story of The Holy Grail. It represents the arming and the departure of the knights of the Round Table, amongst which are Sir Bors, Sir Percival and Sir Galahad.