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• Originally occupied parts of Germany
• Invaded by Britain with Saxons & Jutes (from
Jutland) in 5th Cent.
• Formed people who became known as English
(The name England is derived from them)
• 450-Present
• “Volkerwanderung”
• Drove out Britons, Celts
• Gave name “Welsh” – strangers
• Divided into 7 kingdoms (Kent, Sussex, Essex)
Brought Important Documents
Christmas Berry Mocha Fudge - A Heavenly treat
1/4 lb. butter
12 oz. can of evaporated milk
3 1/2 Cups of sugar
1 heaping tablespoon of INSTANT COFFEE
10 oz. Hershey's Raspberry chocolate chips
2 oz. bittersweet chocolate
7 oz. Marshmallow cream
1 tsp. Vanilla
In a heavy saucepan melt the butter. Add evaporated milk, sugar, and coffee.
Bring to a rolling boil, stirring constantly until the temperature reaches 235 degrees.
Remove from heat and and raspberry chocolate chips and the bittersweet chocolate. Stir
the mixture until all ingredients are melted. Add the marshmallow crème and stir until
blended. Stir in the vanilla. Pour into a lightly greased 9 X 13 inch pan.
Cut in bite sized squared when cooled.
• Hero of the Geats
• of the Danes
• 5th- 6th C.
• Battles 3 Foes (Grendel, Mother, Dragon)
• Epic Tale written in England (700-1000 AD)
- 700 AD – All of England Christian (St Patrick)
religious unity before political
- 7 Stable Kingdoms established
-Alfred the Great
- Divides into Shires (counties)
- 700 AD – All of England Christian (St Patrick)
religious unity before political
- 7 Stable Kingdoms established
-Alfred the Great
- Divides into Shires (counties)
Rules by an Earl
Broke into hundreds, ruled by Thegn
WItAN (council of earls, thegns)
Told to many secrets, ha
King Arthur
• Arthur Pendragon, Artorius, Aurelianus
• Figure of Mythology
• Ideal King in War & Peace
• Born in 5th C.
• Celtic Legend?
• Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain
• Excalibur
• Merlin, Guinevere
• Knights of the Round Table
• Camelot (Avalon)
• Much Myth and Fiction
• Exciting Tale of Medieval History
English Rule
• Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)
• Last Anglo-Saxon King
• Westminster Abbey (1042)
– First Major Gothic Church in England
• King Edward the Confessor (no heir to throne)
Last Anglo-Saxon
• 3 way struggle for English Throne
Harold Godwinson
Harald Hardrada
(king of Norway)
Duke William
William fights E.C. Weather
(curse or blessing?)
Harald defeated by Harold at Battle
of Stamford Bridge
Battle of Hastings
Harold rushes down
William Wins
• Harold killed, Normans win
• England Oriented toward Europe, not Scandinavia
• French Becomes language of the Courts
• Basic unit of govt remains shire, now ruled by shire reeve
• All estates of Saxons
• Lords serve or
• Feudalism
King Edward. Where Harold, Earl of the English, and his retinue ride to Bosham.
Harold sails to Stamford Bridge to meet Hardrada
Where Harold gave his oath to Duke William.
The death of King Edward the Confessor
A bad omen, a comet appears in the sky
Eustace. Here the French do battle.
And those who were with Harold fell. Here King Harold was killed.
And the English fled.
clear record of land holdings
Castle Building begins
Curia Regis set up (council of clergy & Barons)
Contract w/vassals (forerunner of Parliament)
System of govt. w/land, estate
contractual ownership
• Lord – dukes, marquis, counts, earls, viscounts, barons, etc.
• Vassal – serve the lord
• Carolingian (8th & 9th C.) based on wealth (stirrup)
• Classical (11th C.) hereditary lineage
• Responsibilities?
Obligations of the Vassals
Give 40 days/nights annually (scutage –shield money)
Contribute to lord’s expenses (knighting, wedding, ransom)
Work the land, give “contributions”
Entertain and maintain estate
Absolved if Lord (tries to kill, enslave, steal, or seduce wife)
Obligations of the Lords
Could wage war, coin $, collect tolls, make alliances
Grant land (fief)
Protect, provide castle
Lead vassals & knights into battle
Maintain roads, bridges, defenses
William Rufus
Henry I
(Momma’s Boy)
(Eldest, Crusader)
Henry is last of sons and will
rule as an uneventful king!
Heir to the Throne
- William, sister Matilda, other illegitimate children (22 total)
Henry I
William is now in trouble, but wait…
He grabs a ride on one of the row boats, but wait…
He goes back, WHAT the #&@* !!!!
Bye, bye, bye
• Weak Ruler
• Constant fighting with Barons
• Power struggle with cousins
• Young Henry II (cousin succeeds him)
Henry II
(King of England)
• 1164 issues Constitution of Clarendon
Clergy member may be punished by Royal Court
No appealing sentences to Pope without King’s Permission
Concept of Juries (Grand & Petit) and Exchequer, Common Law
• Thomas ‘a Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury)
Opposed Constitution
Murdered by Henry’s Knights (4)
Henry II
• Fight for the Throne
• Sons all want it
William , Henry , Richard , Geoffrey , John
Richard I (the Lion-Hearted)
• Seems to win fight for crown (1189-99)
• Unknown to English
– 6 months of 10 yr reign in England
– 3rd Crusade v. Saladin
– Captured in Austria (Leopold V)
• Imposed heavy taxes (nearly bankrupted)
• Shot and Killed w/ arrow
King John
• Richard’s younger bro (1199-1216)
• Fought many battles w/ French
• Dispute with Pope Innocent III
• Imposed illegal dues on his barons
– Pay for war and bro
• Barons were upset, had enough in 1215!
Magna Carta
• 1215
• Barons forced
John to sign document
• Defined Rights & Responsibilities
• Protected Barons against unnecessary taxes
• Clergy allowed to choose their own bishops
• Could appeal to Pope for justice
*It did nothing for the large population (serfs)
• Eventually led to provisions for all citizens of England
• Issue of taxes led to Parliament
• Divided into 2 Houses
House of Lords - bishops & nobles
House of Commons - knights & burgesses
Civil War in England
• King Edward I sits on the Throne
• North the Scottish want Independence
• One Man is about to change History!
• Here is his Story
Scottish Independence
• William Wallace (1272-1305)
• Hero of Scotland
• Battles
- Stirling Bridge
- Falkirk
- Captured at Falkirk
• Robert the Bruce (king of Scotland)
'Tell your commander that we are not here to make peace but to
do battle, defend ourselves and liberate our kingdom. Let them
come on, and we shall prove this in their very beards.’
• Robert the Bruce becomes King
• Scotland Gains Independence 1314
• Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton (1328)
Notre Dame Cathedral
• Paris, France
• One of the 1st Gothic Cathedrals
• Use of Flying Buttress
• Construction 1163-1345
• The bell "Emmanuel" in the south tower weighs over 28,000 pounds. The
clapper alone weighs about 1,100 pounds.
• It is said that when "Emmanuel" was recast in 1631, women threw their
gold and other jewelry into the molten metal, giving the bell its unique, pure
F sharp tone.
• The main vault inside the cathedral is 112 feet high.
• The towers of the western façade are 226 feet tall.
• 422 steps in a spiral staircase lead to the very top of the bell tower.
Hundred Years War
• 1337-1453
• Two families fought for French Crown
• House of Valois v. House of Plantagenets
• 3 Phases of War
• Significant Influences to World
– Warfare, Weapons, Nationalism
Major People & Events
• Cavalry replaced by Standing Army
No need for horses with longbow, later firearms
• Joan of Arc (1412-1431)
•Savior of France, burned at the stake
• Henry V (English King)
bloody revolt to take France back
• French eventually win in 1453
History of Cup
- Joseph of Arimathea
- Taken to Britain (bodyguards)
- develop 12th-13th c.
- Chrétien de Troyes
- Arthurian Legend
- Knights Templar
Four medieval relics
Jerusalem – silver chalice in reliquary (7th c.)
Constantinople – costly dish captured in 4th crusade, lost
in Fr. Revolution
Genoa* - carved from emerald, brilliant green dish
Valencia* - gold chalice, brought by St. Peter to Rome
* these survive today
This tapestry is entitled The Quest for the Holy Grail.
This tapestry was designed by Edward Burne-Jones and woven by Morris & Co. in 1895-96 and is one of six
panels illustrating the story of The Holy Grail.
It represents the arming and the departure of the knights of the Round Table, amongst which are Sir Bors, Sir
Percival and Sir Galahad.