By: Kevin Katchko, Emily Leskowsky, Marissa Moosic, & CJ Whispell Characters Aeneas○ Protagonist ○ Developing as a leader ○ Getting more allies ○ Making more plans for the city King Evander○ King of Arcadia ○ Elderly ○ Respects Aeneas because of his relations to his father Pallas○ Son of King Evander ○ Protective of his land ○ Accompanies Aeneas on his journey Characters Cont’d Tiberinus○ River god ○ Speaks to Aeneas about founding his new city Venus○ Concerned about her son ○ Asks her husband to make him armor in order to keep him safe Vulcan○ Fire god ○ Venus’ husband ○ Makes weapons for the gods ○ Makes special armor for Aeneas Summary At the beginning of the book, Turnus is at the fortress of Laurentum and raises the flag of war. Venulus is sent to Diomedes’ city of Arpi to request help, and to tell him that the Teucrians have come to Latium and that Aeneas is coming with his fleet. Aeneas is on the shores of Latium, and he hears the news of the Latins’ request for help from Diomedes. His mind starts to wander, and he begins to think of plans on how to defeat the Latins. Tiberinus, the river god, rises from the poplar leaves to speak to Aeneas during the night. He tells him not to be afraid of war or the consequences that come with it, because the rage and anger of the gods is done. He also tells him that he will soon find the site to begin his new city. He informs him that when he finds a white sow on the shores with a fresh litter suckling her teats, that that is the site for his great city. He will name this city Pallanteum, after King Evander’s son Pallas. He also says that his son will also found a city, and it will be named Alba. His final words of advice were that Aeneas should sacrifice to Juno. In the morning, Aeneas prays to the gods to keep him and his men safe. He then picks two galleys from his fleet and fits them with oars and weapons for their trip up the river. They set out, and Aeneas sees the white sow and her litter, and offers them up to Juno. With the help of Tiberinus, Aeneas and his two galleys sail up the river and reach the land of King Evander. Evander sees the ships from a distance, while he is performing a feast to Amphytrion. Then Evander’s son Pallas, being a protector of his land, grabs his sword and runs to meet Aeneas and his galleys at the shores. He asks them their reason for coming, and Aeneas asks him to relay a message to Evander. Pallas refuses, and instead holds his hand and guides him into the city. Summary Cont’d. When Aeneas gets into the city and meets King Evander he begins his speech to request help. Evander answers him with a long story of how he originally met his father. Evander was young and Anchises was visiting the land. Evander really wanted to talk to him and he got his wish, because he got to guide him to Pheneo’s walls. Anchises gave him a quiver, arrows and a mantle, which Evander eventually gave to Pallas. Evander goes on to say that due to the fact that he knew Aeneas’ father, he will provide Aeneas with troops and anything else he needs for the upcoming war. Evander then asks Aeneas to join the ceremony to Amphytrion, which was previously going on. He orders all the food to be brought back, and invites Aeneas to a throne of maple and a couch of shaggy lion skin. Evander proceeds to tell Aeneas how the alter they were at came about, and how they should sacrifice to Hercules. During his story, he tells how Hercules killed Cacus and saved the 4 heifers and 4 bulls he had stolen from him. The priests then bring in a second meal and the Salii sang and prayed to Hercules. When the feast is done, everyone returns to the city except for Aeneas, King Evander, and Pallas. On their way back, Evander takes Aeneas around and tells him the origins of the people. They reach the house of Evander. Meanwhile, in Olympus, Venus is still concerned for the safety of her son. She asks her husband, Vulcan, to prepare new weapons for Aeneas to protect him in the upcoming battle. Vulcan agrees, and goes down to where his Cyclops are working to prepare weapons for different gods. He tells them to stop everything they are doing and to put their energy into making the best weapons for Aeneas. Summary Cont’d. The next morning, King Evander, Aeneas, and Pallas get up early to meet and talk about what they are going to do. Evander tells Aeneas about how King Mezentius came and ruined the city of Agylla. The people of the city were angry, so they killed all of the guards and burned his palace down. However, Mezentius got away, which infuriated the people even more. Evander tells Aeneas that he can command these people and his army, because they all want revenge on Mezentius. Evander then asks Aeneas to take his son with him to war. Thunder rolls across the sky, and Aeneas realizes that this is a sign from his mother that war is coming, and that she has new weapons and armor for him. Now that he knows that war is coming, he makes offerings to the gods. Aeneas then goes to the shore to pick the best men from his crew to go to war with him. The others he tells to sail down river and to spread the word of what has happened. Evander also makes offerings to the gods to protect his son. Aeneas sets out on horses, and settles in a grove by the stream of Caere. While there, his mother comes down and tells him to dare the Laurentians to battle and gives him his armor. The book ends with the description of his armor. Interventions & Quarrels of the Deities Tiberinus, the river god, intervenes at the beginning of this book. He says that Aeneas is safe to go up the river, and that he will find the site for his new city. Venus, Aeneas’ mother, intervenes by asking her husband, Vulcan, to make special armor and a shield for Aeneas in order to keep him safe. Most Significant Event In our opinion, the most significant event was when Aeneas made allies with King Evander. This is important because now he has a larger army, which gives him a greater advantage. It also makes it easier for them to defeat the Laurentians. Important Quotes “Do not draw back or panic at war’s threats; the rage and anger of the gods is done.” ○ Tiberinus to Aeneas. ○ It is important because it shows that the worst is over for Aeneas and that the gods (Juno in particular) won’t be intervening on behalf of the other side. “[…] you shall discover a huge white sow […] together with a new delivered litter […]. And this shall be the site set for your city, […]” ○ Tiberinus to Aeneas. ○ This is important because he is foreshadowing where Aeneas will start his great city. “Therefore, my right hand, for which you ask, is joined in league with you; […]” ○ King Evander to Aeneas. ○ This is important because Evander is agreeing to assist Aeneas in the upcoming war, which will further insure Aeneas’ victory. Important Quotes Cont’d. “I shall give him two hundred Arcadian horsemen, our best youths; and Pallas will add as many more in his own name.” ○ King Evander to Aeneas ○ This is important because Aeneas now has many Arcadian warriors on his side, along with the king’s own son. “You see, my son, these perfect offerings, my husband’s promised art; then do not doubt, but dare brave Turnus and the proud Laurentians to battle.” ○ Venus to Aeneas ○ This is important because Venus has just given her son special armor made by Vulcan, which will insure his safety and therefore his victory. Epic Conventions Epithets: Speeches given by: Father Aeneas = Aeneas Goddess- born = Aeneas Trojan Aeneas = Aeneas Blue-green Tiber = Tiberinus Father Tiber = Tiberinus Cytherea = Venus The Bright Goddess = Venus Apollo the Devine = Apollo Actian Apollo = Apollo Despiser of the Gods = Mezentius The Great Avenger = Hercules River god, Tiberinus. Evander Venus Epic Digression: Evander talks about when he first met Aeneas’ father. They feast. Foreshadowing Tiberinus foreshadows that Aeneas will find a huge white sow with her litter, and this will be the spot for his new city. He will name the city Pallentium after Pallas. He also foreshadows that Aeneas’ son, Ascanius, will find a city called Alba, thirty years after Aeneas starts his. Venus foreshadows that Aeneas will challenge Turnus to battle. Symbolism White sow and her litter A new beginning, the start of Aeneas’ city, Pallanteum Fire Hate Anger Hercules’ rage Aeneas’ shield The story of Italy’s origins Roman victories and war Vulcan’s ability to foreshadow events Thunder War Aeneas’ armor Figurative Language “When Turnus at the fortress of Laurentum lifted the flag of war and trumpets blasted, raucous, when he aroused his eager stallions and clashed his arms, […]” ○ “[…] their milk-white necks are bound in gold; […]” ○ Alliteration “Over all the lands deep sleep held fast the tires creatures, […]” ○ Hyperbole “[…] the perjured plunder plain before the heavens.” ○ Personification “The father poured these parting words; […]” ○ Alliteration “[…] the riverbanks now leapt apart; the stream recoils in fear.” ○ Hyperbole “The scorching sun has scaled the sky’s midcircle […]” ○ Onomatopoeia Personification “In the sky’s clear region, within a cloud, they see a red-gold gleam of weapons as they clash and clang.” ○ Onomatopoeia Class Discussion If you were Aeneas, and King Evander asked you to take his son on your journey, would you? Or would you leave him in fear that he would endanger your mission to Italy? If you chose to bring him, would you treat him as if he were your own son? Or would you just do it to make King Evander happy?