CHAPTER 14 A NEW SPIRIT OF CHANGE SECTION 1 - THE HOPES OF IMMIGRANTS • Define –emigrant - people who leave country –immigrant - people who enter a country –steerage - cheapest deck on a ship - filthy and illness or death Briefly explain each Push Factor – Population growth -better food and sanitation caused overcrowding in Europe – agricultural changes • make more money selling to cities • forced tenants off land to use to plots to make money – crop failures • poor harvests - unable to pay debts • hunger caused people to emigrate – Industrial Revolution • goods became cheaper than those produced by artisans • some took factory jobs - others emigrated – Religious and political turmoil • Quakers and Jews left to avoid religious persecution • Germans came after a failed revolution in Germany PULL FACTORS • Freedom - everyone has the freedom to practice the • • teaching and religion he prefers Economic opportunity – looking for a land where they could support their families and have a better future – immigration varied depending on U.S. economy Abundant land – Louisiana Purchase and Mexican Cession - lots of land – land-starved Europeans saw as a land of opportunity SCANDINANVIANS • Where did they settle? • – regions like Midwest, especially Minnesota and Wisconsin Why did they settle there – lakes, forests, and cold winters like their homeland – became farmers GERMANS • Where did they settle? • – Midwest - Wisconsin, Texas and cities Why did they settle there? – Wisconsin - could grow oats and Catholic bishop – Texas - brought land from German nobles and founded Fredericksburg – Cities - businesses as bakers, butchers, carpenters, printers, shoemakers and tailors – John Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb world's largest lens maker – Jews - salespeople who brought pins, needles, pots and news to frontier homes and mining camps Irish – Where did they settle? • City dwellers – Why did they settle there? • few skills and had to take low-paying, back-breaking jobs • women took in washing • men built canals and railroads – Why did they come? • Irish Catholics could not vote, hold office, own land or go to school • famine - no potatoes - no food - forced to emigrate OVERCROWDING OF CITIES • New York, St. Louis and Cincinnati's population • grew greatly in small number of years Problems – not enough housing – landlords squeezed large apartment buildings in small lots – cramped living quarters lacked sunshine and fresh air – outdoor toilets overflowed causing disease – crime flourished • City Problems • – New York no public police force – only a volunteer fire department – 138 miles of sewers for 500 mils of streets Immigrant groups set up societies to help newcomers and politicians offered help in exchange for votes OPPOSITION TO IMMIGRATION • Prejudice – a negative opinion that is not based on facts – native-born Americans feared that immigrants were to foreign to learn American ways. – some feared that immigrants might come to outnumber natives – Some Protestants feared that Catholics threatened democracy • Nativists – native-born Americans who wanted to eliminate foreign influence • refused to hire immigrants • promised to not vote for any Catholics or immigrants running for political office • Know-Nothing Party – started by nativists – wanted to an Catholics and the foreign-born from holding office – called for a cut in immigration and 21year wait to become an American citizen – disappeared when north and south branches couldn't agree on slavery What were the push-pull factors that led to immigration? • How did the arrival of so many immigrants affect U.S. cities? • What was the Know-Nothing Party, and what was its point of view about immigration? SECTION 2 AMERICAN LITERATURE AND ART AMERICAN WRITERS • Romanticism – – stressed the individual, imagination, creativity, and emotion. – Drew from nature • James Fennimore Cooper – The Last of the Mohicans • Frances Parkman – The Oregon Trail • Noah Webster – Published American Dictionary of the English Language – Gave American, not British, spellings and included American Slang • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – – Wrote many poems that retold stories from history – Paul Revere’s Ride AMERICAN ARTISTS • Hudson River School – Artists painted peaceful landscapes of mountains, forests and rivers – Paintings that conveyed the majesty of the American Landscape • John James Audubon – sketched birds and • animals of his adopted country African Americans – Made beautiful baskets, quilts, and pottery – David Drake signed pottery he created. WRITERS AND WORK • Ralph Waldo Emerson – Urged Americans to cast off European influence and develop their own beliefs – Learn about life from self-examination and from nature as well as books • Henry David Thoreau – Believed people should live by their own individual standards – Transcendentalism • Taught that the spiritual world is more important • than the physical world Taught people to find truth within themselves – through feeling and intuition – Civil disobedience • Urged people not to obey laws they considered unjust • Peacefully refuse to obey laws • Margaret Fuller – in magazine and book she argued for women’s rights • Walt Whitman – Published Leaves of Grass – He and Dickinson shaped modern poetry by experimenting with language • Emily Dickinson – Wrote poems on pieces of paper that she sewed into booklets – Subjects of God, nature, love and death – Most poems published after her death. • Edgar Allan Poe – terrifying tales that influence today’s horror story writers – first detective story • Nathaniel Hawthorne – depicted love, guilt and revenge during Puritan times in The Scarlet Letter. • Herman Melville – wrote Moby Dick about a man’s destructive desire to kill a white whale SECTION QUESTION • What was romanticism and how did Americans adapt it? • • What is civil disobedience and what did Thoreau do that is an example of it? • • How did the writers of the mid-1800s shape modern literature? SECTION 3 REFORMING AMERICAN SOCIETY REVIVALS • Second Great Awakening – Revival – a meeting to reawaken religious faith – Circuit riders – preacher who rode from town to town holding meetings in a tent – Preachers said that anyone could choose salvation and this appealed to equality-loving Americans – Charles Finney preached that “all sin consists in selfishness” and that religious faith led people to help others. – helped to awaken spirit of reform Temperance • a campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol • Workers spent most of their wages on alcohol – • • • leaving families without enough money to live on Many women joined temperance movement Business owners joined because they needed workers who could keep schedules and run machines Alcohol made it hard for workers to do either WORKERS RIGHTS • Improvements in working conditions • Factory work was noisy, boring and unsafe • Labor union – a group of workers who band together to seek better working conditions. • Strike – stop working to demand better conditions • Workers called for shorter hours and higher wages IMPROVING EDUCATION • Horace Mann – Public education “the great equalizer” – “education creates or develops new treasures— treasures never before possessed or dreamed of by any one” • Led to opening of public elementary and high • schools Led to opening of hundreds of private colleges. • Women not allowed into colleges – Elizabeth Blackwell first women to obtain Medical Degree in U.S. • African Americans faced obstacles – South illegal to teach an enslaved person to read – North most public schools barred AfricanAmerican children – Colleges would only take 1 or 2 at a time. CARING FOR THE NEEDY • Dorethea Dix – A reformer who discovered women who were locked in cold, filthy cells because they were mentally ill – Found mentally ill received no treatment and were usually chained and beaten – Through her efforts 32 new hospitals were built for mentally ill • Thomas H. Gallaudet – opened the first American school for deaf children • Samuel G. Howe – opened Perkins School for the Blind in Boston • Prisons – Debtors, lifelong criminals and child offenders were put in the same cells – Reformers demanded that children go to special schools – Called for rehabilitation of adult prisoners PUBLICATIONS • Penny Papers – Cheaper newsprint and invention of the steam-driven press lowered the price of a newspaper to a penny – Carried serious news but also gripping stories of fires and crime • Ladies Magazines – Sarah Hale – used writing to support her family – Magazine advocated education for women – Suggested that men and women were responsible for different, but equally important, areas of life IDEAL COMMUNITIES • Utopia – an ideal society • New Harmony, Indiana & Brook Farm Massachusetts – Residents received food and other necessities in exchange for work – Experienced conflicts and financial difficulties – Ended only after a few years • Shaker – Called this because they shook with emotion during church services – Vowed not marry or have children – Shared goods with each other and believed that men and women were equal – Refused to fight for any reason – Farmed and built simple furniture – Depended on converts and adopting children to keep their communities going SECTION QUESTIONS • How did the Second Great Awakening influence the reform movement? • • How did labor unions try to force business owners to improve working conditions? • • What were women’s contributions to the reform movement? SECTION 4 ABOLITION AND WOMEN’S RIGHTS ABOLITIONISTS • People who led the movement to end slavery • David Walker – Wrote a pamphlet urging slaves to revolt – Heard life was in danger – died mysteriously • William Lloyd Garrison – Published abolitionist newspaper called The Liberator – Boston mob tried to hang but mayor stopped • Grimke Sisters – Believed that slavery was morally wrong – Joined Quakers and American AntiSlavery Society – Spoke out for abolition even though they were criticized for it. • Frederick Douglass – Career as a lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society – Published a autobiography to prove his life as a slave – On return from a two year speaking tour he brought his freedom and began publishing an antislavery newspaper • Sojourner Truth – Started life as slave but went to live with Quakers who set her free – Helped her win court battle to win young son from slavery – Went out to declare truth to the people and drew huge crowds in the North • Harriet Tubman – One of the most famous conductors of the underground railroad – She escaped and make 19 dangerous trips on the underground railroad – Carried a pistol to frighten slave hunters and medicine to quiet crying babies UNDERGROUND RAILROAD • An aboveground series of escape routes from the South to the North • Was not underground or an actual railroad • Traveled on foot, wagons, boats and trains. • Usually traveled by night and hid by day in places called stations • Stables, attics and cellars all served as stations. WOMEN REFORMERS • World Anti-slavery Convention – Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton went to attend – Were not allowed to enter the convention because they were women – not allowed to speak in public – Had to sit behind heavy curtain and William Lloyd Garrisons joined them • Women’s rights in 1800 – Few legal or political rights – Could not vote, sit on juries or hold public office – Laws treated women as children – Most states husband controlled any property wife inherited and any wages she might earn. • Seneca Falls Convention – Women’s right convention held by Stanton and Mott – Attracted men and women – Wrote a Declaration of Sentiments that declared all men and women were equal – All resolutions passed except for suffrage – right to vote • Other Calls – Sojourner Truth – gave speech that urged men to give women their rights – Maria Mitchell • Founded Association for the Advancement of women • An astronomer who discovered a comet • Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences – first woman – Susan B. Anthony • Skilled organizer who worked in the temperance and antislavery movements • Built women’s movement into a national organization SECTION QUESTIONS • Why were freedom of speech and freedom • • of the press important to the abolitionist movement? • What were Frederick Douglass’s contributions to the abolitionist movement? • What were Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s contributions to the women’s rights movement?