Chapter 4
Section 1 and 2
(4.1)The Revolution Begins and
(4.2) Declaring Independence
Bell Work - The Path to War
Reflect on the 5 major Events/Acts that
led us to the eve of the Revolutionary War
between the Colonies and the British
- -Describe 4 of these events
- -Describe how 1 of them led to the War
- “The only good wars are the American Revolution,
World War II, and the Star Wars Trilogy” Bart
4.1 & 4.2 The Big Idea
● The 1st Continental
Congress demanded
certain rights from
Great Britain
● Armed conflict
between British and
Colonists broke out
with the “Shot heard
‘round the World”
● The 2nd Continental
Congress created the
Continental Army to
fight the British
● Tensions between The
Colonies and Great
Britain led to War
● Thomas Paine’s Common
Sense led many to
support Independence
● The Colonies formally
declared their
independence from
Great Britain, although
the Declaration did not
address rights of all
1st Continental Congress - October
▪ Gathering of Colonial Leaders formed to voice
the colonists concerns to King George III
▪ Colonists did not want to separate yet; state
concerns and ask King to correct them
▪ Some wanted Peace, others said War was
inevitable - continued to boycott goods AND
have colonial militias prepare for war
▪ “Declaration of Rights” - 10 resolutions including
right to “Life, Liberty, and Property…”
Patrick Henry’s famous Quote
“They tell us, Sir, that we are weak; unable to cope
with so formidable an adversary. But when will we be
stronger? Gentlmen may cry, Peace, Peace - but there
is no peace. I know not what course others may take;
but as for me, give
me liberty or give me
The Ride of Paul Revere - April 1775
▪ Patriots - Colonists who wanted independence from
G.Britain (formed militia groups to fight in case of an
attack by Redcoats)
▪ Redcoats - British soldiers
▪ British Governor of Mass. Thomas Gage learned of
Patriots’ stockpile of weapons outside of Boston in
Concord - decided to seize them
▪ The Patriots learned of the surprise attack
▪ Revere & William Dawes rode through night warning
Patriots that the Redcoats were coming
- “One if by land;Two if by sea”
Lexington & Concord - The 1st Battles
▪ Minutemen assisted Patriots - local militia nicknamed
because they were ready to fight at a minute’s notice
▪ “Shot Heard ‘round the World” - someone (we don’t
know on what side) let out a gunshot and then
everyone started firing
▪ When the smoke cleared, Redcoats won and moved on
to Concord
▪ Patriots force Redcoats back at Concord, killing many
along the way
2nd Continental Congress - May 1775
▪ King George III ignored Dec. of Rights - 2nd CC tried
again to voice concerns
▪ First attempt at Republican Government in Colonies
▪ Congress asked Colonies to draw up new Constitutions;
Conventions set up to write them
▪ Authorized the Continental Army - all Colonial
soldiers united & led by Virginian soldier George
▪ July 5, 1775 Congress presented the King
with the Olive Branch Petition but
the King would not read it
2 Sides to Every Story
Believed in Independence
● Patriot
● Sons of Liberty (Paul
● Minutemen
● Continental Army
soldiers a.k.a. Patriot
● Some Native American
Wanted to Remain Under King
George’s Rule
● Loyalists
● Redcoat Soldiers
● Parliment (Crown
● Most Native American
● Enslaved African groups
A Tale of 2 Armies
King George III and the
British Army
highly skilled
lots of supplies, if not amo
used mercenaries
had to cross difficult Atlantic
George Washington and
the Continental Army
Inexperienced; disorganized
low on supplies
small navy
scrappy - fought for their
● helped by other countries
● Both sides low on men/bullets
● Bunker Hill May 1775 Benedict Arnold/Patriots
capture Ft. Ticonderoga & large
supply of weapons
▪ Patriots told to only “Shoot
when you see the whites of their
▪ The Redcoats won, but they lost
twice as many men - proved the
Colonists actually had a shot at
taking on British
▪ Dorchester Heights March 4,
1776 - Colonel Henry Knox
transports guns/cannons from
Ft. Ticonderoga to G.W. & the
Continental Army in Boston
▪ When the Redcoats awoke & saw
that the GW & Patriots had
cannons, they quickly retreated
to Canada
▪ The birthplace of the rebellion
now in Patriot hands
Common Sense by Thomas Paine
● January 1776 - a 47 page pamphlet published
anonymously, plain language speaking to the common
● Changed colonists’ opinion of King George
● Citizens, not Kings and Queens, should make laws
● Economic freedom
● Right to military defense
● Against tyranny - abuse of govt. power
“There is something very absurd in supporting a
continent to be perpetually governed by an island…”
Thomas Paine
The Declaration of Independence
● June 1776 - committe writes a
document declaring Colonies’
● New Seal - “E pluribus unum” , or
out of many, one - recognizing
● Main author, Thomas Jefferson
● July 4, 1776 the United States of
America was born when
Continental Congress approves
the Dec. of Independence
The Declaration of Independence
● All people posses unalienable rights, including life,
liberty, and pursuit of happiness
● King George had violated their rights by taxing them
without their consent, passed unfair laws, interfered w
their govt., and burdened the Colonists by stationing
Army there
● Colonies had inherent right to break from Britain
because King broke his end of the deal - The
Enlightenment’s idea of a social contract whereas 1)
Govt. protect rights of citizens and 2) people agree to
be governed
Unfinished Business
● Women - left out
● Abigail Adams tries to get
hubby John Adams to include
them “Remember the
Ladies…Do not put such
unlimited power into the hands
of the Husbands…” and fails
● Right to vote, own property,
etc., not addressed to them
● Enslaved Africans - founding
fathers even compared
themselves to slaves under
British rule
● Steps taken in New England
Colonies to end slavery in
1780’s but not in South (United
States now)
● Despite Proclamation of 1763,
Colonists still quietly settled on
the Native Amer lands
● Would become a pattern once
we won War