Ch 4.2 Ideas Help Start a Revolution

Ch 4.2 Ideas Help Start a
Tensions increase throughout the
colonies until the Continental
Congress declares independence
on July 4, 1776.
The United States was founded at
this time.
Second Continental Congress
• May-June 1775 in Philadelphia debated
• Loyalists
-Loyalties to the king
-Reconciliation with British crown
-Can’t win
• Patriots
• Colonial militia= Continental Army
-George Washington appointed
commander of the army
Battle of Bunker Hill
• June 17, 1775.
• Actually at Breed’s
Hill, north of Boston.
• Bloodiest battle of
the war.
• Over 1000 redcoats
killed, patriot loss.
Olive Branch Petition
• Second Continental Congress,
July 1775
• formal harmony between Britain
and colonies.
• King George rejects it.
-stated colonies were rebels and
urged Parliament to order naval
blockade of American coast.
Declaring Independence (influences)
• English Magna Carta, 1215
-Can’t seize property, no
taxation without
representation, jury trial.
• English Bill of Rights, 1686
-constitutional monarchy
-representation through a
parliament (Lower House)
John Locke
• Enlightenment thinkers.
• Two Treatises of Government, 1690
-Natural rights to life, liberty, and
-Social contract, agreement people
consent to choose and obey a
government that protected natural rights.
-If that government didn’t, that the
people had a right to resist and
overthrown that government.
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense,
• Create a better society one free of
tyranny, with equal social and
economic opportunities for all.
• Importance of republican
-power is given to leaders, but
power can be taken away.
Declaring Independence
• Congress
-Each colony is to
form own gov.
-Committee to
prepare a formal
statement of
-Thomas Jefferson
chosen to write it.
Declaration of Independence, 1776
• “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
men are created equal, that they are endowed
by their Creator with unalienable rights, that
among them these are Life, Liberty, and the
pursuit of Happiness;…”
- “self-evident”, to be understood without
- “all men are created equal”, free citizens are
political equals
-did not include women, Native Americans,
-cruel and injustice of slave trade
-S. Carolina and Georgia, take it out or we
will not vote for it
- “unalienable rights", could not be taken away
Loyalists and Patriots
• Groups divided: Quakers and
African American on both sides.
• Native Americans support British.
-Colonists threaten their lands.