“Road to Revolution”
The Mexican Nationalism Era
Unit 4
Mexico versus Texas – Differences Arise
 Cultural differences - Some did not make sincere efforts to
become loyal citizens of Mexico, keeping their own customs.
 Language was Spanish/laws and government
 Started schools and even a newspaper.
 Mexico thinks they are becoming too INDEPENDENT.
States Rights or Nationalism
 Mexico was organized into states.
 Constitution of 1824 established a states’ rights gov’t-one
in which most powers are given to the state gov’t. (local
control)
 Texas became part of Coahuila y Tejas w/Saltillo as capital.
 Mexican Nationalists felt power should belong to the
national gov’t.
 Feared too many settlers were moving to Texas and that they
would try to seize Texas and join the U.S.
Jump Start
 If you were a colonist writing a letter to family
back east in 1824, what would you tell them
about your new life in Texas? Would you invite
them to come or advise them to stay put where
they are? Why or why not?
Pre-AP Presentation Rubric
Category
4
3
2
1
Historical
Accuracy
All info. is
accurate and in
order.
Almost all the
info. is accurate
and in order.
Most of the info. Very little info.
is accurate and
is accurate or in
in order.
order.
Role
Consistently in
character
Often in
character
Sometimes in
character
Rarely in
character
Required
Elements
Group included
more than
required.
Group included
requirements.
Group included
almost all
requirements.
Group was
lacking
requirements.
Time/Effort
Used time
wisely w/little
direction to
produce
excellent
presentation.
Required some
prompting to
use time wisely
and presentation
is average.
Group needed
3-4 reminders
about time and
presentation is
lacking.
Group
consistently
needed
reminders and
presentation is
ineffective.
Competing Land Claims
1825 – Empresario Haden Edwards was awarded a large piece of
land as an empresario and was allowed to settle 800 families near
Nacogdoches.
•When Edwards arrived at his land (in September) he discovered
that there were already people living there (many had been there
for generations)
•MINE! No, it’s MINE!! – SHOW ME YOUR TITLE OR LEAVE!
•Angered SFA & Settlers
•The Political chief in the area sided with the settlers (against
Edwards)
The Edwards Brothers
 Haden Edwards strikes again and overturns an election in
favor of his son-in-law.
 People complain and Governor Blanco has had enough!
 Gov. Blanco reverses the election, takes back the land grant,
and kicks both brothers out of Texas.
 Haden Edwards claims a loss of $50,000 and aligns himself
w/the Cherokees who were lacking land grants.
JUMP START
 ALL CLASSES need your ROAD sketch in your
notebook as well as your “Road to Revolution” outline.
 Pre-AP –You have 5-7 minutes to get your
performance ready.
 On-Level – Use your mystery object to write an
analogy about how Haden Edwards is like that object.
Example: Haden Edwards is like tape in that he
got himself stuck in some sticky situations.
The Fredonian Rebellion
 The Edwards brothers, Cherokee leaders, and settlers who
supported their land claims declare INDEPENDENCE from
Mexico to create the Fredonian Republic.
 They take control of the OLD STONE FORT as their
capital.
 Angers SFA and Mexican Lt. Ahumada who send militias
to attack.
 When word reaches the Edwards brothers, the flee to
Louisiana, and the Cherokee leaders are killed for
their involvement.
An Attempt to Purchase Texas
 Mexico’s fears of settlers arriving from
the U.S. w/secret ties increases w/the
population.
 President John Quincy Adams is hoping
to gain voter support by seeking
westward expansion opportunities.
 He sends Joel R. Poinsett with an offer
to purchase Texas for one million
dollars.
 Poinsett runs his mouth and Mexico
refuses the offer---no deal made.
Political Cartoon Analysis
Political cartoons are, just as the
name implies, editorials in
picture form. The cartoonist is
expressing an opinion on an
issue of controversy, blending
fact with opinion. The drawings
grab the reader‘s attention,
often in a humorous way, and
are designed to spark a reaction.
Cartoon Features
 CARICATURE — distorting a person‘s features, but still keeping that
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person recognizable. Cartoonists draw George W. Bush with a long nose,
close set eyes, and curly hair, frequently showing him wearing a cowboy hat.
STEREOTYPING – showing all persons of one group (religious, racial,
national, occupational, etc.) as looking or acting the same. Teachers are often
shown in cartoons wearing glasses down on the nose with their hair in a bun,
held by a pencil.
SYMBOLS – using a sign or object to stand for something else. Uncle Sam,
an eagle, or the Stars and Stripes stand for the United States. The political
parties are represented by a Democratic Donkey and a Republican Elephant.
A bear depicts Russia, and the lion is used to signify Great Britain.
SATIRE – pointing out something wrong and ridiculing it. Almost every
cartoon is a satire.
LABELS – using written words to identify figures in a cartoon.
EXAGGERATION – overemphasizing a situation or portraying it as “bigger
than life.‖ A cartoonist might show a problem as a bottomless pit.
Mexico’s Fears are Confirmed
 The Anglo population continued
to increase day after day.
 The Edwards brothers, even
though they were unsuccessful,
had declared some form of
independence during their
rebellion.
 The U.S. was now asking to
purchase Texas.
 Borders were not exactly very
secure near the Sabine River and
the north.
Mier y Teran Report
• The Mexican government wanted to know what the
heck was going on in Texas so the sent General
Mier y Teran to investigate.
• Teran told the Mexican government that Texans
outnumbered Mexicans in East Texas by 10 to 1.
• Worried about the growing American influence in
Texas & settlers ignoring trade laws.
• He also told the government that if they didn’t do
something that “Texas could throw the
whole nation into revolution.”
• 1829 – Slavery is abolished to deter immigration.
Pre-AP – RAFT Summary
ROLE
Anglo Settler
AUDIENCE
Ayuntamiento
FORMAT
Diary/Journal
entry
Mexican Official
Cherokee
Alcalde
Crowd of Anglo
settlers
Newspaper story
Public poster or
flyer
Stephen F. Austin
Crowd of Tejano
settlers
Newspaper
readers
Local militia
Letter
Tejano Settler
Settler on their
way to Texas
Mier y Teran
Eyewitness
account
Political cartoon
Cherokee leaders Dialogue/
conversation
TIME
Mexico or
Coahuila y
Tejas
1828
On Level – 3-2-1 Summary
3
2
1
recommendations
Teran gave the
Mexican gov’t
things that he
exaggerated
way the Anglos
might have reacted
to this report
JUMP START
 Have out your journal and outlines.
North Ridge News
Dear Parents and Students:
The following directives from Central Office are effective immediately.
1. Girl’s athletics will no longer be offered beginning in January.
2. Only blue folders and binders will be accepted at Birdville I.S.D.
3. The addition of 15 extra instructional days will be added to the
school year beginning in June.
4. Children will not be admitted to the snack bar line, only teachers.
5. Hall behavior- students will no longer be allowed to talk in the
hall between classes.
6. All students will be required to wear school uniforms beginning
in January.
Please direct any questions to the administration office at (817) 547-5200.
Analyzing the Law of April 6th
 Pre-AP – Work in your groups to rewrite your
assigned article in 7th grade “friendly” language.
Rewrite your interpretation in the box titled,
“Say What?” We will work on the final column
together.
 On-Level – Read the details on your paper in
your groups and decide what you think the big
deal was. Then we will discuss and see if you were
correct.
The Law of April 6th, 1830
 It was an effort to control Texas colonists, especially Anglo
Americans.
 The law alarmed Anglo Texans as they feared their economy
and family connections in the U.S. would suffer.
 It raised political questions as the Constitution of 1824 made
these state issues, not the national government.
 Even Mexicans in the area felt that the national government
had gone too far!
JUMP START – Compare/Contrast
Rules
of
North
Ridge
Law
of
April
th
6 , 1830
Let’s Review…
 He was often called the Napoleon of the West.
 Santa Anna joined the army at 15.
 He believed U.S. settlers were rebels and threats to national
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security w/no business in Mexico.
He often sent others to do his dirty work.
He owned a sword worth $7,000.
He lost the Battle of San Jacinto while he was taking a nap.
When he fled, he was ratted out by his own men following his
orders to bow.
He was sent to New York City and introduced chewing gum to the
U.S.
At 50, he marred 15 year old Delores de Tosta.
The Aftermath of the Law of April 6th
 The Law of April 6th was the turning point between Anglos
and the Mexican Government.
 President Anastasio Bustamente had ignored the Constitution
of 1824 by creating a strong national government and an
unstable environment.
 The troops now in Texas were watching their every move
and collecting custom duties (taxes). It became too much
for the settlers.
 And along came….Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
 Rose to power playing both sides
of the government & using
manipulation/good looks (role of
general)
 Posed as an opponent of the
centralists in 1832 to gain loyalty
from Anglo & Tejano settlers in
revolution
 Once SFA pledged their loyalty,
Santa Anna went about seeking all
power centralized in himself—
dictatorship & ignored the
Constitution of 1824
Pre-AP –Santa Anna Body Biography
 Head-interpretation of thoughts, ideas, and dreams the person
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might have
Mouth-examples of quotes this person did or might have said
Legs and Arms -examples of work/deeds accomplished by the
person
Heart-examples of family and close personal relationships that
influenced the person
Spine-examples of the personality or character traits of the
person (this is what drives the person to behave in a certain
manner)
Feet-two reasons this person is significant in history
On-Level – Santa Anna Biopoem
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Name of person:________________________________________
Four character traits of person:________________________
Position/job: ___________________________________
Who longs for_____________________________________
Who feels ________________________________________
Who needs ________________________________________
Who fears _________________________________________
Who would like to see ________________________________
Resident of ________________________________________
Synonym: _________________________________________
JUMP START
 If you are Stephen F. Austin, how do you calm the fears and
anxieties of your colonists during this time in Texas? What
speech would you give?
Conflict at Galveston
 George Fisher became an empresario settling the former
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Edwards’ land claims.
Supposed to collect custom duties and stop smuggling in the
areas.
Issued orders that said ships must report to the Brazos River
which smugglers ignored.
A tense debate erupts among shippers and results in his
removal.
When reappointed, he demands all ships pass through
Anahuac on Galveston Bay which many thought was unfair.
Bradburn Increases Tensions
 Colonel John Davis Bradburn, supporter of the Centralists,
is directed to enforce laws that Mexican officials had long
overlooked.
 Angers settlers when he arrests, Madero over the issue of
land titles that Bradburn thought violated the Law of April
6th.
 He dismantled Liberty, a settlement that Madero had
colonized.
 Then he forced settlers to provide free materials, labor, and
slaves to construct a new fort at Anahuac.
Disturbance at Anahuac
 William T. Logan arrives at Anahuac from the U.S. looking
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for his 2 runaway slaves.
Bradburn refuses to give them up w/out papers.
Logan hires William B. Travis as his attorney, who tries to
trick Bradburn with a note about Logan and armed men.
Travis and his assistant, Patrick Jack, are arrested.
Settlers protest and Bradburn agrees if they promise to back
down.
They do, but Bradburn fails to keep his promise and finds
more troops.
Turtle Bayou Resolutions
 Settlers still angry with Bradburn camped out near Turtle
Bayou and sent John Austin for a cannon.
 While they wait, they draft a statement to Mexico pledging:
continued loyalty to Mexico and support for the
Constitution of 1824 and Santa Anna.
 After an investigation, Travis and Jack are released and
Bradburn is quietly removed from his duties.
Battle of Velasco
 John Austin is fighting his way back with the cannon aboard a
ship on the Brazos River.
 When they reached Velasco, Colonel Ugartechea refuses to
let them pass.
 Fighting breaks out and results in the 1st armed conflict
between Texas and Mexico. (10 Texans to 5 Mexicans)
 Mexican forces surrender after they run out of
ammunition.
JUMP START
You are a colonist that is unhappy
with changes in the Mexican
government.Your leader, Stephen
F. Austin has been arrested and
accused of treason as well.You
want to let the Mexican leaders
know how you feel but you don’t
want to appear as a rebel.You
decide to write a letter, but what
do you include?
The Convention of
1832
 Texans are pleased with early victories but still unhappy with
the government.
 Delegates are sent to San Felipe in October of 1832 to draft a
new set of resolutions.
 Austin is elected president of the convention and they
pledge support for Mexico and the Constitution of 1824.
 They ask for the repeal of the Law of April 6th, better
protection from the Natives, public schools, and a separate
state.
The Convention of
1833
 After the first convention, Austin is sent to San Antonio to
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gather support.
Mexican officials there refuse to send the Texans’ requests.
There was NO right to petition either.
While Austin is away, delegates call another meeting in April
of 1833.
William Wharton is the leader and the delegates draft the
same requests as they had in 1832.
There was one EXCEPTION this time…they drafted a
constitution for the new Mexican state of Texas.
Austin in Mexico
 In April 1833, Austin arrives in Mexico
City as a cholera epidemic is sweeping
through the city as well as a revolution.
 Austin’s meeting with Santa Anna is
delayed because Santa Anna did not
want to be in the city while so many
people were dying of cholera.
 Austin gets frustrated (he had been
waiting for 3 months) and writes a
letter to the delegates in San Antonio
telling them to go ahead and establish
their own government.
 In November, Santa Anna finally meets
with Austin and agrees to some of the
resolutions… but will not grant
statehood.
Austin’s Arrest
 Austin leaves Mexico in December of 1833,
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but was arrested when he reached Saltillo.
His previous letter was intercepted and
viewed as a challenge to Mexican authority.
He was accused of treason, but never
formally charged or tried in court.
He was imprisoned in Mexico City and
placed in solitary confinement for most of
his time there.
He would remain in prison until December
of 1834, then house arrest, and finally
returned home in the summer of 1835.
JUMP START
 Welcome back! 
 Copy your agenda for this week in your planners!
 In your journal, define the word UNREST. Make
a list of examples, either historical or current,
that personify, or bring to life, this definition.
 Example:The U.S. is in a state of unrest after the most
recent presidential election.
Mexican Troops Return to Texas
 Santa Anna is now dictator after dismissing the Mexican
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Congress and writing a new constitution that gave him sole
power.
People across Mexico are angry.
General Cos (Santa Anna’s brother-in-law) is sent to stop
any rebellions.
Anahuac is in chaos AGAIN!
Travis is chosen leader.
War & Peace Parties
 Settlers are divided and torn over what to do about Santa
Anna.
 The War Party believes that fighting, or armed resistance,
and immediate independence should be the only option.
 The Peace Party is favoring a wait-and-see policy.
 These groups were FACTIONS, but not yet political parties.
Centralist Reaction
 Tenorio is demanding the arrest of Travis and Lorenzo de
Zavala when Austin returns.
 Stephen F. Austin says war is our only option after a change
of heart during his prison stay.
“War is our only recourse.There is no
other remedy.We must defend our rights,
ourselves, and our country by force of
arms.”
The Battle of Gonzales
 General Cos is reminded that the citizens of Gonzales have a
cannon that was given to the DeWitt colony for defense
against the natives.
 His decision to retrieve it with the Mexican army results in
the 1st armed conflict of the Texas Revolution.
 Texans shoot first and Mexicans retreat to San Antonio.
 The battle showed that Texans were becoming more defiant
and more willing to use military force if necessary.
Army of the People
 The Battle of Goliad was a huge confidence boost.
It convinced Texans that the Mexican army could be
defeated easily.
2. The Texans’ control of Goliad would cut off a major supply
route for the army as well.
 The Army of the People organizes quickly and grows 600+
people with Stephen F. Austin chosen as leader.
 The group fought to seize control of San Antonio.
1.
The Consultation
 The War Party wants independence.
 Peace Party wants to remain loyal to Mexico but fight for
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the Constitution of 1824.
The vote results (33 to 15) in a Peace Party win, but the
group does decide to write a declaration.
They also establish a provisional (temporary) government
with Henry Smith as governor.
SFA is sent to the U.S. on a mission to raise troops and
money for their cause.
Sam Houston becomes the overall military commander.
The Attack on San Antonio
 The month long siege of San Antonio continues with some
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having to return home to their families.
“Grass Fight” – humiliates Texas
Texans learn that Cos is dangerously low on supplies.
Dec. 5th – Led by “Old” Ben Milam, Texans attack and battle
for the city for 5 days.
Two free African Americans, Greenbury Logan and Hendrick
Arnold, help in the fight.
Cos surrenders, turns over supplies, and vows loyalty to
Constitution of 1824.
“Unrest-O-Meter” Group Activity
 Work in your groups to review each event leading up to the
Revolution.You can use your outline or the summary
provided.
 Decide how much unrest this event actually created in Texas
during this time. Use a 9 point scale, with 1 meaning little
unrest and 9 meaning maximum unrest. Shade in the meter
accordingly.
 Explain your reasoning under the “Rationale” column.
 Review the rubric for how you will be assessed.

Road to Revolution