Pan-Slavism Courtney Kyritz, Sarah Colon, Claire Walker What was the Pan-Slavic Movement? Major Contributors to Pan-Slavism Which Flag Is Which?? • AUSTRIA Hungary • Russia Ottoman Austria’s tie with Slavic Ethnicities • Austria’s relationship with Russia grew with tension, as they (Austria) began to look the weaker of the two countries • Slavism in Austria acted as a political movement • 1867- Austria-Hungary (Austria Hungary compromise) Hungary’s tie with Pan-Slavism • A few years after the Pan-Slavism congress Austria unified with Hungary in 1867 • Feelings of enmity grew between AustriaHungary and Russia • Hungary was made up of two foundational groups: Hungarian Nationalist, and Slavic Minorities Russia’s tie with Pan-Slavism • In the 1860’s the movement became particularly popular in Russia • Pan-Slav’s sought leadership and protection • This peaked a rivalry between Russia and Austria regarding power • It was Russia’s mission to rejuvenate Europe • Russian government did not really support this view, it was strongly headed by the Slav’s themselves Ottomans tie with Pan-Slavism • Southern Slav’s were some of the first to revolt against the decaying Ottoman Empire • After Serb revolts in 1806 and later in 1815, the Serbs regaining power • Serbs began seeking power over all Southern Slav’s not under Serbian rule German Unification and Homogenization (1871) • Occurred at the Versailles Palace in France • Germany became a politically and administratively unified nation state after the Franco-Prussian War (German Victory) Congress of the Slav’s in Prague 1848 • Meant as a manifestation of power, and unity amongst the Slav’s • The idea of congress originated from Kukuljeck Sakginiski in April 1848 • 340 Delegates arrived at the first meeting as well as 500 official guests, all split into three sections (Czechs and Slovak's, Poles and Russians/Silesians, and Southern Slav’s) • Vagueness of the agenda proved a major discontentment early on • The congress revealed political divisions among the Slav’s and in the end brought much disappointment to the group Second Italian War of Independence • Failure of First Italian War of Independence ▫ Austria still dominates Italy • Cavour allies with France against Austria • Garibaldi joins under Cavour’s leadership • March 17, 1861 Kingdom of Italy was ruled under Piedmont’s central government • 1866 Austrian controlled Venetia became an ally of the Prussians in the Austro-Prussian War • 1870 Franco-Prussian War Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary • Austria tightened its grip after failed Hungarian revolutions of 1848-1849 • Loss of Italian War in 1859 leads Austria to create a new Parliament called the Reichsrat • Disaster of Austro-Prussian War led to the Ausgleich of 1867 Dual Monarchy continued • Overall alienation of Slavic groups • Austrians actually more lenient towards ethnic minorities • Hungarians had a uniform Magyar culture • 1907 Austria granted universal male suffrage ▫ Revival of Pan-Slavism Russia-Poland Conflict • Russian loss in Crimean War • 1861 Protests begin in PolishLithuanian territories • 1863 the January Uprising begins ▫ Prussians side with Russia • 1864 Uprising crushed by Russians ▫ Poland punished The Conflicts In the Balkans-Austrian Perspectives • Austria did not care about the Balkans initially, and preferred a weak Ottoman Empire ▫ Ruling Germans feel no ethnic ties to the Slavs ▫ Economic wealth concentrated in Italy and Bohemia, not Balkans ▫ Magyars fear the annexation of more Slavic lands Russo-Turkish War 1877-8 • Serbians declare independence in 1835, but Ottomans don’t leave • View themselves as leaders of the Yugoslavs • In the 1870s unrest, mainly due to religion, mount ▫ Revolts in Herzegovina (1875) and Bulgaria (1876) • April 1877 Russia declares war on Turkey Russo-Turkish War 1877-78 • Romania supports Russia • Siege of Pleven 1877-Russian success • Great Britain & other great powers fear Russian influence • Treaty of San Stefano signed when Russia fears interference of Great Britain • Treaty of San Stefano: ▫ Huge success for pan-Slavism ▫ Serbia, Romania, Montenegro completely independent ▫ Bosnia & Herzegovina and Bulgaria become principalities Congress of Berlin 1878 • Great Powers dislike Treaty of San Stefano • Congress called by AustriaHungary, dominated by Bismarck • Treaty of Berlin Replaces Treaty of San Stefano ▫ Limit Bulgarian autonomy ▫ Bosnia-Herzegovina controlled by Austria-Hungary ▫ Ottoman Empire shrinks ▫ Great Britain satisfied Pan-Slavism Post Congress of Berlin • In Austria Hungary: nationalities set against each other in order to stop Slavic unification-Iron Ring • Austrian relations with Balkans improved in 1880s • Three Emperors’ League (1873-1878) and Three Emperors’ Alliance (1881-87) • Unrest in Austria-Hungary during 1890s and early 20th century • Russia lost interest in Balkans and focused on East Asia • Serbian and Austrian relations deteriorate culminating in the start of WWI Religion & Pan-Slavism • Christian; majority are Orthodox (Yugoslavs & Russians), minority Catholic (Those associated with Austria-Hungary) • Conflicts with Ottoman Empire often rooted in religious differences DBQ • Identify and analyze the political and cultural issues in the debate over Pan-Slavism Political Issues: •Group of Slavic people want to establish a unified Slavic nation •Austrian Empire fears Slavic nationalism in Austria as they connect it to Russia’s hatred of them due to their failure to ally with Russia in the Crimean War •Most Empires are worried about the effect of a Pan-Slavic nation on their industry and political power (they would lose territory and population) Cultural Issues: •Slavic people feel a loss of identity and culture living in an oppressed country with rulers who are foreign to them •However, a large group of Slavic people are opposed to a Pan-Slavic nation as they believe that it is impossible to melt all of the different Slavic ethnicities into one culture Groupings • Documents 4,7,9 explore the idea that PanSlavism can never really exist • Documents 3,4,7 are views of Pan-Slavism from Slavs • 1,2,5,12 Pan-Slavism and its relation to Austria • 10,13,14 Russian Perspectives on Pan-Slavism Point of Views • Doc 3 “Among the Slavs nationality comes after humanity. Scattered Slavs, let us be a unified whole, and no longer mere fragments. Let us be all or nothing. Who are you, a Russian? And you, a Serb? And you, a Czech? And you, a Pole? My children seek unity! Say: I am a Slav!” –Jan Kollar, early advocate of Pan-Slavism • Impassioned, a call to arms, embodies the efforts of the Slavs in Italy, Austria, Russia, Ottoman Empire, etc • Doc 1- No key and no concentrations listed-questionable • Doc 13- Tsar Nicholas using exaggeration to gain support Works Cited • "Austro-Hungarian Empire, 1914." Gale World History in Context. Detroit: Gale, 1914.World History In Context. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. • "Congress of Berlin (European History)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/62090/Congress-of-Berlin>. • "The Great Powers and the "Eastern Question"" The Great Powers and the "Eastern Question" N.p., 11 June 2009. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <http://staff.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect10.htm>. • "History of The Balkans." History World. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <http://www.historyworld.net>. • "Russo-Turkish Wars." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/514064/RussoTurkish-wars>. • Showalter, Dennis. "Franco-Austrian War." Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire. Ed. John Merriman and Jay Winter. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006. 866-867. World History In Context. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. • Weeks, Theodore R. "Poland." Encyclopedia of Russian History. Ed. James R. Millar. Vol. 3. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 1192-1196. World History In Context. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.