The Great War 1914-1918

Chapter 13
Chapter 13 Section 1
 The Rise of Nationalism
 A sense of nationalism (and
rivalry) among Europe’s greatest
powers: Germany, A-H, GB,
Russia, Italy, and France
 Causes?
 Competition for _______ and
 Territorial disputes
 Imperialism and Militarism
 Rivalry and mistrust over colonies
 The race for military
greatness…militarism’s effects?
 The alliance system was originally designed to do what?
 Bismarck Forges Early Pacts
 Bismarck declares Germany satisfied, but what is he
worried about?
 Formation of the Triple Alliance: Germany, A-H, Italy, and
 Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace
 Kaiser Wilhelm II takes control of Germany, result?
 What’s wrong with a two front war?
 The Triple Entente is formed as a reaction to increased
shipbuilding in Germany…GB+FR+Russia. kind of
 A Restless Region
 Many nations had formed in
the Balkans after freeing
themselves from who?
 Russia supports Serbia’s
independence, Austria does
 Austria then annexes
B+H…Serbians vow to take
away Bosnia while Austria was
prepared to defend it and its
authority in the Balkans
 A Shot Rings Throughout
 The ___________Archduke
Franz Ferdinand and his wife
Sophie are shot in Sarajevo,
Bosnia by Gavrilo Princip a
Serbian nationalist and member
of the Black Hand
 Austria attempts to punish
Serbia, result?
 Austria does not wish to
negotiate and declares war on
Serbia…Russia mobilizes
 Europe encourages negotiations
but it was too late
How do imperialism and militarism work together to
promote war?
2. How could a dispute between the Triple Alliance and
the Triple Entente draw all of Europe into the
Honors Only
3. What act by Austria-Hungary set the world on the
path to war? Why?
Chapter 13 Section 2
 As an ally of Serbia, Russia
mobilizes for war. Germany’s
 Nations Take Sides
 Central Powers-Germany
and A-H
 Allied Powers-GB, France,
and Russia (Japan and Italy
 General feelings at the
beginning of the war?
 The Conflict Grinds Along
 Germany faces a war on two
fronts and develops the
_________ Plan which called for
a quick victory in France and
then movement to Russia
 First Battle of the Marne?
 More troops in France,
stalemate in Russia
 War in the Trenches
 Trench warfare, digging
elongated holes in the ground
to fight enemy forces
“No man’s land” was where the
actual fighting took place
North Sea to the Swiss border
What was wrong with the new
At Verdun the Germans gained
about ____ miles and in the
Somme Valley the British
gained about ____ miles
American soldiers engaged in trench warfare.
 Early Fighting
 Russia attacks both Austria
and Germany…crushed by
Germany in Tannenberg and
eventually pushed out of
 Russia Struggles
 What supplies was Russia
continually short on? Why?
 Germany limits supply
 Russia’s size proved to be a
pain for the Germans, why?
Why was the Schlieffen Plan ultimately a failure for
the Germans?
2. How did Russia’s industrialization affect its war
Honors Only
3. Why was the Battle of the Marne such a significant
event in WWI history? What may have happened if the
Germans had won?
Chapter 13 Section 3
 How would both powers try
and end the stalemate?
 The Gallipoli Campaign
 The _______ decide to take
the region known as the
Dardanelles for strategic
 Allied troops attack the
Gallipoli Peninsula, Turks
defend the land lead by
________ officers
 How does the campaign in
Gallipoli in the end?
 Battles in Africa and Asia
 The Allies not only capture German colonies
but also recruited who to fight against the
Central Powers?
 Natives reacted in one of 2 ways:
 Wanted nothing to do with the war
 Helped in the war effort in hopes of
someday achieving ___________.
 America Joins the Fight
 German unrestricted submarine
warfare calls for any ship in the waters
around __________ to be sunk without
 Germany sinks the Lusitania, taking
American lives…Germany’s response?
 America Joins the Fight
 Germany takes back their
promise and once again
begins attacking ships
 Zimmerman note pushes
America into the war on the
side of the _________, why?
 Americans join the war after
Europeans had already been fighting
for ____ years.
 Government Wages Total War
 The gov’t in European countries takes
control of the economy, what does this
mean for business owners?
 Rationing results in only a small
amount of goods being available for
 Women and the War
 Women replaced men in ______,
shops, offices, and there were even
nurses on the front lines
 How were views of women changed?
 Russia Withdraws
 Russia refuses to fight by 1917 due to
shortages in ______ and ______.
 Political unrest leads to revolution in
Russia, putting Vladimir Lenin in
power and the signing of a truce with
Germany (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk)
 The Central Powers Collapse
 Why did Russian withdrawal seem like
a sure German victory?
 The arrival of U.S. troops lead to the
defeat of the Germans at the Second
Battle of the ________.
 After Kaiser Wilhelm I steps down,
Germany becomes a __________ and
an armistice is signed to end the
 How was the Great War
different than wars in the past?
 8.5 million killed, 21 million
 War destroys families,
economies, villages, and
 How did the post-war
settlement effect Europe in the
Why did wartime governments in Europe take
control of their countries’ economies?
2. How did total war lead to the idea of rationing?
Honors Only
3. What effect did the Russian Revolution have on
Russia’s role in WWI? What may have happened if the
revolution never occurred?
Chapter 13 Section 4
The Big Four at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.
 The Big Four:
 Woodrow Wilson (U.S.)
 Georges Clemenceau (France)
 David Lloyd George (GB)
 Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
 Who was not represented at the
meeting in Versailles?
 Wilson’s Plan for Peace
 The Fourteen Points outline a
plan for achieving _______
 Self-determination was the
guiding principle behind the
“In the speech, Wilson directly addressed what he perceived as
the causes for the world war by calling for the abolition of
secret treaties, a reduction in armaments, an adjustment in
colonial claims in the interests of both native peoples and
colonists, and freedom of the seas. Wilson also made proposals
that would ensure world peace in the future. For example, he
proposed the removal of economic barriers between nations,
the promise of “self-determination” for those oppressed
minorities, and a world organization that would provide a
system of collective security for all nations. Wilson’s 14 Points
were designed to undermine the Central Powers’ will to
continue and to inspire the Allies to victory. The 14 Points were
broadcast throughout the world and were showered from
rockets and shells behind the enemy’s lines.”
 The Versailles Treaty
 Signed June 28th 1919 and
created the _________ of
__________, an international
association aimed at keeping
peace among nations
 What did the treaty mean for
 Territories in Africa and the
Pacific turn into mandates
 Restrictions placed on military
 war guilt clause
The Hall of Mirrors at Versailles
 The Creation of New Nations
 The Allies sign treaties with the
other Central Powers, resulting
in the creation of which
European countries?
 The Ottoman Turks lost almost
all of their land except?
 Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania all become
independent nations
 What feelings did the treaties
 “A Peace Built on Quicksand”
 U.S. rejects the Treaty of
Versailles, believing that
staying out of European affairs
was the best hope for peace
 Was the concept of selfdetermination really used by
the winners of the Great War?
 The Treaty of Versailles failed
in so many ways, ultimately
leading to what?
Why didn’t Russia take
part in the peace
negotiations following
the war?
2. How did the situation in
African and Asian
colonies compare before
and after the war?
Honors Only
3. How might selfdetermination in the Balkans
have prevented the outbreak
of WWI?
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