Nationalism ppt

 Nationalism
Challenges Conservative
 Greeks-
1st to win self-rule
• Former part of Ottoman Empire (which was
crumbling at this time, but not fully until 1918)
 Cause
of Greek independence was
popular throughout Europe
 Major powers such as
Britain/Russia/France recognize an
independent Greece in 1830.
 There were ethnic uprisings in:
• France
• Prussia (Germany, Austria)
• Italy
• Greece
• Poland
• Hungary
 But revolutionaries failed to unite
nations, so they actually took a step
 1800’s
still under feudalism- no
 Due to old ways, Russia was falling
behind other European countries
 Alexander II- freed serfs, 1861
 Nationalism encouraged
industrialism, and also ethic
groups wanting their own nations.
 Austria-
lost the Austro-Prussian war in
1866; split Austria and Hungary into
independent states= Austro-Hungarian
 Russia- Russification- forced culture on all
ethic groups
 Ottoman- Turks felt
superior to other ethnic
groups; genocide against
Armenians 1894-1896; 1915
 1830-
King wants absolute power
 Revolt of people
 Liberal King replaces old one
 A Paris mob overthrows gov’t
replaces it with a representative
government- it falls apart
 Call for a president
 Louis-Napoleon III elected
president- Nephew of Napoleon
• Four years later- becomes emperor
• Good leader
 Camillo
Cavour – Prime minister of
• Allied with Napoleon III, brought revolution and
unity in N. Italy
 Giuseppe
Garibaldi – unified S. Italy
 Cavour invaded Papal states, so S. voted
to unite w/Cavour and N. Italy
 National unification of Italy,
but still culturally, economically
 Capital = Rome
 German
Confederation – loose union of
German states; Prussia – largest; Austria –
head of confederation
 Otto von Bismarck- Prussia’s
Prime Minister
• Realpolitik – seek advantage for
nation-state by any means,
including war and breaking
• Wanted to go to war to unify
• Germany under Prussian rule
• 7 Weeks War – Bismarck & Prussia
against Austria.
 Treaty ending the war set up a united
Germany under Prussian control
• Franco-Prussian War – Napoleon III declared
war on Prussia.
• Southern German states (not yet united w/the
rest of Germany) sided w/Prussia because
disliked France. Defeated France and all
German states now unified
• Following Franco-Prussian War all
German States unified.
• Germany now an Empire w/Kaiser
William I emperor
 Made
laws against Catholics, only served
to strengthen Catholic influence in
 Strengthened Industry
 Tried to crush opposition parties
 Bismarck’s policies left Germany strong,
but w/o parliamentary democracy. When
William I died, his son succeeded him
(William II) and dismissed Bismarck
of Power- Undone
• Britain, France, Austria, Prussia and Russia no
longer equal
• Britain and Prussia = strongest
• France = middle
• Austria and Russia = weak
 1. Which
aging empires suffered from the
forces of nationalism?
 2. What advantages did Prussia have in
leading the German states to unity?
 3. How can nationalism be both a unifying
and a disunifying force?