Nationalism Challenges Conservative Power Greeks- 1st to win self-rule • Former part of Ottoman Empire (which was crumbling at this time, but not fully until 1918) Cause of Greek independence was popular throughout Europe Major powers such as Britain/Russia/France recognize an independent Greece in 1830. There were ethnic uprisings in: • France • Prussia (Germany, Austria) • Italy • Greece • Poland • Hungary But revolutionaries failed to unite the nations, so they actually took a step backwards. 1800’s still under feudalism- no industrialization Due to old ways, Russia was falling behind other European countries Alexander II- freed serfs, 1861 Nationalism encouraged industrialism, and also ethic groups wanting their own nations. Austria- lost the Austro-Prussian war in 1866; split Austria and Hungary into independent states= Austro-Hungarian Empire Russia- Russification- forced culture on all ethic groups Ottoman- Turks felt superior to other ethnic groups; genocide against Armenians 1894-1896; 1915 1830- King wants absolute power Revolt of people Liberal King replaces old one A Paris mob overthrows gov’t replaces it with a representative government- it falls apart Call for a president Louis-Napoleon III elected president- Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. • Four years later- becomes emperor • Good leader Camillo Sardinia Cavour – Prime minister of • Allied with Napoleon III, brought revolution and unity in N. Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi – unified S. Italy Cavour invaded Papal states, so S. voted to unite w/Cavour and N. Italy National unification of Italy, but still culturally, economically divided Capital = Rome German Confederation – loose union of German states; Prussia – largest; Austria – head of confederation Otto von Bismarck- Prussia’s Prime Minister • Realpolitik – seek advantage for nation-state by any means, including war and breaking treaties • Wanted to go to war to unify • Germany under Prussian rule • 7 Weeks War – Bismarck & Prussia against Austria. Treaty ending the war set up a united Germany under Prussian control • Franco-Prussian War – Napoleon III declared war on Prussia. • Southern German states (not yet united w/the rest of Germany) sided w/Prussia because disliked France. Defeated France and all German states now unified • Following Franco-Prussian War all German States unified. • Germany now an Empire w/Kaiser William I emperor Made laws against Catholics, only served to strengthen Catholic influence in Germany Strengthened Industry Tried to crush opposition parties Bismarck’s policies left Germany strong, but w/o parliamentary democracy. When William I died, his son succeeded him (William II) and dismissed Bismarck (1890) Balance of Power- Undone • Britain, France, Austria, Prussia and Russia no longer equal • Britain and Prussia = strongest • France = middle • Austria and Russia = weak 1. Which aging empires suffered from the forces of nationalism? 2. What advantages did Prussia have in leading the German states to unity? 3. How can nationalism be both a unifying and a disunifying force?