PowerPoint Presentation - Everett Public Schools

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Native American Culture
in the 1800’s
Introduction
 The plight of the Native Americans in North
America since the arrival of the European
people has been a tragic story.
 The various tribes who had lived for thousands of years in their
native lands were conquered and forced to relocate hundreds of
times to lands that they were unfamiliar with.
 Eventually, when these people were pushed from the Atlantic Coast
to the Pacific Coast, there was very little land left.
 These once proud tribes of people were forced to live out their
existence on reservation lands.
 How do we as the people of the United States now look back into our
history and make sense of what our ancestors did?
 Can your awareness make things right or can your knowledge and
understanding help to prevent another attempted genocide in the
future as you are faced with choices of how you interact with people
of a different race?
European Invasion
 Once the first ship landed in North America and
returned, word spread quickly about the
abundance of natural resource and easy wealth
 The King, various companies, investors along with
the multitude of opportunists found their way into
North America.
 As we recall the European brought with them a
new technology reflected in power and weapons.
 They brought with them an arrogant imperialistic attitude that all they could
see was theirs by Divine Nature.
 They were cunning, they were aggressive and they held to this idea of of
borders or boundaries. They had to be able to draw a line around what was
their theirs. They had difficulty sharing.
 They also brought with them a naive sense of the impact of disease and
immunities. The native people became sick and died for an ecological and
bacterial reasons, not by Divine Intervention.
Jamestown: A Case in Point
The mystery of Jamestown is why they were able to
prevail over the forces of the Powhatan tribe.
 Although Jamestown was nearly defenseless, the
Powhatan didn't attack.
 For the first year or two of the colony's existence, the
natives and the colonists co existed
 The Powhatan leaders just ignored their presence.
 The attitude was that these strange people were not
equipped to survive in the harsh environment. and that
they .
 Clearly the Indians were more numerous and
understood the land. There was no immediate threat
for confrontation.
Jamestown: A Case in Point
 This passive approach of the Powhatan was
their ultimate demise.
 Unfortunately, it can been seen as the demise
of the entire Native American nation.
 It was the Native American belief that these
European foreigners were going to selfdestruct. They could not survive!
 Year after year, many European died, which caused the Native Americans
to believe that these people did not know how to survive in America.
 Yet through persistence, shiploads of new people just kept coming.
.
 The Native American leaders did not understand the implications of the
dense population in Europe.
 New colonists would keep coming, no matter how many died.
 By the time the Native American realized this it was too late.
Colonial Aggression
 As the European people came across the Atlantic in
droves, the Native Americans who held to a different
perspective of the earth and sharing allowed
themselves to continually resettle west of the
European frontier.
 These people were not passive and did not resettle
without conflict.
 There were several well known battles and attacks on the European
communities.
 However, in all situations the Europeans overwhelmed the Native American
Tribes by sheer force, numbers and weaponry and forced the Native people
farther west.
 Keep in mind that the history we have received, the history that was written
down is that of a European perspective.
 “We” were right in doing what we had to do! God gave us this land, we
conquered you, we will continue to conquer you, therefore you will live where
we tell you to live! This is now “our” land!
Colonial Aggression
 So, after each altercation the Indians
either died for their cause or moved.
 Overtime, these long standing tribes
started establishing alliances with
long standing tribal enemies just for
existence.
 The battles just became more intense and led to more death and more
treaties.
 Finally the Native American people realized their fate, that there was
another ocean to the far west. The opportunity to keep moving would not be
an option.
 Keep in mind that as tribes were forced to relocate farther west, there were
already tribes who had preexisted on these land.
 Compound the existing tribes, with the new tribes and the possibility of the
American people wanting all the land.
 How would this end?
The French and Indian War and
the Treaty of Paris 1783
 The French and Indian War was caused by the clash of
colonial aspirations between the imperial powers of Europe.
The war was fought for control of the North American
continent. Friction between local French and English
settlers for control of the land west of the Appalachian
Mountains helped start the war.
 The Treaty of Paris, formally ending the War. In the treaty,
the British cede all of their North American territories south
of Canada and east of the Mississippi River to the United
States. Former agreements between the British and the
Indian occupants of these territories ended. The United
States then claimed all Indian lands east of the Mississippi
River by right of conquest.
 The primary impact of the War was the establishment of English military and governmental
control in most of North America. The British victory in the War spread the English language
and cultural customs across the continent.
 The defeat of the French and their Indian allies meant the end of French cultural and
political influence in America. The French interacted more peacefully with the Indians. The
loss of French dominance paved the way for English-American westward expansion.
Treaty of New York 1790
 The Treaty of New York was the first treaty
between the United States and Native Americans
not held in Indian controlled lands
 Negotiated by Secretary of War Henry Knox and
Creek Chief Alexander McGillivray, the treaty aims
to place Creek-American relations on a more
positive footing than that established by the Treaty
of Paris.
 The Creek leaders ceded a significant portion of their hunting grounds to the
United States and agreed to turn runaway slaves over to federal authorities.
The Creek leaders clearly stated though that convincing their people to honor
the new boundary lines or return African American slaves would be difficult at
best.
 The United States also promises to provide the tools and livestock needed to
transform the hunting Creeks into farmers.
 There is also a secret arrangement to designate McGillivray an army officer
with an annual salary of $1200.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
 The Battle of Fallen Timbers was a decisive victory over the
Northwest Indian Confederation. This Battle ending two
decades of border warfare in the former Indian territory of
Ohio. Mad Anthony Wayne’s expedition of more than 1,000
soldiers represented the third U.S. attempt to stop the
resistance posed by the Northwest Confederation, comprising
the Miami, Potawatomi, Shawnee, Delaware, Ottawa,
Chippewa, Iroquois, and other tribes
 Encouraged by promises of British support, more than 2,000 warriors gathered on the
Maumee River in Ohio, awaiting a confrontation with the U.S. Army. Wayne directed his
well-trained troops against the Indians, who were gathered behind a protective tangle
of fallen trees. The army’s assault was successful, and the Indians broke in less than two
hours and fled.
 The Indians’ morale was shattered by failure to receive help from the British.
 The Battle of Fallen Timbers ended with the Treaty of Fort Greenville when the Chief
Little Turtle, ceded to the United States most of Ohio and parts of Indiana, Illinois, and
Michigan.
 The treaty led to greater westward movement and settlement of those areas.
 Within the next 25 years additional Indian lands north and west of the treaty line were
also ceded to the United States.
Cherokee Nation – 1800’s
Cherokee Delegation
Major Ridge and a delegation of Cherokee leaders travel to
Washington, D.C. to talk with President Jefferson. The Cherokee
delegation rejects government proposals to relocate west of the
Mississippi River but promises to continue on the path toward
"civilized life“.
Cherokee Constitution
The Cherokees adopt a national constitution completing a decade of political
development. Modeled after the United States Constitution, with three
branches of government and an abbreviated bill of rights.
Georgia Sovereignty Law
A bill is introduced to the Georgia state legislature asserting the sovereignty of state
government over all land and people within its geographical boundaries, including the
Cherokees.
Indian Removal Act
Congress passes the Indian Removal Act, authorizing the president to pursue
ownership of all Indian lands east of the Mississippi River. Under the act, the Indians
will be compensated with new lands drawn from the public domain west of the
Mississippi River
Trail of Tears
Treaty of Echota - Dec 29, 1835
A small group of about 500 Cherokees signs a second agreement with the
United States government agreeing to the sale of their lands and removal
west of the Mississippi River. The United States Senate ratifies this Treaty of
Echota on 18 May 1836.
Trail of Tears - Apr 5, 1838
The first party of Cherokees that had
resisted removal begins the march
westward to their new lands in
present-day Oklahoma along the
later-named Trail of Tears.
Sand Creek Massacre - Nov 29, 1864
US Cavalry led by Colonel John Chivington slaughter at least 150 Cheyenne and
Arapaho (largely women and children) in what becomes known as the "Sand
Creek Massacre" in Colorado Territory.
The Indian Wars
 In the mid 1800’s onward, there was
ongoing warfare between the various
Native American tribes and the
Westward adventures.
 Several bloody battles between the US
Calvary and the tribes were the results
 These Indian Wars were mainly fought in Texas, Arizona Territory, New
Mexico, Utah, Oregon, California, the Dakotas, and Washington.
 Forts providing protection for white migrants and a base for the U.S.
military included Fort Laramie, Fort Kearny, Fort Huachuca in Arizona;
Fort Sill in Oklahoma; Fort Smith in Arkansas; Fort Snelling in Minnesota;
Fort Union in Montana; Fort Worth in Texas; and Fort Walla Walla in
Washington.
 Conflicts occurred between white settlers and the Shoshone and Ute of
the Great Basin; Nez Perce of Idaho; Sioux, Arapaho, Crows, and Lakota
of the Northern Plains; Apache and Navajo of the Southwest; the
Comanches of Texas; and Cheyenne of the Great Plains.
Introduction
Custer's Last Stand - Jun 25, 1876
Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull lead an army of Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho
Indians to a massive victory over General George Custer and the Seventh US
Cavalry at the battle of Little Big Horn. Custer's force is part of an intended
three-pronged assault against the Indian coalition that has harassed miners
and homesteaders crossing their lands following the discovery of gold in the
Black Hills in 1874. Partially because he badly underestimates the size of the
Indian encampment along the Little Big Horn River, Custer chooses not to wait
for the other units led by Generals John Gibbon and George Crook before
launching his attack. Within hours, Custer and his entire detachment of 210
men are dead.
The Conflict Rages On
Murder of Sitting Bull - Dec 15, 1890
Sioux chief Sitting Bull is killed by Indian police
attempting to arrest him under orders from the
territorial Indian agent, who fears that the hero
of the Little Big Horn will unite Indians incited by
the Ghost Dance to launch a war against white
settlements and federal authority in the Dakota
Territory. In the aftermath, Sitting Bull's followers
flee the camp to seek protection under Chief Red
Cloud at the Pine Ridge Agency.
Wounded Knee Massacre - Dec 29, 1890
Having intercepted Sitting Bull's followers the previous
day, a battalion of the Seventh Cavalry opens fire on
the Sioux camp on the Wounded Knee Creek, killing
300 people—two-thirds of them women and children.
The "Wounded Knee Massacre" effectively marks the
end of armed Indian resistance to white western
expansion in the nineteenth century.
Has the Conflict Ended?
Have we resolved our Past?
“We were enslaved as
American Indians, we were
colonized as American
Indians, and when we gain
our freedom as American
Indians we will then decide
on what to call ourselves”!
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