Semester Exam
• Choose, from the following list a research
topic.
• You will create a 2-3 minute individual
presentation.
• Presentations will be on Tuesday 1/20 (?) and
Wednesday 1/21.
Plains Indians—guiding questions
1. What was the genesis & essence of the conflict
between Europeans/Americans and American
Indians?
2. What are the Periods of Federal Indian Policy?
– What are the short-term & long-term implications
of major Treaties, Battles, Policies, court cases and
Acts?
– What was/is the motivation for these Government
actions?
Plains Indians assessment questions—
3. What are the reasons & implications of
Poverty on many of Montana’s Reservations.
– What are some of the indicators, predictors and
costs of Poverty for all people?
4. What is the Legal Justification for the Cobell
Lawsuit?
-Do you interpret this ruling as supportive or not
supportive of traditional democratic ideals?
Assignment and Quiz tomorrow! 1/28
• Open Notes quiz over Notes and reading
• Reading: 105-109 Zinn.
• 
NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE AMERICAN/INDIAN/FIRST PEOPLE CULTURE AREAS
BLACKFEET
CURRENT BLACKFEET RESERVATION--USA
SIOUX—HORSE & BUFFALO CULTURE!
HORSE RACING
NATIVE PEOPLE AND FIRE
TRADITIONAL SIOUX TERRITORY—Minnesota and the Dakotas
CURRENT SIOUX RESERVATIONS IN YELLOW
CHEYENNE---WYOMING AND COLORADO
CHEYENNE
COMMANCHE—NORTH TEXAS
COMMANCHE—TRADITIONAL TERRITORY
COMMANCHE BISON HUNTING---GEORGE CATLIN
Common Theme?
• HORSE
• BUFFLO/BISON
• NOMADIC: for a reason
• Warfare…..
DOGS AND NATIVE PEOPLE—BEAST OF BURDEN, PROTECTION, TRANSPORTATION & FOOD
THE WOLF CAME IN TO SIT BY THE MANS FIRE---GENETIC DIVERSITY!
Its hard to believe, but Snigglet , Bob, Timber and Lucy share
almost identical DNA with a Wolf!
All we wanted was peace and
to be left alone. Soldiers came
and destroyed our villages.
Then Long Hair came... They
say we massacred him, but he
would have done the same to
us. Our first impulse was to
escape but we were so
hemmed in we had to fight.
MADISON BUFFALO JUMP!
PLAINS INDIANS—HORSE AND BUFFALO CULTURE
THE KEY TO PLAINS INDIAN SURVIVAL
ALCOHOL, GUNS, METAL, HORSE!
AGREEMENT OF 1851/FORT LARAMIE TREATY:
POLICY OF CONCENTRATION/DIVIDE AND CONQUER
FORT LARAMIE TREATY--1851
SIOUX MORALITY: RED ROAD OR
BLACK ROAD? YOU DECIDE….
At my death paint my body
with red paint and plunge it
into fresh water to be restored
back to life, otherwise my
bones will be turned into
stone and my joints into flint in
my grave, but my spirit will
rise.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2AZtIz5-ww
AMERICA
1854—THE
KANSAS
NEBRASKA
ACT:
*RAIL ROAD
*FARMING
*INDIANS
LOSE 18.5
MILLION
ACRES.
1859 COLORADO GOLD RUSH!
GOLD RUSH--
SAND CREEK MASSACRE/CHIVINGTON MASSACRE—1864:
GOLD AND THE CIVIL WAR
SAND CREEK---FEAR & FRUSTRATION FUELS THIS MASSACRE
SAND CREEK MASSACRE
MASSACRE PAINTING BY WITNESS, HOWLING WOLF--1864
Detail from The Sand Creek massacre, painted
on elk hide by
Northern Arapaho artist Eugene Ridgely
“THE BLOODY BOZEMAN”
“THE BLOODY
BOZEMAN”—PIONEER FEMALE WESTERN WRITER &
MISSOULA RESIDENT, DORTHY M. JOHNSON
SIOUX--CRAZY HORSE
??? Legend says he was Never
photographed—photo on left may
be C.H.
“he was a gentle warrior, a true brave,
who stood for the highest ideal of the
Sioux. Notwithstanding all that biased
historians have said of him, it is only fair
to judge a man by the estimate of his
own people rather than that of his
enemies.
Pencil
drawing of
CH
Periods or eras of federal Indian policy
• The Trade and Intercourse Era
• The Indian Intercourse Act of 1790 marked the
beginning of the Trade and Intercourse Era. This Act
established that no sales of Indian lands were to be
made between any persons or state(s) unless the sale
was authorized by the United States. The United States
federal government was then granted management of
trade and diplomatic relations that involved Indians
and their lands. The main goal of establishing the Trade
and Intercourse Act was to keep peace on the frontier
and avoid war with the Natives.
Eras continued
• Westward expansion and Indian relocation
• During the early 19th century as the eastern settlers of
the United States felt the desire to explore westward,
the natives were caught in the middle of things.
Eastern Indian tribes were forced out of their
homelands to barren areas that contained fruitless
soils, though they had a prosperous relationship
beforehand. The reason given to justify the Indian
removal stated by Thomas Jefferson was to "give them
a space to live undisturbed by white people as they
gradually adjust to civilized ways".
Eras…..
• Allotment and Assimilation Era (1887-1943)
• In 1887, the United States Congress passed the General
Allotment Act, which is considered one of the earliest
attempts aimed toward assimilation of native tribes.
This act intended to give natives a sense of land
ownership as well as integrate an agricultural lifestyle
with the tribes, much like that of the Americans and
Europeans. Under the General Allotment Act, tribal
lands were no longer under the control of tribal
governments; instead the land was under the control
of individual land owners.
Eras……
• Termination and relocation (1945-1960)
• Between the end of the Franklin D. Roosevelt era and
the beginning of the John F. Kennedy administration,
less traditional native Americans, congressional
leaders, and government administrators developed a
policy that they hoped would integrate the Indian
population with mainstream America—to de-Indianize
Native Americans. To this end, they enacted laws to
terminate the government's trusteeship of Indian lands
and relocate Indians to the nation's cities. They
believed that once Indians left the reservation, they
would have opportunities for education and
employment—and assimilation.
Eras……..
• Tribal self determination era
• In the early 1960s, President John F. Kennedy
wanted the Indian tribes to be recognized as
independent nations governing themselves.
He promised the Indian tribes that treaties
made prior to 1960 would be recognized by
the federal government and that their rights
as Indian people would be protected.
“You are fools to make yourself slaves
to a piece of fat bacon, some hardtack and a little sugar and coffee
*Sitting Bull
“…to Christianize and civilize the
Indian and to train him in the arts
and peace”
*President U.S. Grant
1877 NEZ PERCE TRAIL
1170 MILES
Conquest of the Apache
• The Apache seem to have been present in the
Southwest since at least the 17th century.
They developed a reputation as fierce warriors
to whom raiding, particularly in Mexico, was a
part of life. Of all the Indian foes the U.S. Army
had to contend with, the Apache may have
been the most difficult.
Conquest of the Apache
• At First relative peace with the US Govt.
• Mangas Coloradas
– 1860’s
• Cochise— Mangas‘s Son in Law
– 1860’s
• Naiche, and the warrior Geronimo carried on
the Apache Wars
– Geronimo—captured 1886
Go to:
• Coursework drive
• Coursework—assignments—fischer—US
History—US-ContempIndianIssues
Missoula history Quiz
• Missoula pre history?
• Why did settlers come to Missoula?
– Early industries
• Why did Hellgate become Missoula?
– Grant Creek vs. Rattlesnake Creek
• Why was it important that the RR came to
Missoula?
• Why slant streets?
Salish, Kootenai, Pend
d'Oreille, Blackfeet, and
Shoshone tribes. Located at
the confluence of five
mountain valleys, the
Missoula Valley was heavily
traversed by local and
distant native tribes that
periodically went to the
Eastern Montana plains in
search of bison, leading to
inevitable conflict.
The narrow valley at
Missoula's eastern
entrance was so
strewn with human
bones from repeated
ambushes that French
fur trappers would
later refer to this area
as "Porte d' Enfer,"
translated as "Hell's
Gate".
Hellgate Village, 1860, located around a trading post set up
by C.P. Higgins and Frank Worden, four miles west of
present-day Higgins Avenue along the Mullan Road.
1865-- Higgins and Worden started Missoula Mills and
moved the Worden and Company Store into the new
town. Most of the inhabitants of Hellgate Village soon
followed.
This drawing of Missoula Flour and Saw Mills
appeared in the October 1867 issue of Harper’s New
Monthly Magazine. Today, only the millstone remains,
displayed in Caras Park with a historical placque.
Chief Looking Glass
Chief Joseph: “The Red Napoleon”
TRANSCONTINENTAL RR & FEDERAL LAND GRANTS, 1850-1900
ORIGINAL RANGE FOR BISON/BUFFALO
CURRENT RANGE
SOME NATIVE TRIBES HAVE A LONG
HISTORY OF FARMING
SOME INDIAN LAND IS VERY POOR FOR
FARMING!
THE DAWES ACT INTTENDED TO FORCE
ASSIMILATION
ASSIMILATION OR ETHNOCIDE?
KILL THE INDIAN; SAVE THE MAN
CARLISLE INDIAN SCHOOL
COBELL LAWSUIT
Her case revolved around the
mishandling of a century of
money held by the government
in trust accounts for lands
allotted to individual Indians.
During the case, decades of
concern over negligent
bookkeeping turned out to be
just the tip of the iceberg. In
many cases the government had
kept shoddy records, or none at
all.
COBELL LAWSUIT
It’s important that people
know why the money is coming
in: it was money managed in
trust by the government, to
account for properly, and they
didn’t do it… It’s a settlement for
a grievous wrong that been done
over a 100-plus years.”
COBELL SETTLEMENT. IS IT SUPPORTIVE OF
TRADITIONAL AMERICAN VALUES?
“I remember her
determination and grit,”
McAllister told Windspeaker.
“She was always very proud of
being a Native.
“One of the tribes gave her
eagle feathers... That was a great
honour to her. The eagle feathers
were given by that tribe only to
warriors; it was rare, as a woman,
even to get eagle feathers. She was
very proud of that recognition.”

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