The Stirrings of Rebellion Chapter 4 Section 1 The Sugar Act - 1764 • • • • British Action Strictly enforced Halved duty on foreign molasses (Indirect Tax) Placed duties on certain imports (ie. lumber) Allowed smugglers to be tried in British courts Colonial Reaction • Angered over economics not “Taxation w/o Representation” • Written protests • Occasional boycotts Stamp Act 1765 • • • • British Action First Direct Tax Taxed legal and commercial documents (licenses, newspapers, almanacs) Special “stamped” paper for legal docs Dice and playing cards • • • • • Colonial Reaction Violent protests (harass tax collectors) “Sons of Liberty” Colonies pass laws to evade the tax Stamp Act Congress issues Declaration of Rights and Grievances Further boycotts Violence against tax collectors Quartering Act – 1765 and 1774 • • • • British Action Standing army after French and Indian War Required colonial assemblies to house and provision British soldiers Soldiers stayed in inns, stables, barns, etc. 1774, Use private homes as necessary Colonial Reaction • 1765, Most colonial assemblies refused to pay for provisions • 1774, Wrote petition to King George Declaratory Act - 1766 British Action Colonial Reaction • Accompanied • Pleased w/ repeal repeal of Stamp Act of Stamp Act • Statement of • Continued protest Parliament’s right to of other British rule the colonies in imposed laws any way it saw fit • Scared that more punitive laws would follow Townshend Acts - 1767 • • • • British Action Indirect tax on lead, paper, tea, paint and glass collected at port Revenue paid British officials in colonies Created customs commission Suspended N.Y. assembly for failure to comply Colonial Reaction • “No Taxation without Representation” cries from colonists • Resumed boycott of British goods • Cut British exports to colonies by 38% “No Taxation without Representation” – The English Bill of Rights (1689) – “The crown cannot issue taxes without approval of Parliament” –The colonists had no representation in Parliament. so they argued that they could not be taxed by Parliament – Parliament argued that they have the right to speak for the interests of all British subjects not just the districts that elected them. Boston Massacre - Background • British agents in Boston seized John Hancock’s colonial ship Liberty • Customs inspector claimed suspicion of smuggling • Triggered colonial riots in Boston • British station 2,000 troops in Boston – Troops were poorly paid – Competed for jobs w/ colonists Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 • Afternoon, Fist fight over jobs • That night, a mob gathered in front of customs house • Armed clash between colonists and guards • 3 colonists killed • 2 wounded Tea Act - 1773 • Created to save the • Bostonians dressed failing British East as natives destroy a India Co. shipment of tea (Boston Tea Party) • Granted BEIC right to import tea free of tax that colonial • * 18,000 lbs. of tea merchants paid dumped into Boston • Hoped colonists Harbor* would buy the cheaper tea Intolerable Acts - 1774 • • • • • British Action George III’s response to Boston Tea Party Gen. Gage new Governor Mass. Closes Boston Harbor Quartering Act of 1774 Places Boston Under martial law • • • • • Colonial Reaction First Continental Congress: Representative colonial assembly – 56 representatives met in Philadelphia Declaration of Colonial Rights Agreed to fight if attacked Agreed to reconvene in May 1775 if demands not met III. Lexington and Concord • To Concord, By the Lexington Road • Civilian militia or minutemen begin to stockpile firearms, 1775 • Resistance leaders John Hancock, Samuel Adams hide in Lexington • Gage sent men along Lexington Road to seize and destroy all weapons & gunpowder III. Lexington and Concord • “The Regulars Are Coming!” • 700 redcoats sent to capture leaders, destroy munitions, April 1775 • Paul Revere, William Dawes, Samuel Prescott warn leaders, townspeople • Revere reached Adams & Hancock – continued his famous ride III. Lexington and Concord “A Glorious Day for America” April 19, 1775 Battle of Lexington - British Soldiers attacked 70 minutemen – 8 killed and 10 wounded British continued on to Concord, found nothing & were heading back to Boston – 3000 to 4000 minutemen attack Dozens killed they return to Boston after humiliating loss Adams says “this is a glorious day for America” Review Questions • List and explain three ways the colonies organized to resist British taxation? • What were three events & what took place that increased tension before the outbreak of war? • When, where and what happened at the Battles of Lexington and Concord?