The Seven Years War in America The Imperial Crisis in British North America “Save Your Money & Save Your Country” From Resistance to Rebellion Deciding for Independence Key Topics: The final struggle among G. Britain, France, and natives for control of eastern North America American nationalism in the aftermath of the French- Indian War Great Britain’s changing policy towards its North American colonies The political assumptions of American Republicanism The colonies’ efforts to achieve unity Section 1 Also known as the French Indian War from 1754 to 1763. It was the last north America War between Britain & France. The war produced native allies on both sides. The war ended with the French defeat. Cooperation seen among colonial leaders to fight the French and natives for the lands between the Miss River & Appalachian Mts. It also laid the groundwork for conflict between the colonists and the British. Colonial leaders met with the Iroquois Nation to form an alliance but the natives walked out. The conference adopted Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union, which called for colonial unity regarding native affairs, western settlement, commerce and communication. British authorities were against it & colonial assemblies voted against it. Importance- Showed the colonists staring to come together and attempting to form a powerful entity. Treaty of Paris ended the war & France gave up all North American claims except New Orleans, which was ceded to Spain. Spain ceded Florida to Britain in exchange for Caribbean Islands. Britain- Territories in North America stretched from Hudson Bay to the Caribbean; from the Atlantic to the Miss River. France- Territory reduced to two small islands. Spain-Cuba, the Philippines, Louisiana and California. How did overwhelming British success in the French-Indian’s War lead to an imperial crisis in British North America? During the Revolution, differences between colonists & the British emerged: Discipline, name calling, similar experiences, a developing national identity The Press- Weekly newspapers functioned as am mouthpiece for the gov’t. Peter Zenger Casewas jailed due to criticizing the governor of NY. The issue of debate was freedom of the press. Peter Zenger CaseAlexander Hamilton argued that freedom of the press was a right citizens. Zenger was eventually acquitted. Republicanism- The ideas and values that influenced American political behavior during the 18th and 19th centuries. ideas: A just society provided the greatest liberty to citizens. A ruler’s authority should be conditional & not absolute. The power of people to remove a ruler from office. Private ownership of property & representative government. “…there shall be raised, levied, collected, and paid, unto His Majesty, his heirs, and successors, for and upon all white or clay sugars of the produce or manufacture of any colony or plantation in America…” Sugar Act 1764 British Parliament Purpose- To raise revenue in the colonies to help pay for the French- Indian War. A tax was placed on imported sugar & regulations for ships became stricter. The movement for nonimportation began in Boston. Stamp Act 1765- Law passed by Parliament to raise $ in America. A tax was placed on any legal documents like paper, licenses, legal documents, publications and playing cards. The real issue was not taxes but colonial representation in Parliament. The colonists argued they couldn’t be axed because they were not represented in Parliament. Their rallying cry became, “ NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION !” Virtual RepresentationMembers of Parliament represent all citizens of the British Empire. Actual Representation- the practice of having elected representatives that reside in your district and represent local interests in Parliament. In 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act after a growing nonimportation movement in the colonies worried British officials. Britain also passed the Declaratory Act which stated Parliament had the authority to make laws for the colonists in all areas. How did political and economic problems in Britain contribute to unrest in the colonies? The Townshend Revenue Acts England was suffering from massive unemployment, high prices and national debt. Parliament passed the Revenue Act, which was a revenue measure that placed a tax on lead, glass, paint, paper and tea. Colonial ResponseLetters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania. Nonimportation & nonconsumption associations. The Boston Massacre- The problems began in NY with the Sons of Liberty, radicals, clashing with British soldiers. In Boston, the relations between soldiers and colonists continued to decline…. Competition for jobs, protests, taunts, rock throwing. After being attacked by a job of civilians, a British soldier was defended by a larger group of Br. Soldiers and they opened fire upon of a crowd of civilians. Result- The Townshend Act was repealed. What were the principal events leading to the beginning of armed conflict at Lexington & Concord? 1773- Parliament passed the Tea Act permitted the East India Company to sell tea through middlemen & not pay a duty tax, thus reducing the retail price. Other tea companies still had to pay the duty. The Boston Tea PartyWhen the governor of MA demanded tea ships to be unloaded & the nonimportation agreements broken, colonists dumped tea into Boston Harbor. Tea Parties followed in NYC, Annapolis, Charleston In response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts (1774) which was aimed at weakening Boston radicals & strengthening Britain. A. Boston Port Bill B. MA Government Act C. Town meetings ended- no more self-rule D. Administration of Justice Act E. Quartering Act F. Quebec Act G. General Thomas Gage replaced the governor Boston Port BillProhibited the loading or unloading of any ship in Boston Harbor until the damaged tea & property were paid for, including 3 ships MA Government Act- annulled the MA colonial charter; all colonial officials were under direct control of the King. Administration of Justice ActProtected British officials from colonial courts, encouraged suppression of colonists and any British official/soldier accused of wrong doing would be tried in Britain. Quartering ActLegalized the housing of troops of colonial public expense in private homes, taverns, abandoned buildings Quebec ActParliament appointed a Governor for Canada and became the authority for the entire region…threatened colonial liberty. General Thomas Gage, the infamous British General, took control of Boston and imposed martial law. Philadelphia 1774- Meeting of colonial delegates in response to the Intolerable Acts. They endorsed the: Suffolk Resolves September 1, 1774General Gage sent British soldiers to Concord to gain control of the militia’s armories. The Ma militia, minutemen, were sent to meet them by the Committee of Safety. Militiamen met the British at Lexington where shots were fired & 8 Americans were killed. The British marched to Concord where they were outnumbered & attacked by militiamen. The British burned down the armory & marched back to Boston. They were attacked all the way back. British: Dead73, wounded202 Americans: 95 casualties out of 4,000 The Second Continental Congress Opened on May 10, 1775 Wrote the Olive Branch Petition, which asked the king to end hostilities and work to a resolution. Congress resolved to put their colonies in a state of defense. George Washington was nominated as Commander-in –Chief of the Continental Army. Second Continental Congress- Also passed the Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms, which the men promised to fight than remain under the tight control of the King. Colonists: 2nd Continental Congress assumed role of new gov’t, they organized an army, declared British ships open to capture and authorized privateering, contacted foreign powers, opened ports to trade with all nations British: King proclaimed the colonies were in rebellion, mobilize more troops We fight not to enslave, but to set a country free, and to make room upon the earth for honest men to live in. Thomas Paine, The Crisis, no. 4, September 11, 1777 Thomas Paine wrote, Common Sense, a pamphlet defending the colonists’ break from Britain and how “common sense” the decision was. The publication became the most widely read item in 1776.