Chapter 6 Notes - Saint Joseph High School

Think, Pair, Share
• In Chapter 5 we learned that an increase in
populations, mostly caused by an increase
in immigration, helped the United States
experience rapid industrial growth.
• Come up with at least 5 reasons why
immigrants came to the United States.
Think, Pair, Share
• Anticipate:
– What kind of problems might these new
immigrants face when they get to America?
(Think about the problems immigrants face
– What challenges might these immigrants
cause for cities and towns when they begin to
arrive in large numbers?
Chapter 6: Urban America
Why did millions of European and Asian immigrants
come to the United States in the late 19th and early
20th centuries and what impact did the arrival of
these immigrants have on America’s cities and
Section 1 Key Terms, People and Events
Nativism – hostility towards immigrants
Ellis Island – port of entry in
New York Harbor
Angel Island – port of entry in
San Francisco
Chinese Exclusion Act – barred Chinese from entry into the
United States from 1882-1943
The Immigrant Experience Assignment
• Write and perform a poem or rap detailing what life was like for an
immigrant as they made their way to America. (Bonus Points)
(Individual or Partner)
• Write a series of journal (diary) entries detailing what life was like for
an immigrant as they made their way to America. (Individual)
• Create a six panel (colored) story board illustrating what life was like
for an immigrant as they made their way to America. (Individual)
• Write and perform a play which tells the story of what life was like for
an immigrant as they made their way to America. ( Bonus Points)
(Partner or Small Group)
• A complete assignment will touch on the following: where did
you come from, why did you leave the country of your birth,
what was your experience on the ship, what was your
experience at Ellis or Angel Island, what were your feelings
when you saw the Statue of Liberty or the Pacific Coast, what
were the challenges, hardships or joys you experienced in your
new country.
Section 1 - Immigration
1865-1914 25 million Europeans immigrate to the U.S.
Before 1890 most immigrants were from northern
and western Europe
After 1890 most immigrants were from southern and
eastern Europe
(What’s the difference between these parts of Europe?)
Why Did People Emigrate?
Push factors
Farm poverty and
worker uncertainty
Wars and compulsory
military service
Political tyranny
Religious oppression
Population pressure
Why Did People Emigrate?
Pull Factors
Plenty of land and plenty
of work
Higher standard of living
Democratic political
Opportunity for social
The Immigrant Experience
• Ellis Island – New York City - Across the Atlantic
• Angel Island – San Francisco – Across the Pacific
• A virtual tour of Ellis Island
Nativism Resurges
• Asians, Jews, and Eastern Europeans (Catholics)
• Feared Catholics beliefs were incompatible with American
values and Protestant, British culture.
• American Protective Association – 1887, members vowed not to
hire or vote for Catholics.
• Irish immigrants suffered the most from anti-Catholic attitudes:
considered lazy and ignorant, were only able to get low paying,
menial jobs.
Asian Immigration Restricted
• Workingman’s Party of California – 1870’s
• Chinese Exclusion Act – 1882 A 10 year ban on Chinese immigration
and prohibition of citizenship for Chinese already here. (Ban was
made permanent in 1902, repealed in 1943).
• 1906 San Francisco Board of Education orders all Chinese, Korean,
and Japanese children to attend the “Oriental School”.
• “Gentleman’s Agreement” between Theodore Roosevelt and
Japanese Prime Minister. Order rescinded in exchange for a limit on
Japanese immigration.
• Joseph Keppler was a cartoonist and also an immigrant to the United States; the
issue of immigration therefore was close to his heart. Here are two views of
immigration drawn by Keppler during different time periods. The top cartoon was
drawn in the early 1880’s, and the bottom cartoon was drawn in the 1890’s.
• Study the cartoons and answer the following questions:
• In the top cartoon, who is the person on the left? How do you know? Who are the
people facing him?
• Who is greeting the immigrant in the bottom cartoon? How are they greeting him?
• What do the shadows in the bottom cartoon’s background symbolize?
• Stereotypes are exaggerations that make the false assumptions that all members of
a group have the same characteristics. These characteristics can be physical or part
of behavior. How does this cartoonist use stereotypes?
• The title of the top cartoon is “Welcome to All”. Write a title for the bottom carton.
• What has happened between the first cartoon and the second cartoon that
accounts for the difference in the portrayal and reception of the immigrants?
• Do you think Keppler’s views about immigrants changed from the time he drew the
first cartoon to the time he drew the second cartoon? Explain your answer.
Contributions of Immigrants:
Your task is to research your assigned immigrant and write a 2
page paper on your immigrant. (12 point font, double spaced,
normal margin, cite 2 sources – not Wikipedia) The following
questions should be your guide. You will also be expected to share
your information with the class.
• When and where was this person born?
• When did the person come to the United States? Why? What were his
or her hopes and dreams when first coming to the U.S.?
• How was he or she treated upon arrival to the U.S.?
• What interesting facts did you learn about his or her family?
• What was/is the person’s profession?
• What contribution did he or she make to the U.S.?
• What other relevant facts about this person or the process of
immigration did you discover that you think would be useful in better
understanding this person or the topic of immigration, in general?
Frank McCourt, Author (Ireland)
Edwidge Danticat, Author (Haiti)
Jaime Escalante, Educator (Bolivia)
I.M. Pei, Architect (China)
Edward Teller, Scientist (Hungary)
Isabel Allende, Author (Chile)
Isaac Stern, Concert Violinist (Russia)
Zubin Mehta, Conductor (India)
Enrico Fermi, Scientist (Italy)
Itzhak Perlman, Violinist (Israel)
Max Frankel, Editor, The New York Times (Germany)
Alfonso Cuarón, Movie Director (Mexico)
Benicio del Toro, Actor (Puerto Rico)
Kahlil Gibron, Poet/Philosopher (Lebanon)
Farouk El-Baz, Geologist (Egypt)
Gabriel García Marquez, Writer (Colombian)
Roberto Clemente, Athlete (Puerto Rico)
Desi Arnaz, Actor (Cuba)
Tito Rodriguez(Machito), Musician (Cuba)
Celia Cruz, Singer(Cuba)
Anthony Quinn, Actor (Mexico)
Henry Kissinger, Diplomat (Germany)
Javier Bardem, Actor(Spain)
Chinua Achebe, Writer (Nigeria)
Albert Claude, Scientist (Belgium)
Albert Kahn, Architect (Germany)
Haing S. Ngor, Physician (Cambodia)
Thomas Nast, Journalist (Germany)
Leo Szilard, Scientist (Germany)
Wernher von Braun, Scientist (Germany)
Stokely Carmichael, Civil Rights Activist (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago)
Section 2 – Urbanization:
Americans Migrate to the Cities
– Immigrants with little money settled into cities
– Rural Americans and farmers moved to the cities for
better paying jobs and more opportunities.
– Limited space meant building up, not out.
• 1885 Chicago’s 10 story skyscraper built
• New York City had more skyscrapers than any city in the world.
• Elevated railroads and underground subway systems
Separation by Class
• High Society – Super rich, multiple
mansions, many servants, luxurious
• Middle Class Gentility – Large home in
suburbs, one or more servants, wife
didn’t work.
• Working Class – lived in tenements,
both parents worked, kids worked too,
little money left over
• Urban Poor – lived on street or
homemade shacks in back alleys, relied
on charitable organizations for food
Urban Problems
Crime and Pollution
• Crime
• Fire
• Pollution
Machine Politics
– horse manure in streets •
– Smoke, soot and ash
from coal and wood fires •
• Disease
– Typhoid fever
– cholera
Political Machines
Party Bosses
Fraud and Graft
Tammany Hall
William “Boss”
George Plunkett and
Machine Politics
When George Plunkett died in 1924 he was
eulogized this way;
“He understood that in politics honesty
doesn't matter, efficiency doesn't matter,
progressive vision doesn't matter. What
does matter is the chance for a better job,
a better price of wheat, better business
Cartooning for Justice
Thomas Nast’s attack on the Tweed Ring in the pages of Harper’s
Weekly contributed most to Nast’s fame as a political cartoonist.
As head of the New York Commission of Public Works, “Boss”
Tweed gave contracts to his cronies in return for “kickbacks.” An
audit of a city account later disclosed that Tweed’s gang stole $200
million from New York’s citizens. Among the gang’s notorious
tactics in draining the city’s funds were billing the city $50,000 a
day for a plasterer’s wages and charging $180,000 for three tables
and forty chairs. Tweed attempted to use bribery to “silence”
cartoonist Nast, but his tactics were unsuccessful. Tweed and his
cronies were ultimately convicted and forced from office. Tweed
was sentenced to a one-year jail term, but his unsavory saga did
not conclude there. Tweed fled to Spain and attempted to hide out
there. However, he was eventually extradited and imprisoned.
Examine the two cartoon depicting Boss Tweed and
then answer the following questions:
Who are the three figures in the cartoon on the right? What is
the center figure doing?
Why has Nast drawn the figures in this cartoon of such
differing sizes?
What actions do the two frames of the cartoon on the left
What are the woman, child and baby suffering from and who
might they be?
Why might cartoons like these have prompted Boss Tweed to
say, “I don’t care a straw for your newspaper articles; y people
don’t know how to read, but they can’t help seeing
Cartooning for Justice
Political Cartoon Assignment
Bring in a recent political cartoon from a newspaper
or on-line source that is related to a current
politician or the United States government.
Interpret the meaning of the cartoon and explain
the symbolism and stereotypes being used. Do you
agree or disagree with the cartoon? Why?
Attach the cartoon to a piece of loose-leaf paper,
along with your written responses.
Filthy Cities – New York
Dan Snow gets down and dirty in the murky history of
New York, exploring its filthy history from the bottom
Industrial New York: Dan Snow travels back to a seething
Manhattan in the throes of the industrial revolution. Millions fled
persecution, poverty and famine in Europe in the 19th century in
search of the Promised Land. When they arrived what they found
was even worse than what they’d left behind. New York was a city
consumed by filth and corruption, its massive immigrant
population crammed together in the slums of Lower Manhattan.
As you watch the show, take notes on the specific challenges faced
by the city and the newly arriving immigrants. Also note the ways
the city and its residents tried to solve these challenges.
Yes, this is for a grade.
Section 3 – The Gilded Age
• Individualism – abilities will allow for success
• Naturalism – failure can be out of your control
• Social Darwinism
– “Survival of the fittest”
• Gospel of Wealth
– Help people help themselves
– Schools, hospitals, libraries, etc…
• The Social Gospel
– Salvation Army, YMCA, settlement houses
– Jane Adams – Hull House
Section 3 Assignment
• Read section 3, pages 230 – 232 and 236 – 239
1. Make and complete a chart similar to the one
Main Idea
Gospel of
Social Gospel
2. Write a paragraph explaining which social theory
you think is best and why.
Section 5 – The Rise of Segregation
• Exodusters head to Kansas
• Imposing Segregation
– Poll Tax
– Literacy tests
– “grandfather clause”
– Jim Crow Laws
• Plessy v. Ferguson 1892 -“Separate but Equal”
• The African American Response
– Booker T. Washington – compromise & education
– W.E.B. Du Bois – activism & change now
Chapter 6 Study Guide
• How did Booker T. Washington think African–
Americans should work to end discrimination?
• How did W.E.B. DuBois think African-Americans
should work to end discrimination?
• What issue did Jacob Riis think was a problem
for society?
• How did immigration patterns change between
1870 and 1900?
• What organization did nativists fear would gain
too much power because of immigration?
Chapter 6 Study Guide continued
• What did organizations like the Salvation Army
and the YMCA offer to the urban poor?
• How did Tammany Hall operate?
• What were “streetcar suburbs”?
• What “pulled” many Chinese immigrants to the
United States?
• What were the main ideas of Social Darwinism?
• What were the main ideas of the Gospel of
• What were the main ideas of the Social Gospel?
Chapter 6 Study Guide continued
What function did Ellis and Angel Island serve?
What was the philosophy of Individualism?
What was the philosophy of Naturalism?
What did immigrants receive from political
machines in exchange for their votes?
• Why were subway systems initially developed?
• What was the main goal of nativists?
• Why were skyscrapers developed and what was
the first one like?
Chapter 6 Study Guide continued
• Why did labor unions oppose immigration?
• Why was the Workingman’s Party formed?
• Who was William “Boss” Tweed and what
happened to him?
• What “push” factors brought many immigrants
to the United States?
• What “pull” factors brought many immigrants to
the United States?
• What problems existed in cities and what caused
those problems?