The Resurrection of Jesus the Messiah

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THE RESURRECTION OF
JESUS THE MESSIAH
ROBBY LASHUA
“ For the message of the
cross is foolishness to those
who are perishing, but to us
who are being saved it is the
power of God.”
-1 Cor. 1:18
But if there is no resurrection of the dead, not
even Christ has been raised; and if Christ has
not been raised, then our preaching is vain,
your faith also is vain. Moreover we are even
found to be false witnesses of God, because
we testified against God that He raised Christ,
whom He did not raise, if in fact the dead are
not raised. For if the dead are not raised, not
even Christ has been raised; and if Christ has
not been raised, your faith is worthless; you
are still in your sins. Then those also who have
fallen asleep in Christ have perished. If we
have hoped in Christ in this life only, we are
of all men most to be pitied.”
-1 Cor. 15:13-19
HISTORICAL BEDROCK
Historical Bedrock consists of
historical facts that are virtually
indisputable. Once the historical
bedrock is established, one must
explain it. If a hypothesis fails to
explain all of the historical bedrock,
the hypothesis must be changed.
We will be building a case for
historical bedrock.
MINIMAL FACTS APPROACH
• Gary Habermas developed this approach
• This approach develops a strong case for the
resurrection by using texts that liberal scholars will
grant us.
• “The seven letters that virtually all scholars
agree Paul wrote—the so-called undisputed
Pauline epistles—are Romans, 1 and 2
Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1
Thessalonians, and Philemon.” –Bart Ehrman
Jesus Interrupted 54.
THE KERYGMA
•Kerygma: to proclaim, to
preach
• It came to be a formal
proclamation of the early
church
THE KERYGMA
• 1 Cor. 15:3-8 is the most important and
valuable passage for making a
historical claim to the Resurrection of
Jesus
• This is believed to be an early Christian
teaching (possibly a creed or hymn)
THE KERYGMA
“ For I delivered to you as of first importance what I
also received, that Christ died for our sins
according to the Scriptures, and that He was
buried, and that He was raised on the third day
according to the Scriptures, and that He appeared
to Cephas, then to the twelve. After that He
appeared to more than five hundred brethren at
one time, most of whom remain until now, but
some have fallen asleep; then He appeared to
James, then to all the apostles; and last of all, as to
one untimely born, He appeared to me also.
THE KERYGMA
• Reasons for being an early saying:
• Paul claims he “delivered” what he had
“received”.
• “According to the Scriptures” is absent in
all other Pauline literature.
• “On the third day” is only in this passage
in Pauline literature
• “For our sins” is only used here and in Gal.
1:4
THE KERYGMA
• Reasons for being an early saying:
• “The Twelve” is only here in Pauline
literature
• Paul uses the name “Cephas” for Peter
• Shows this Kerygma is early, and nonPauline
παρέδωκα γὰρ ὑμῖν ἐν πρώτοις, ὃ καὶ παρέλαβον,
ὅτι Χριστὸς ἀπέθανεν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν
κατὰ τὰς γραφὰς
4 καὶ ὅτι ἐτάφη
καὶ ὅτι ἐγήγερται τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ
κατὰ τὰς γραφὰς
5 καὶ ὅτι ὤφθη Κηφᾷ εἶτα τοῖς δώδεκα·
6 ἔπειτα ὤφθη ἐπάνω πεντακοσίοις ἀδελφοῖς ἐφάπαξ, ἐξ ὧν οἱ
πλείονες μένουσιν ἕως ἄρτι, τινὲς δὲ ἐκοιμήθησαν·
7 ἔπειτα ὤφθη Ἰακώβῳ εἶτα τοῖς ἀποστόλοις πᾶσιν·
8 ἔσχατον δὲ πάντων ὡσπερεὶ τῷ ἐκτρώματι ὤφθη κἀμοί.
“ For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received,
that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures,
and that He was buried,
and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures
and that He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.
After that He appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time,
most of whom remain until now, but some have fallen asleep;
then He appeared to James, then to all the apostles;
and last of all, as to one untimely born, He appeared to me also.
GOOD REASON TO BELIEVE THE
KERYGMA CAME FROM JERUSALEM
• Paul states that spiritual teachings came from
Jerusalem
• “but now, I am going to Jerusalem serving the
saints. For Macedonia and Achaia have been
pleased to make a contribution for the poor
among the saints in Jerusalem. Yes, they were
pleased to do so, and they are indebted to
them. For if the Gentiles have shared in their
spiritual things, they are indebted to minister to
them also in material things.” Romans 15:25-27
GOOD REASON TO BELIEVE THE
KERYGMA CAME FROM JERUSALEM
• Paul states that spiritual teachings came from
Jerusalem
• “Was it from you that the word of God first went
forth? Or has it come to you only?” 1 Cor. 14:36
“These arguments, which are easily
recognizable from the sayings of the Rabbis,
are built on two basic principals: that the
chosen people of God are to have one
common ‘law’ (Lev. 24:22), and that the law is
to proceed from Jerusalem (Deut. 17:8, Isaiah
2:3). We may quote a close parallel from
rabbinic sources. R. Hananiah (ca. 110), in the
Babylonian town of Nehar-Paqod, had taken
the liberty of making some decisions which,
according to the tradition, a local authority
had no right to do; R. Natan’s scornful
comment was: ‘Does the Torah proceed from
Babel, and the word of God from NeharPaqod?’”
GOOD REASON TO BELIEVE THE
KERYGMA CAME FROM JERUSALEM
• We know the original church leaders were
stationed in Jerusalem
• Acts 15:1-29: The Jerusalem Council
• “Whether then it was I or they, so we preach and
so you believed.” 1 Cor. 15:11
GOOD REASON TO BELIEVE THE
KERYGMA CAME FROM JERUSALEM
• Paul places a lot of importance on the tradition
• He uses the “tradition” to resolve issues in the
church.
• “But to the married I give instructions, not I, but
the Lord, that the wife should not leave her
husband (but if she does leave, she must remain
unmarried, or else be reconciled to her
husband), and that the husband should not
divorce his wife.” 1 Cor. 7:10-11
GOOD REASON TO BELIEVE THE
KERYGMA CAME FROM JERUSALEM
• Paul encourages the church to hold fast to the
tradition that he taught
• “Now I praise you because you remember me
in everything and hold firmly to the traditions,
just as I delivered them to you.” 1 Cor. 11:2
• Paul instructs the Thessalonians not keep away
from brothers who are not following the tradition
• “Now we command you, brethren, in the name of
our Lord Jesus Christ, that you keep away from
every brother who leads an unruly life and not
according to the tradition which you received from
us.” 2 Thess. 3:6
GOOD REASON TO BELIEVE THE
KERYGMA CAME FROM JERUSALEM
• Paul is extremely careful to distinguish his
teachings from the tradition
• “But to the married I give instructions, not I, but
the Lord, that the wife should not leave her
husband (but if she does leave, she must remain
unmarried, or else be reconciled to her
husband), and that the husband should not
divorce his wife. But to the rest I say, not the
Lord, that if any brother has a wife who is an
unbeliever, and she consents to live with him,
he must not divorce her.” 1 Cor. 7:10-12
WHEN AND HOW WAS THE KERYGMA
RECEIVED?
• 1 Corinthians and Galatians
• Jesus died between 30-33 A.D.
• Paul wrote 1 Corinthians between 52-55 A.D.
• Paul first came to Corinth in 51 A.D.
• We know this from the Gallio inscription found
in excavations of Delphi
WHEN AND HOW WAS THE KERYGMA
RECEIVED?
The inscription is written in Greek and is a copy of a
decree of the Roman Emperor Claudius (A.D. 41–
54) who commanded L. Iunius Gallio, the governor,
to assist in settling additional elite persons in
Delphi—in an effort to revitalize it. The inscription
dates between April and July A.D., 52, and from it,
it can be deduced that Gallio was the proconsul of
Achaia in the previous year. Thus Paul’s
eighteenth month stay in Corinth (Acts 18:1–18)
included the year 51. This inscription is critical in
helping to establish the Chronology of Paul as
presented in the book of Acts.
WHEN AND HOW WAS THE KERYGMA
RECEIVED?
• 1 Corinthians and Galatians
• Jesus died between 30-33 A.D.
• Paul wrote 1 Corinthians between 52-55 A.D.
• Paul first came to Corinth in 51 A.D.
• We know this from the Gallio inscription found
in excavations of Delphi
• It pinpoints Gallio being the Proconsul of
Corinth from July A.D. 51-July A.D. 52.
WHEN AND HOW WAS THE KERYGMA
RECEIVED?
”And he stayed a year and six months, teaching the
word of God among them. But when Gallio was
proconsul of Achaia, the Jews made a united attack
on Paul and brought him before the tribunal, saying,
“This man is persuading people to worship God
contrary to the law.” But when Paul was about to
open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, “If it were a
matter of wrongdoing or vicious crime, O Jews, I
would have reason to accept your complaint. But
since it is a matter of questions about words and
names and your own law, see to it yourselves. I refuse
to be a judge of these things.”And he drove them
from the tribunal.” Acts 18:11-16
WHO DID PAUL GET THE KERYGMA
FROM
• 1 Corinthians 15:3
• “For I delivered to you as of first
importance what I also received”
• When did Paul receive this Creed?
• Galatians 1-2
• 1:15-17 Paul’s Conversion
• 1:18-20 He went up to Jerusalem and
talked with Peter and James
• ἱστορῆσαι (historesai)
WHO DID PAUL GET THE KERYGMA
FROM
• Let’s say Paul’s conversion happened
two years after the Resurrection of Jesus.
• He then goes up to Jerusalem to meet
with Peter and James 3 years later, so 5
years after the events of the Resurrection.
• Gal. 1:20 “I assure you I am telling the
truth”
WHO DID PAUL GET THE KERYGMA
FROM
• Galatians 2:1-2 Paul goes back up to
Jerusalem 14 years later to make sure he
has not been running in vain.
• Galatians 2:6 “They added nothing to
me”
• 1 Corinthians 15:11 “Whether then it was I
or they, so we preach and so you
believed”
• “We are all on the same page”
DATING OF THE KERYGMA
• The creed in 1 Corinthians 15 is believed to
be formed somewhere between 2-3 years
after the events of the Resurrection
• Jesus seminar says 2 years after, Ludemann
says 3 years after.
• Larry Hurtado (University of Edinbourough),
Richard Bockham (Cambridge University)
say the Creed is from 30 A.D.
• James D.G. Dunn (Retired from Durham)
says the latest that the creed could be is 6
months after the events of the Resurrection.
CONCLUSION FROM 1 COR. 15:3-8
• Jesus’ deity and resurrection were not a later
development
• Jesus died for our sins
• He appeared to Cephas/Peter
• He appeared to the other disciples
• He appeared to 500 people at one time (this
could be verified if the Corinthians desired to
search it out).
• He appeared to His skeptical brother James, who
became the head of the Church in Jerusalem.
• He appeared to the Church persecutor, Paul
FIVE PIECES OF HISTORICAL BEDROCK
1. Appearances to the Disciples
2. The conversion of Paul
3. The conversion of James
4. The Empty Tomb
5. Jesus’ Death by Crucifixion
GARY HABERMAS
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=489i38n1gjU
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