Uploaded by Omar Mohamed

Ancient Greece Summary (1)

o Greece is on a peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. The Greeks were a
maritime people because their way of life depended on the sea.
o The soil of Greece was rocky and poor, they couldn’t grow enough food. They became
traders and developed colonies.
The first Greek civilization is the Minoan, began on the island of Crete. They were
destroyed by a volcano. People thought the Minoans were just a myth. Then
archaeologists found the ruins of the civilization.
The Mycenaean civilization followed the Minoans. They attacked the city of Troy. Homer
the Greek poet, told the story of that battle in poems called the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Athens and Sparta were the most famous city-states of ancient Greece.
Athens had a direct democracy. They were famous for philosophy. They had many
famous philosophers such as; Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. The Athenians enjoyed going
to the theater and they also went dancing.
Spartans did not have the same freedom that the Athenians had. In Sparta, everyday life
was centered around the army. Boys were taken from their homes at the age of seven.
They were taught to be warriors. They learned some reading and writing. But the main
goal was to build their strength.
During the Persian wars, Athens and Sparta joined together against the Persians. Later,
Athens and Sparta both wanted to rule Greece. Sparta attacked Athens, beginning of the
Peloponnesian War. The leader of Athens was Pericles and he gave a speech praising the
city of Athens.
The Peloponnesian War lasted 27 years. Athens had a strong navy. Sparta had a strong
army. In the end, Sparta won the war and gained control of Greece.
Macedonia was a kingdom north of the Greek city-states. King Phillip II began to take
over the Greek city-states. He then planned to attack Persia. But he was killed.
Alexander, Phillip’s son, decided to carry out his father’s plan. He wanted more than
Greece and Persia. He wanted to conquer the world.
Alexander gained complete control over Greece. He then crossed into Asia. Then he took
control over Egypt. He continued all the way to the Indus River. But his tired army
refused to go any further. Alexander died in Babylon three years later.
Without Alexander, the empire fell apart. But Greek culture spread throughout the vast
lands. Many people admired the Greeks and wanted to be like them. Greek culture
remained strong for 300 years, until the rise of Rome.