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Pros and Cons of 9 teaching techniques from the book Techniques and principles in language teaching

1) The Grammar-Translation Method (GTM)
Good with grammar.
Good with writing.
Good with translating.
Good with target language’s literature.
Good with reading.
Good word knowledge.
Good knowledge about similarities &
differences between target and native
8 Good mental exercise.
No real usage.
No communicating.
Bad speakers.
Not good with listening.
Bad pronunciation.
A very boring class.
2) The Direct Method (DM)
1 Good with listening.
2 Good with speaking.
3 Good with communicating and real
time usage.
4 Culture is taught through language.
5 L1 omission + realia, objects, etc.
Better word understanding.
6 L1 omissionThinking in target
7 Good pronunciation.
L1 omission Limited word knowledge.
L1 omissionBoring & intimidating
specially for younger ages.
Not very good with writing.
Not very good with reading.
No direct grammar instruction Limited
3) The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM)
1 RepetitionCorrect grammar usage.
2 Repetition Habit Overlearn No
hesitation while speaking.
3 Repetition + immediate correction 
Good pronunciation
4 Repetition + Cue Fluent
communicating in specific situations.
5 Positive reinforcement + interesting
topics Reduce the boredom.
6 Culture is not separated from
7 No comparison between native &
target language.
RepetitionTime consuming & boring.
No language producing, they only repeat
what they’ve memorized.
Learners are very depending on the
Not good with writing.
Not good with reading and literature.
4) The Silent Way (SW)
1 Teacher talks only when necessary +
using gestures, blackboards, pointer…
Students rely on each other and
Learners are responsible for their
learningTeacher is not the center of
2 Good with pronunciation.
Teachers silence towards errors may
weaken confidence.
Some may get confusedLack of
No direct grammar instruction Limited
3 Variety of activitiesMake sure to
The process of developing writing is a bit
learn not memorize.
4 Illustrate the teaching method using L1
less confusion.
6 Able to produce sentences with
different combinations.
Learners’ language errors and
7 comments about the class are taken
into consideration + Using learners’
previous knowledgeTeacher knows
what to work onPurposeful learning
and teaching what is needed.
8 The skills of speaking, reading, and
writing reinforce one another.
Students learn at different rates
Learning takes place in time.
5) Desuggestopedia
1 Colorful and good usage of the
Too much L1 usage L2 learning proses
classroom environment that provides is very dependent on L1.
learners with useful cultural and
educational information.
2 L1 is used less intimidation, no
stress or confusion.
3 Useful, purposeful and non-boring
4 Teaching takes place in activities
mostly and not direct There is a
unity between conscious and
subconscious, so learning is enhanced.
5 New identities that boost confidence.
6 Continues positive
reinforcementLess certain
psychological barriers.
7 Good translating skills from L1 to L2
and vice versa.
8 Errors are corrected gently, not in a
direct, confrontational manner.
6) Community Language Learning (CLL)
1 No confusion when L1 is used initially.
2 Good relation between learners and
3 Students decide what’s the concept of
4 Good communicators.
5 Good pronunciation.
6 Teamwork to enhance creativity.
Learned subjects are limited.
Dependence on L1.
Not usable for advanced level.
Only translation and repetition No
cognitive learning initially specially
grammar wise.
Limited reading & listening skills.
Time consuming and boring repetition.
7) Total Physical Response (TPR)
1 Easy to learn and fun.
2 Useful for beginners and teenagers or
3 Not confusing.
4 Tiring for the teacher.
5 Rare L1 usage.
6 Correct only major errors.
Limited word-knowledge because of the
class’ modality.
Not usable for Intermediate and
advanced level specially for adults.
No grammar structure whatsoever.
No actual listening practice.
No actual writing practice.
8) Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
1 Working on reading and
No actual grammar practice.
communicating at the same time using
comprehension  different
linguistic forms for a function.
2 Teamwork
3 Variety of activities and subjects Fun
4 Very limited L1 usage.
5 Learners ideas are evaluated and
6 Learners are more active that the
9) Content-Based Instruction (CBI)
1 Useful for teaching language+content.
2 Deep understanding of the learned
3 Good with using the target language in
their field of expertise.
4 Language is the medium not a target
to chase.
5 Teaching should build on students’
previous experience.
6 Limited L1 usage.
Not useful for learning a language alone.
Not useful for learning a content alone.
Very limited grammar practice.
Not very good with listening.
Not good translating.
Limited word and content knowledge
Not good communication.