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krok 1 histology

Basic organization of cell. Cellular surface
On the electrocardiogram of the man of 23 years there are attributes of infringement of carrying out of
excitation from auricles to ventricules (that is connected to infringement of an exchange of ions between
cells), caused rheumatic myocarditis. What change of structures of contacting surfaces of cells of heart
these phenomena most authentically speak?
A. Gap junctions*
B. Microvillies
C. Tight junctions
D. Desmosome
E. Nexuses
At research of blood at the patient increase of lactatdehydrogenase’s activity is revealed. What changes
in an organism at a cellular level result in similar infringements?
A.Destruction of plasmatic membranes *
В.Metabolic disfunction
С. Infringement of intercellular interactions
D. Damage of the genom
E.Decreased activity of enzymes’ systems
Harmful ecological factors resulted in the sharp falling of endocytosis and exocytosis in the cells of liver
and blood. What layer of cytolemma was suffered first of all?
A Cortical *
B Lipoprotein
C Supra membrane
D Integral
E Glycocalyx
A chemical factor had an effect on the cell membrane. As a result a cell has changed its shape. What
layer of cell membrane was participated in it?
A Cortical*
B Glycocalyx
C Two lipids layer
D Hydrophilic
E Hydrophobic
Existence of life at all his levels is determined by the structure of lower level. What level of organization
is preceded and provided the existence of life at cellular level:
A Molecular*
B Tissue
C Organism
D Population
E Biocoenosis
Support of life at any level is related to the phenomenon of reproduction. In what level of organization is
reproduction done on the basis of matrix synthesis?
A Molecular*
B Subcellular
C Cellular
D Tissue
E Levels of organism
On preparation appears a histological structure that is limited by the membrane which has a volume
cytoplasm and plenty of nucleuses. What name this structure has?
A Symplast*
B Syncytium
C Ground substance
D Cell
E Vacuoles
Structure of cytoplasm. Membranous organelles
At the man 42 years old for specification of the diagnosis it is lead is carried out biopsy of the liver. At
research of biopsy material it was revealed, that its cells have risen increased of cytoplasms’ basophylia.
It testifies that in cells occurs:
A. Activation of protein syntesis*
B. Formation of lipids
C. Activation of transmembranouse transport
D. Active absorbtion of substances
E. Mitotic division
Cells of a laboratory animal to process by superfluous x-ray radiation. In result protein’s fragments in
cytoplasm were formed. What organelles of cells will take participation in their recycling?
A. Lуsosomes*
B. Golgy complex
C. Ribosomes
D. Endoplasmic reticulum
E. Cell center
Mucopolysacharidosis concerns to illnesses of accumulation. For the lack of enzymes that destroing
polysacharides is broken. At patients increase of their allocation with urine and accumulation in one of
cells’ organelles is observed. In what organelles collect mucopolysacharides?
А. In Golgy complex
В. In Lisosomes*
С. In cellular center
D. In endoplasmic reticulum
Е. In mitochondrias
For the person it is diagnosed galactozemia - illness of accumulation. As a result of infringement of what
cellular structure there was this illness?
A.Golgy complex
D. Cellular center
At electron micrographs of nerve cells of spinal node there were found organelles. They were consisted
of tanks flattened in the central and extended to the periphery and small vesicles. What are these
A Lysosomes
B Centrioles
C Golgi complex*
D peroxisomes
E Mitochondria
During histochemical research of hepatocyte in the cytoplasm the were detected vesicles diameter 0,051,5 micron with peroxidation enzymes - catalase, peroxidase. What are these organelles?
A. Lysosomes
B. Peroxisomes*
C Melanosomes.
D Liposomes.
E Phagosome.
Low level of albumins and fibrinogen was detected in the patient's blood. Decreased activity of what
organelle of the liver hepatocytes can cause it?
A Granular endoplasmatic reeticulum*
B Agranular endoplasmatic reticulum
C Mitochondrions
D Golgi complex
E Lysosomes
Аt ultramicroscopic research of hepatocytes in there cytoplasm rough endoplasmic reticulum was
determined. What is the function of this organell?
A Synthesis of plasma proteins*
B Synthesis of carbohydrates
C detoxification.
D production of bile.
E depositing calcium ions.
Electron microscopic study of a cell revealed roundish bubbles confined by a membrane and containing
a lot of various hydrolytic enzymes. It is known that these organelles provide intracellular digestion and
protective functions. These elements are:
A Lysosomes*
B Centrosomes
C Endoplasmic reticulum
D Ribosomes
E Mitochondria
Two different organelles that destroy the proteins are visible on the electronic photomicrograph of the
cell? What kind of organelles are they?
A Lysosome and proteasome *
B Endoplasmic reticulum and microfilaments
C Peroxisome and ribosome
D Ribosome
E Golgi apparatus and microtubules
During the cytochemical research a light content of hydrolytic enzymes was found in the cytoplasm of
cell. What activity of organelles indicates this fact?
A Lysosomes*
B Endoplasmic reticulum
C Mitochondrion
D Polysome
E Centosome
On the electronic photo organelle is presented which is a large polyproteasome complex that consists of
tube like and two regulator parts, was located on both ends of organelle. The last performs the function
of proteolysis. Name this organelle.
A Proteasome*
B Centriole
C of Inclusions
D Ribosome
E Golgi apparatus
Microscopic analysis of human heart cells revealed some oval oganellas, their tunic being formed by two
membranes: the external one is smooth, and the internal one forms crista. Biochemical analysis
determined the presence of ATP-synthetase enzyme. What organellas were analysed?
A Mitochondrions*
B Lysosomes
C Ribosomes
D Endoplasmic reticulum
E Centrosomes
Examination of a patient with hepatolenticular degeneration revealed that synthesis of ceruloplasmin
protein has a defect. What organelles is this defect connected with?
A Granular endoplasmic reticulum*
B Agranular endoplasmic reticulum
C Mitochondrions
D Golgi complex
E Lysosomes
In a muscular tissue there is an intensive aerobic process of accumulation of energy as macro energetic
connections ATP. This process takes place due to the participation of such organelles as:
A *Mitochondrion
B Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C Lysosomes
D Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
E Centrosome
On an electronic photomicrograph is visible the fibroblast that products the components of intercellular
substance. Define organelles that take part in this process?
A Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi complex*
B Smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex
C Golgi complex and mitochondrion
D Golgi complex and lysosomes
E the Granular and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Ultramicroscopic examination of “dark” hepatocytes population in the cell cytoplasm detected a
developed granular endoplasmic reticulum. What function has this organelle in these cells?
A Synthesis of protein of blood plasma *
B Synthesis of carbohydrates
C Detoxification
D Products of bile
E Depositing ions of calcium
From the cell was excluded Golgi complex by means of micromanipulator. How it will affect in later
existence of cell?
A Will be broken formation of lysosomes, maturation of secretory products of cell *
B Will be broken by the process of mitosis
C Will be broken by the formation of ribosomes and synthesis of proteins
D Will develop autolysis, can lead cell to death
E Will be broken by processes of power exchange
An extensive process of accumulation of energy as macroenergic compounds (ATP) is produced in
muscular tissue. This process takes place due to the participation of the following organelles:
B Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C Lysosomes
D Rough endoplasmic reticulum
E Centrosome
By means of micromanipulator the Golgi complex was removed. How will this affect the later existence
of the cell?
AWill be broken formation of lysosomes, maturation of secretory products of cell*
B Will be broken by the process of mitosis
C Will be broken by the formation of ribosomes and synthesis of proteins
D Will develop autolysis, can lead to cell death
E Will be broken by process of power exchange.
Analysis of an electron diffraction pattern of a cell revealed mitochondrion destruction. This might result
in abnormal course of the following cell process:
A Oxidation of organic substances*
B Nuclear division
C Crossingover
D Cleavage
EStructure of cytoplasm. Non membranous organelles and inclusions
The tumour of a uterus is removed the woman of 67 years. At histologic research in cells of a tumour are
found out multipolar mitosises - pictures of a divergence to several poles. With infringement of what
organelles’ condition the most authentic occurrence multipolar mitosises?
A. Secondary lysosomes
B. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
D. Peroxysomes
E. Centrioles*
In a nutrient substance where cells of animals are raised, have added aminoacid leucin with a radioactive
label. After a while a method of radioautography have found out high concentration labeled aminoacid
near certain determined organelles. These organelles can be:
A. Ribosomes*
B. Lysosomes
C. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
D. The cellular center
E. Golgy complex
In the cytoplasm of pancreatic cells during the secretory cycle secretory granules are appearing and
disappearing in apical part of cell. Which structural elements can be attributed these granules?
A To inclusions*
B To microfilaments
C To lysosomes
D To Golgy complex
E To rough endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleoli of nuclei have been damaged due tj tissue culture nuclear irradiation. Regeneration of the
following organelles becomes hampered in cytoplasm:
A. *Ribosomes
B. Lysosomes
C. Endoplasmic reticulum
D. Microtubules
E. Golgi apparatus
A 36-year-old woman had her tooth extracted. The tissue regenerated. Which of the following organelle
are the most active during tissue regeneration?
A Ribosomes*
B Centrioles
C Polysomes
D Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
E Lysosomes
During the histological research was found a great number of granules of glycogen in the cells of liver
according to the excessive feeding of animals by carbohydrates. What activity of these organelles
indicates this fact?
A Trophic inclusion *
B Secretory inclusion
C Excretory inclusion
D Pigment inclusion
E Non membrane organelles
During the electronic microscopy in the cytoplasm of cell, near the cell nucleus, was found a
membranous organelle that consists of 5-10 flat cisterns, with the extended peripheral areas from which
little blisters – (lysosomes) are disconnected. Name this organelle:
A Golgi apparatus*
B Ribosome
C Mitochondrion
D Cytoskeleton
E Centrosome
Formation of ribosome subunits in a cell was disturbed in course of an experiment (by means of
activated mutagenic factors). This will have an effect on the following metabolic process:
A Protein biosynthesis*
B Carbohydrate biosynthesis
C ATP synthesis
D Photosynthesis
E Biological oxidation
An animal had been intensively fed with carbohydrates. Histologic examination of its liver revealed a
significant number of glycogen granules. Glycogen relates to the following group of cell structures:
A Trophic granules*
B Secretory granules
C Excretory granules
D Pigment granules
E Special organelles
In process of the secretory cycle secretion granules come and go in the apical part of cytoplasm of
pancreas cells. These granules relate to the following structure elements:
B Microfilaments
C Lysosomes
D Exocytic vacuoles
E Granular endoplasmic reticulum
A patient was prescribed a drug with apparent lipophilic properties. What is the main mechanism of its
A Passive diffusion*
B Filtration
C Active transport
D Pinocytosis
E Binding with transport proteins
Submicroscopic not membranous organelles of general-purpose – microtubules are built from the
following protein like:
A Tubulin *
B Desmine
C Keratin
D Vimentine
E Actinin
Centrioles in their basis contained microtubules which are oriented parallel and have such a formula as:
A (9 х 3) + 0 *
B (9 х 2) + 2
C (9 х 3) + 2
D (9 х 2) + 0
E (9 х 3) + 3
Submicroscopic non membranous organelles of general purpose-microtubules are built from which of
the following proteins?
B Desmin
C Keratin
D Vimetin
E Actinin
Cell nucleus
In a nutrient substance with cells which are cultivated, the solution of Thimin (Т) with a radioactive
label is brought. In what structures of cells will find out designated Thimin during radioautography?
A. Nucleus*
B. Ribosomes
C. Golgy complex
D. Endoplasmic reticulum
E. Lysosomes
In culture of tissue by a nuclear irradiation are damaged injured nucleoles. What organelles renewaled in
cytoplasm of cells become problematic?
A. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
D. Golgy complex
In the cell the synthesis of histone proteins was blocked artificially. What cell structure is damaged?
A Golgi complex
B Nucleolus
C Nuclear chromatin*
D Cell membrane
E Nuclear membrane
Sometimes it is necessary to do research of somatic cells for determination of sex of human. What their
structures can provide the information about sex of human?
A Peripheral chromatin*
B Euchromatin
C Decondensation chromatin
D Barr corpuscles
E Optional chromatin
During the studies of epithelial cells of oral cavity on the surface of cell’s nucleus appear the rounded
little bodies that indicated that cells are taken from the oral cavity of woman. How is such a formation of
chromatin called?
A Barr corpuscles *
B Herring corpuscles
C Chromatin
D Euchromatin
D Pacinian corpuscles
During the forensic research of blood sample in neutrophils on the surface of one of segments of cell’s
nucleus the chromatin appears as a drumstick. How is such structural formation called?
A Barr corpuscles*
B Layon corpuscles
C Chromatin
D Euchromatin
E Pacinian corpuscles
In the certain cells of adults during their lifelong there is no mitosis and quantitative content of DNA
remains constant. These cells are:
A Neurons*
B Endothelia cells
C Muscle (smooth)
D Epidermis
E Blood forming
The mucous membrane of the cheeks is scraped by means of a spatula and a smear is made and stained
with methylene blue. Semispherical lumps of heterochromatin are visible in the nucleus of epithelial
cells near the internal membrane. What is this structure?
A Barr body*
B Fordyce spots
C Buccal fat pad
D Y-chromosome
E Ribosome
Mitosis. Cellular cycle.
During division of a cell the researcher managed to observe a phase at which were absent a membrane of
a nucleus and nucleola, and centrioles were on poles of a cell. Chromosomes looked like a ball of strings
which are freely located in cytoplasm. It is typical of what phase?
D. Anaphase
Doctor made smea from mucous shall of the oral cavity of the person. In not destroyed epithelial cells
painted smea it is well visible oval nucleus, unequal in the sizes. What way occured division of these
D. Amitotic division *
At microscopic research of liver’s tissue have been found out, that some cells have broken up to small
fragments with separate organelles and nucleus’ fragments surrounded with a membranes. Inflammatory
reaction is absent. For what pathological process these changes are characteristic?
A.Apoptosis *
D. Plasmolisis
An electronic microphotography represents a cell without nucleoli and nuclear membrane.
Chromosomes are loosely scattered, centrioles migrate to the poles. What phase of cell cycle is it&
A. Prophase*
B. Anaphase
C. Metaphase
D. Telophase
E. Interphase
During embryogenesis the epithelial band also known as vestibular plate gives rise to development of
vestibule of mouth. What biological mechanism of the programmed death of cells provides growth of
buccolabial sulcus from epithelial plate?
A Apoptosis*
B Necrosis
C Meiosis
D Paranecrosis
E Amitosis
It is known that information about sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule is encoded as a
sequence of four types of nucleotides in a DNA molecule, and different amino acids are encoded by
different number of triplets - from one to six. Such peculiarity of the genetic code is called:
A Degeneracy*
B Universality
C Nonoverlapping
D Triplety
E Specificity
In the post synthetic period of mitosis the cycle of protein synthesis was damaged -the tubulins take part
in formation of spindle fibers of division. This can result in the violation of:
A Of divergence of chromosomes*
B Of duration of mitosis
C Of spiralization of chromosomes
D Of cytokinesis
E Of antispiralization of chromosomes
A dumbell shaped cell stained with Ferrous Hematoxylin dye is presented on a histological preparation,
spiralization of chromosomes is visible in the poles. Which phase of the cellular cycle is the cell in?
A In telophase*
B In anaphase
C In metaphase
D In prophase
E In interphase
Bases of general embryology and gametogenesis.
Microscopic examination of oval shaped cell, with the size of 150 mkm, reveals cytoplasm with yolk,
but doesn’t reveal centrioles. What kind of cell is it?
A Oocyte*
B Leucocyte
C Myocyte
D Fibroblast
E Macrophage
Spermatozoids move on woman genital tracts to side of ovule against liquid (distant stage of
impregnation). What name has this directed movement?
A Rheotaxis *
B Thermotaxis
C Chemotaxis
D Capacitaion
E Acrosome reaction
Fertilization. Implantation. Formation of extraembryonic shells.
During experiment above frog’s blastula at a stage of 16 blastomeres have been removed 1 blastomere.
This cell continued to develop normally and has begun a new germ. What is important property of
blastomeres was is shown?
B.Embryionic induction
D. Formation of poles of an embryo
E.Germinal layers’ formation
At microscopic research of embryo bodies which are removed during operation, the germ consists of two
blastomeres has been found. Named a place of its localization in condition of normal embryo’s
A. Ovaries
B. Uterine tube near uterus
C. Uterine cavity
D. Ampullary part of the uterine tube *
E. Abdominal cavity
Process of segmentation of zygote comes to the end with formation of blastocyst. What is the type of
human blastocyst?
A. Morula
B. Celoblastula
C. Discoblastula
D. Amphyblastula
E. Blastocyst *
Human embryo was found in the uterus. He wasn’t attached to the endometrium. What stage of
development the embryo is responsible?
A Blastocysts*
B Zygote
C Morula
D Gastrula
E Neyruly
In the cavity of uterus there was revealed the embryo which isn’t attached to endometrium. What stage
of development is it?
A *Blastocysts
B Zygote
C Morula
D Neurula
E Gastrula
In preparation is visible an oocyte in the moment of impregnation it by spermatozoid. What is the main
result of impregnation?
A Formation zygote*
B Determination sex of child
C Completion of meiosis an oocyte
D Penetration by spermatozoon an ovolema
E Cortical reaction
During formation of human embryo it is possible to see in his composition a cavity, light shallow
blastomeres on periphery and dark large blastomeres on one of poles. How is an embryo defined on this
stage of development?
A *Blastocysts
B Morula
C Zygote
D Gastrula
E Embryo of disk
At a certain stage of development of a human embryo one can observe formation of a cavity in its
structure, small light blastomeres on the periphery and large dark blastomeres at one of the poles. The
embryo at this stage of development is called:
A Blastocyst*
B Morula
C Zygote
D Gastrula
E Blastodisk
For an unknown reason the fertilization membrane of an embryo dissolved in the fallopian tube in the
first critical period. What complication of pregnancy is possible in this case?
A Embryo implantation into the Fallopian tube*
B Embryonic death
C Invagination of the blastocyst wall
D Return of blastocyst back to the ampullary portion of the tube
E Formation of two blastocysts
Implantation of embryo into the mucous membrane of uterus consists of two phases - adhesion and
invasion. First phase accompanied by:
A Attaching blastocyst to the surface of endometrium *
B Destruction of connecting tissue of endometrium
C Destruction of epitheliocytus of endometrium of uterus
D Activation of secretion of uterus glands
E Oppression of secretion of uterus glands
In a blastocyst which is, covered by tunicate impregnation, genetically inhibited the synthesis of lytic
hormones in the cells of the trophoblast. What process of embryogenesis can be done or can be delayed?
A Implantation *
B Delamination
C Immigration
D Gastrulation
E Epibolation
In the first critical period in the fallopian tube without reason in an embryo was dissolution of
fertilization membrane. What complication of pregnancy is possible in this case?
A *Implantation of embryo in the wall of the uterus tube
B Death of embryo
C Invagination wall of blastocyst
D Return blastocyst back into the ampulla parts of uterus tube
E Formation of two blastocysts
At microscopic research of internal genital woman organs that were remote during operation was found
embryo built from two blastomeres. Name the place of it localization on condition of normal
A * Fallopian tube (uterus tube) close to ampulla parts
B Fallopian tube, close to uterus part
C Cavity of uterus
D Abdominal region
E Ovary
Implantation process has two stages: adhesion and invasion. Morphological manifestation of blastocyte
adhesion is:
A Attachment of blastocyte to the endometrium*
B Destruction of endometrium epithelium
C Destruction of connective tissue of endometrium
D Destruction of endometrium vessels
E Formation of lacunes
During forensic examination of woman, which perished in an accident, an embryo was found on the
stage of early gastrula. Name the place of it localization on condition of it normal development.
A Wall of uterus *
B Ampulla part of tubes uterus
C Fallopian part of tubes uterus
D Ovary
E Abdominal region
Examination of uterine cavity revealed an embryonated ovum that wasn't attached to the endometrium.
The embryo is in the following stage of development:
A Blastocyst*
B Zygote
C Morula
D Gastrula
E Neurula
The process of splitting of the zygote ends with the blastula formation. What type of blastula is typical
for a human?
A Blastocysts*
B Coeloblastula
C Discoblastula
D Amphiblastula
E Morula
A human embryo was found in endoscopic research of a cavity of the uterus, which was attached not
fastened to the endometrium. What stage of embryogenesis is this?
A "Free" blastocyst *
B Zygote
C Morula
D Gastrula
E Neurula
Due to research of women genital organs, that were removed during surgery, an embryo that consists of
16 blastomeres covered by a specific membrane was found. What is the name of this membrane?
A Membrane of fertilization *
B Corona radiata
C Corona pollucida
D the Cellular membrane
E Oolemma
An oocyte at the moment of being fertilized by a spermatozoid is visible on a slide. Where does this
process occur on normal conditions?
A In ampulla part of fallopian tube *
B In an abdominal cavity
C On the surface of ovary
D In the uterus
E In the isthmus of fallopian tube
For diagnostics purposes a few micro slides are prepared representing the primary development period
of a human embryo that lasts the first 7 days to embryogenesis. What sign makes it possible to recognize
this beginning period of embryo development on a micro slide?
A. Fertilization *
B. Cleavage
C. Gastrulation
D. Placentation
E. Neurulation
Early stages of development of human embryo.
On a section of a germ of the person taken from spontaneous abortion, we see embryonic disk in which
two layers are distinguished, - еndo-and еctoderm. At what stage of embryonic development there was
an embryo?
A.Blastula formation
One of the critical periods of human embryogenesis is implantation of a germ in a wall of a uterus
during 5th-7th days. What mechanism of gastrulation occurs in embryo during this period?
A. Еpibolia
B. Migration
C. Delamination*
D. Invagination
E. Neurulation
During gastrulation in a germ it was insufficiently generated primary node. What structure of developed
embryo’s body will be broken?
A. Chord *
B. Nervous crests
C. Ectoderm
D. Nervous tube
E. Mantile layer of a nervous tube
Early gastrulation of a human germ occurs by delamination of embryoblast. From what structure will be
formed nervous system?
A. From hypoblast
B. From trophoblast
C. From epiblast*
D. From chord
E. From primitive segments
Implantation of human blastocyst begins. How the period of embryogenesis refers to, what begins
simultaneously with implantation?
A. Histogenesis
B. Invagination
C. Differentiation
D. Gastrulation *
E. Segmentation
On the micro preparation of human embryo, taken from involuntary abortion, is educed an embryonic
corymb, in what recognized two layers of the cell: ento- and ectoblast. In what stage of embryonic
development was an embryo?
A Gastrulation*
B Progenesis
C Neurulation
D Histogenesis
E Organogenesis
Gastrulation is a period of embryogenesis, where embryonic sheets are formed, as a result of which an
embryo acquires the three-stratified structure. What mechanism of gastrulation is characteristic for the
human embryo?
A Delamination and immigration *
B Invagination
C Epibolation
D Immigration and invagination
E Delamination and Epibolation
A newborn boy has been diagnosed with hydrocephalus. Doctor consider it to be teratogenic factors.
What germ layers are affected by teratogens?
A. Ectoderm*
B. All embryo germ layers
C. Endoderm and mesoderm
D. Endoderm
E. Mesoderm
In the process of embryonic ectoderm differentiation a neural tubule, nervous combs, neurogenic
placodes, skin ectoderm and lamina prechordalis are developed. How is the process of forming a neural
tubule defined?
A Neurulation *
B Gastrulation
C Somytogenesis
D Histogenesis
E Organogenesis
In preparation of main end of embryo, with the length of 6 mm, on the front surface of neck are visible
piatenlike increases that appeared due to proliferation of mesenchyme. How these formations of
branchial apparatus are defined?
A Branchial arches*
B Branchial fissures
C Branchial pockets
D Branchial membranes
E Pharyngeal pockets
One of critical periods of embryogenesis of human is implantation of embryo into wall of uterus during
7th days. What process of gastrulation take place in the embryoplast in this period?
A Delamination*
B Migration
C Epibolation
D Invagination
E Neurulation
In preparation of main end of embryo of 5-th week formation are developments of branchial arcs. What
form of first pair of these formations?
A Mandibularies and Maxillaries *
B Mandibularies processus
C Maxillaries processus
D External acoustic duct
E Thyroid cartilage
Ecto- and entoderm are formed in the period of early gastrulation. In what mechanism these sheets
A Delamination *
B Invagination
C Epibolation
D Immigration
E Invagination, Epibolation
In an embryo wasn’t formed primary Hensen’s node during gastrulation. The development of what axial
organ will be inhibiting?
A Chorda *
B Neural crest
C Neural groove
D Neural tube
E Mantle layer of the neural tube
During gastrulation the Hensen's node remained underdeveloped in the embryo. Which axial organ will
slow down its development?
A Chord*
B Neural crests
C Neural groove
D Neural tube
E Mantle layer of the neural tube
Microspecimen analysis of child's finger skin revealed that epidermis has signs of inadequate
development. What embryonal leaf was damaged in the process of development?
A Ectoderm*
B Mesoderm
C Endoderm
D Mesenchyme
E Ectomezenchyme
During the experimental analysis of chondrohistogenesis a sclerotome was damaged. What cells will it
make impossible to differentiate?
A Chondroblasts*
B Smooth myocytes
C Myoblasts
D Fibroblasts
E Epidermocytes
Microspecimen of a child's finger skin reveals subnormal development of epidermis. What embryonic
leaf was damaged in course of development?
A Ectoderm*
B Mesoderm
C Endoderm
D Mesenchyme
E Ectomesenchyma
A newborn child has microcephalia. Doctors consider that this is the result of mother's taking
actinomycin D during the pregnancy. What embryonal leaf was influenced by this teratogen?
A Ectoderma*
B All leaves
C Entoderma
D Mesoderma
E Entoderma and mesoderma
Examination of a pregnant woman who has been taking alcohol revealed diturbed anlage of ectoderma
during the fetal life. What derivatives of this leaf have defects?
A Neural tube*
B Kidneys
C Bowels epithelium
D Liver
E Sexual glands
Differentiation of germ layers
In newborn infringement of development of a myocardium is diagnosed. To what infringement of
development of embryonic source this pathology is connected?
D. Mesenchyma
At Addison illness’ patient hyperpigmentation of integuments is observed. It connects with a generality
of sources of melanocytes’ development and suprarenal gland’s medulla. What is a source of their
D. Nervous crest*
At the newborn boy (10th days) numerous defects of development of skeleton are observed. What
infringement of embryonic development a rudiment has most authentically led to occurrence of the
given pathology?
A. Miotomes
B. Mesenchyma
C. Dermatome
D. Еctoderm
E. Sklerotome*
In experiment on frog’s germ the external germinal layer - еctoderm is destroyed. What morphological
structure from listed further will not develop at the given germ?
A. Bone tissue
B. Blood
C. Epidermis *
D. Cartilage tissue
E. Muscle tissue
In experiment at germ of rabbit is destroyed myotome. Infringement of development of what structure
will be observed at the given germ?
A. Epidermis
B. Bone tissue
C. Connective tissue
D. Smooth muscles
E. Skeletal muscles *
On histological section it is visible a hen’s germ at a stage of differentiation of mesoderm to somites,
segment legs and splanchnotome. From what material does the skeleton develop?
A. Myotome
B. Dermatome
C. Celom
D. Splanchnotome
E. Sklerotome*
In course of a conditional experiment the development of mesenchyma cells was completely inhibited.
Development of the following muscular tissue will be disturbed:
A Smooth muscular tissue *
B Neural muscular tissue
C Epidermal muscular tissue
D Cardiac muscular tissue
E Skeletal muscular tissue
An embryo displays disturbed process of dorsal mesoderm segmentation and somite formation. What
part of skin will have developmental abnormalities?
A Derm *
B Hair
C Sebaceous glands
D Epidermis
E Sudoriferous glands
Study of the biopsy material of an embryo revealed a zone of developmental abnormality in a somite.
The zone was located close to the endoderm and the notochord. What formations may have abnormal
development in case of pregnancy continuation?
A Skeletal tissues *
B Genito-urinary system
C Skeletal striated muscle tissue
D Cardiac striated muscle tissue
E Fibrous connective tissue of skin
The myotome was destroyed in the rabbit embryo during the experiment. Disorder of what structure can
be caused by this manipulation?
A Skeletal muscle*
B Axial skeleton
C Skin connective tissue
D Smooth muscle
E Serous membrane
In embryogenesis of human in a 20-th day there is dissociating of embryo's body from pharmacist
organs. In what way this process is provided?
A Truncal fold *
B Amnion fold
C Celom
D Yolk sack
E Somits
In preparation of 10-daily embryo of human 2 bladders can be seen, that contact together (amniotic and
vitelline). What is the structure that lies in the place of their contact?
A Embryonic corymb*
B Bottom of amnion
C Roof of yolk sack
D Amniotic leg
E Fetal of mesoderm
Bulges covered by a thin layer of epidermis, basis of which formed a mesenchyme, are found in the
early stages of development (4-10 weeks) in the main section of a himan embryo. What formation is
A The branchial arches *
B The branchial fissures
C The branchial pockets
D The pallatin processus
E The frontal processus
As a result of expression of individual components of the genome, cells of an embryo acquire
morphological characteristics, biochemical and functional features. What is the name of this process?
A Differentiation *
B Capacitation
C Reception
D Determination
E Induction
The 25-years-old woman visited a gynecologist about an abortion on the 24th week of pregnancy.
During a detailed examination the doctor introduced a pathology into the development of the chorion
(child part of the placenta). What rudiment will undergone changes?
A Trophoblast *
B Endoderm
C Ectoblast
D Epiblast
E Mesenchyme
A woman had infected by the flu during the 7-14 days of pregnancy. What consequences may appear?
A Detection of formation of ecto- and endoderm *
B Detection of formation of mesoderm
C Detection of formation of mesenchyme
D Detection of process of Epibolation
E Detection of process of invagination
In a conventional experiment the development of mesenchymal cells was inhibited. The disturbance of
what muscular tissue development will be observed?
A Of the smooth muscular tissue of visceral type *
B Of the muscular tissue of neural type
C Of the muscular tissue of epidermal type
D Of the cardiac muscular tissue
E Of the skeletal muscular tissue
Embryos in their 2-8 days of development are prepared for diagnostic purposes. By what sign is it
possible to recognize the beginning (early stages) of embryo development on a micro slide?
A. Formation of primary stripe*
B. Cleavage
C. Gastrulation
D. Placentation
E. Neurulation
Provisional organs. Placenta. Umbilical cord.
At microscopic research of environments of a germ it is defined determined chorion. What basic
function is provided with this structure?
A. Metabolism between mother’s blood and fetus’ blood*
B. Haemopoietic function
C. Production of amniotic water
D. Formation of primary reproductive cells
E. Differentiation of the lymphocytes
Ultrasound examination of pregnant women was diagnosed with polyhydramnios. In violation of which
structure can be attributed this pathological condition?
A Amnion*
B Chorion
C Placenta
D Yolk sac
E Allantois
The examination of amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis (amnion puncture) there were found cells
which nucleuses contain sex chromatin (Barr’s body). What could this mean?
A The development of male fetus
B Development of female fetus*
C Genetic disturbances in fetal development
D Trisomy
E Polyploidy
During embryogenesis trophoblast develops into an organ rudiment that has endocrine function. What
rudiment is it?
A. Villous chorion*
B. Amnion
C. Yolk sac
D. Allantois
E. Umbilical cord
On the certain stage of ontogenesis of human is established during the certain stage of human
ontogenesis. This function is performed by the provisionally organ:
A Placenta*
B Yolk sac
C Amnion
D Umbilical cord
E Allantois
During the gastrulation embryo goes through the hystotroph to the haematotroph methods of feeding.
What pharmacist organ does provide it first?
A Chorion *
B Trophoblast
C Yolk sack
D Amnion
E Allantois
The antigen of tissue compatibility of child inherits from a father and mother. It is known that expression
of paternal antigens in embryogenesis begins before time. But the immune system of mother doesn't tear
away an embryo. What organ first of all is prevent rejection an embryo of mother organism?
A Chorion *
B Amnion
C Allantois
D Yolk sack
E Umbilical Cord
It is known that some microorganisms that cause infectious diseases can pass through a placenta barrier.
What structures are included in its composition?
A All structural components of third villi *
B Chorion and amnion
C All structural components of secondary villi
D Allantois, yolk sack
E Basal lamina of endometrium with decidual cells
During histological preparation is determined a great number of mucous connective tissue (Wharton's
jelly), vessel, and also bits and pieces of vitelline stem, and allantois. What is the organ?
A Umbilical cord *
B Esophagus
C Ureter
D Urinary canal
E Vermicular appendix
Microscopic research of embryonic material in preparation is determined a yolk sack. What is the
function of this organ for human?
A Hematopoesis*
B Trophic
C Products of amniotic fluid.
D Excretory
E Protective
Microscopic research of embryo membranes is determined a chorion. What basic function is provided by
this organ?
A Metabolism between the organism of mother and fetus*
B Hematopoesis
C Products of amniotic fluid
D Formation of primary gametes
E Formation of lymphocytes
By producing a number of hormones placenta plays a part of temporary endocrine gland. What hormone
may be detected in woman's blood on the third or the forth day after begin of implantation, that is used
in medicine for early pregnancy detection?
A Chorionic gonadotropin*
B Somatostatin
C Progesterone
D Vasopressin
E Oxytocin
The gametes precursors (gonoblasts) were revealed in the embryo at 2nd-3rd weeks of embryogenesis.
Where are these cells differentiated?
A In the yolk sac*
B In the mesenchyme
C In the embryonic ectoderm
D In dermatomes
E In the embryonic endoderm
An embryo umbilical cord has compressed, but the circulation of blood between the embryo and the
mother wasn't disturbed. The presence of what structure contributed to this in the first place?
A Mucous connective tissue *
B Remain of allantois
C Layer of arteries
D Layer of vein
E Remain of vitelline stem
A bounded vesicle with intestinal tube, which is one of main organs, is visible on a micro section of a
human embryo. Primary gametes and primary red corpuscles (megaloblasts) are located in it's walls.
What is this organ?
A. Yolk sack *
B. Allantois
C. Placenta
D. Umbilical cord
E. Amnion
The cut of organ is presented on a histological preparation. It is basically formed by a mucous membrane
connective tissue, two arteries and a vein. Which organ is this?
A. Umbilical cord *
B. Allantois
C. Yolk sack
D. Amnion
E. Placenta
The outgrowth of a primary bowl's ventral wall, which is growing in the amniotic leg, has developed in
the early stages of development of human embryo development. What is the name of this organ?
A. Allantois *
B. Yolk sack
C. Amnion
D. Placenta
E. Umbilical cord
In normal conditions the circulation of the mothers blood has no direct connections to fetal circulation.
Blood of the fetus flows in the vessels of chorion villi, and the mothers-circulates in between villi space
of the uterus endometrium. What separates the mother's blood from the fetus blood?
A Haemochorion barrier *
B Connective tissue partitions
C Fibrinoid of Langance
D the Amorphous fibrinoid of Рора
E the Locking plate of basic meatus of uterus
A fetal membranous organ is in the early stages of embryogenesis has a simple squamous epithelium,
which in the 3rd month acquires a prismatic cube form, and participates in the production of amniotic
fluid. Name this organ:
A. Amnion *
B. Yolk sack
C. Allantois
D. Umbilical cord
E. Placenta
Basic principles of organization of tissues. Epithelial tissues
In the patient it is found out hyperemia of skin. Borders of the damaged injured sites of skin are
precisely outlined, have the wrong form and painless. What type of epithelia is struck with a mycosis?
A. Simple
B. Stratified cuboidal
C. Keratinazed stratified*
D. Transitional
E. Pseudostratified columnar
To the man 48 years old with the diagnostic purpose it is lead is carried out biopsy of a stomach tumor
located in the mucosa. Immunomorfological research of bioptate has shown presence in cytoplasm of
cells keratin filaments. The most probable source of development of a tumor is:
A. Epithelial tissue*
B. Areolar connective tissue
C. Dense connective
D. Muscle tissue
E. Nervouse tissue
At the patient with a dry pleuritis noise of friction of pleura is listened. At what defeat of type of
epithelia this symptom is marked?
A. Stratified epithelium
B. Simple squamous*
C. Transitional
D. Cuboidal
E. Cilindrical
In the experiment the structure of contact between epithelial cells affected. What is the function of
epithelium suffered?
A Mechanical *
B Absorbing
C Vitamin "D"-producing
D Secretory
E Excretory
Tumor of the pericardium was diagnosed in the man. What epithelium is a source of tumor
A Simple squamous*
B Pseudostratified epithelia
C Transitional
D Stratified epithelium keratinized
E Stratified epithelium non-keratinized
Histological investigation of the tissue revealed absence of blood vessels in it and tight connections
between the cells with formation of layers. What tissue is it?
A. Epithelial*
B. Cartilage
C. Bone
D. Nervous
E. Muscle
Histological investigation of the tissue revealed absence of blood vessels in it and tight connections
between the cells with formation of layers. What tissue is it?
F. Epithelial*
G. Cartilage
H. Bone
I. Nervous
J. Muscle
On the electron microphotograph of epithelial tissue under epitheliocytes damaging of the basal
membrane were revealed. What main function of the epithelium is disordered?
A. Barrier*
B. Absorption
C. Regeneration
D. Secretory
E. Exocytose
Study of a tubular organ revealed that its median membrane consists of solid hyaline rings. What
epithelium lines mucous membrane of this organ?
A Multinuclear prismatic ciliated*
B Monostratal prismatic glandular
C Monostratal prismatic with a border
D Multistratal squamous nonkeratinizing
E Monostratal cubical
Tunica intima of the vessel is lined with epithelium. Name it.
A. Endothelium*
B. Mesothelium
C. Epidermis
D. Transitional epithelium
E. Pseudostratified epithelium
In a histological specimen the gland adenomeres should be determined. They are formed by the cells
with central round nucleus and basophilic cytoplasma. Determine the type of adenomeres:
A Serous*
B Mucous
C Combined
D Sebaceous
E Seromucous
In a histological specimen of the small intestine villi were determined. They are covered with tissue
which has only cells that rest on the basal membrane. There are no blood vessels. What tissue covers the
A. Epithelial tissue*
B. Dense irregular connective tissue
C. Loose connective tissue
D. Smooth muscle
E. Reticular tissue
In the study of the epithelium revealed that it is composed of several layers of cells. Epithelial cells of
the outer layer have no nuclei. What kind of epithelium is this?
A Keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium*
B Non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium
C Transitional
D Stratified columnar ciliated epithelium
E Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Glandular epithelium.
The secretory part of apocrine sweat glands contains myoepithelial cells. What is the function of these
A Contractility*
B Secretory.
C Security.
D Regeneration.
E Maintance.
A scheme presents an exocrinous gland that has unbranched excretory duct with a terminal part in shape
of a saccule openining into the duct. How this gland is called according to the morphological
classification of exocrine glands?
A Simple unbranched alveolar *
B Compound branched alveolar
C Simple branched tubular
D Compound unbranched alveolar
E Compound unbranched alveolar tubular
Blood and lymph.
In smear of peripheral blood among leukocytes prevalate spherical cells with the segmented nucleus.
Fine granularity in their cytoplasm colorated in blue and red colours. How these cells refer to?
A. Young neutrophills
B. Basophills
C. Acidophills
D. Segment-shape-nucleus neutrophills *
E. Моnocytes
At the analysis of blood the reduced maintenance hemoglobin’s contents is revealed. What function of
blood will be disturbed thus?
A. Transport of hormones
B. Transport of gases *
C. Maintenance of immunity
D. Blood regeneration
E. Transport of nutrients
Inflammation is characterized by reaction of blood capillaries on a site of damage, reduction of blood
circulation, increase of permeability of the vessels’ wall. To what cells, mentioned below, possesses a
leaguing role in it?
A. To macrophages
B. To fibroblasts
C. To plasma cells
D. To acidophills
E. To basophills*
In the analysis laboratory assistant has the additional conclusion that the blood belongs to the women.
Features of the structure of what formed elements allow making a conclusion?
A Neutrophilic leukocytes*
B Erythrocytes
C Lymphocytes
D Monocytes
E Basophilic leukocytes
At histochemical research of leukocyte in blood smear there were found cells in which contain granules
with histamine and heparin. What are cells?
A Basophils*.
B Neutrophils.
C Eosinophils.
D Monocytes.
E Erythrocytes
At transplantation of organ there was detected transplant rejection. Which blood cells provide this
A T – killer *
B T-helper
C T-suppressor
D T-lymphocytes-O
E T-lymphocytes-memory
Large cells with basophilic cytoplasm and bean-shaped nucleus is seen in a blood smear. The cell is the
largest among the visible cell in the field of view. What is a cell?
A Monocytes*
B Macrophage
C Plasmocyte
D Basophils
E Small lymphocyte
In the experiment B lymphocytes were market in blood. Foreign protein was entered the animal under
the skin. What cells in the connective tissue will contain this mark?
A Plasma cells *
B T lymphocytes
C Macrophages
D Basophils
E Fibroblasts
Numerous plasma cells were found in the blood girl 16 years old, suffering from an autoimmune
inflammation of the thyroid gland. With the proliferation and differentiation of what blood cells cause
increase of plasmocyte?
A B lymphocytes*
B T-helper
C Mast cells
D T-killer
E T-suppressor
A student is given two smears preparations. One - the whole field of view covered by erythrocytes, the
second - defined blood cells in varying degrees of maturity. What kind of smear?
A Blood and red bone marrow *
B Blood and lymph
C Blood frogs and human blood
D Blood smear and yellow bone marrow
E Smear of yellow and red bone marrow
At research of the patient's blood smear there were found the cells wich make up the 0.5% of total
leukocytes and have S-shaped nucleus and blue granules in the cytoplasm. What are these cells?
A Basophils*
B Neutrophils
C Eosinophils
D Monocytes
E Lymphocytes
Live vaccine is injected into the human body. Increasing activity of what cells of connective tissue can
be expected?
A Plasma cells and lymphocytes*
B Macrophages and fibroblasts
C Pigmentocytes and pericytes
D Adipocytes and adventitious cells
E Fibroblasts and labrocytes
In the blood of a 26-year-old man it was revealed 18% of erythrocytes of the spherical, ball-shaped, flat
and thorn-like shape. Other erythrocytes were in the form of the concavo-concave disks. How is such
phenomenon called?
A Physiological anisocytosis
B Pathological poikilocytosis
C Physiological poikilocytosis *
D Pathological anisocytosis
E Erytrocytosis
A patient's blood taken for analysis shows that 30% of the red blood cells are irregular in shape. What is
the condition?
A Pathologic poikylocytosis *
B Anisocytosis
C Physiological poikylocytosis
D Macrocytosis
E Міcrocytosis
After a victim was poisoned, we observe a violation of the respiratory function of the blood following a
blockage of the connection of haemoglobin with Oxygen. Violation of the formation of what substance
caused the respiratory failure phenomenon development?
A Oxyhaemoglobin *
B Karbgemoglobin
C Carboxyhaemoglobin
In patients with haemoglobinopathy, we observe the phenomenon of development of tissue acidosis (PH
decrease) following disturbances of the bonds of haemoglobin with Carbon dioxide. Violation of the
formation of what substance caused the tissue acidosis development?
A Karbgemoglobin *
B Carboxyhaemoglobin
C Oxyhaemoglobin
During tooth extraction patient has longer bleeding from the wound compared with normal. Insufficient
amount of what formed elements of the blood caused increasing time of bleeding?
A. Platelets*
B. Erythrocytes
C. Monocytes
D. Lymphocytes
E. Neutrophils
Filopodia of megakaryocytes enter lumen of the vessels through sinusoidal capillaries fenestrae of red
bone marrow and become fragmented in smaller parts. What formed elements of the blood will be
formed in this way?
A. Platelets*
B. Erythrocytes
C. Lymphocytes
D. Reticulocytes
E. Monocytes
For the child of 6 years it is diagnosed helminthic invasion. What changes in leukocytic formula should
be expected?
A. Increase in quantity amount of acidophills*
B. Increase in quantity amount of neutrophills
C. Reduction of quantity amount basophills
D. Increase in quantity amount of monocytes
E. Increase in quantity amount of lymphocytes
To the doctor asked the patient with complaints of a running nose, which is increased in the spring
during flowering plants. It was established diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. What changes of leukocyte
formula can be expected in blood of this patient?
A Eosinophilia*
B Basophilia
C Lymphopenia
D Eosinopenia
E Lymphocytosis
It is known that in human blood megalocytes can appear. When these cells are normal in blood?
A In the embryonic period*
B At the age of 1 year
C Aged 1 to 30 years
D In old age
E During pregnancy
Blood sampling for bulk analysis is recommended to be performed on an empty stomack and in the
morning. What changes in blood composition can occur if to perform blood sampling after food intake?
A Increased contents of leukocytes *
B Increased contents of erythrocytes
C Increased plasma proteins
D Reduced contents of thrombocytes
E Reduced contents of erythrocytes
Plasma cell produces specific antibody for specific antigen. During injection of antigen quantity of
plasma cell increased. At the expense of what blood cells occurred increasing of plasma cells quantity?
A. B lymphocytes*
B. Eosinophils
C. Basophils
D. T lymphocytes
E. Monocytes
Recovery of an organism from an infectious disease is accompanied by neutralization of antigens by
specific antibodies. What cells produce them?
A. Plasmocytes*
B. Fibroblasts
C. Tissue basophils
D. Eosinophils
E. T-lymphocytes
After investigation laboratory doctor has made an additional conclusion that blood belongs to a woman.
Peculiarities of which formed elements helped him to make this suggestion?
A. Neutrophils*
B. Erythrocytes
C. Lymphocytes
D. Monocytes
E. Basophils
In the blood of a patient with infection small amount of specific antibodies were revealed. Function of
which cells of connective tissue is depressed?
A. Plasma cells*
B. Lymphocytes
C. Macrophages
D. Neutrophils
E. Mast cells
The helminthosis was detected at the child (10 years). What changes in the leukogram can be expected?
A Number of eosinophils will increase*
B Number of platelets will increase
C Number of red blood cells will increase
D Number of segmented neutrophils will increase
E Number of basophils will increase
The cells with the histamine and heparin granules in the cytoplasm were defined in the blood smear.
What is the kind of the cell?
A Basophils*
B Neutrophils
C Eosinophils
D Monocytes
E Erythrocytes
During investigation of the patient blood smear in the neutrophils were revealed bacteria. How did they
appear their?
A. Phagocytosis*
B. Passive transport
C. Active transport
D. Excretion
E. Pinocytosis
6 years old child has hospital treatment with diagnosis allergic rhinitis. Changes in the leukocytic
formula have been found. Amount of what cells among leucocytes can be enlarged?
A. Eosinophils*
B. T lymphocytes
C. B lymphocytes
D. Basophils
E. Neutrophils
Inflammatory process in the tissues and organs is accompanied with hyperemia and edema. What
connective tissue leucocytes are causing these changes?
A Basophils *
B Eosinophils
C Neutrophils
D Lymphocytes
E Monocytes
5 years old child has helminthes invasion, which caused organism sensibilization. What changes in the
leukocytic formula can be expected?
A Increasing of the eosinophils number*
B Increasing of the neutrophils number
C Reducing the eosinophils number
D Increasing of the monocytes number
E Increasing of the lymphocytes number
The large cells with low-basophilic cytoplasm and bean-shaped nucleus were founded in a blood smear.
The cell is the largest from visible in the visual field. What are the cells?
A Monocytes *
B Macrophages
C Plasmocytes
D Middle lymphocytes
E Small lymphocytes
The rounded cells with the segmented nuclei are predominating from the leukocytes in the smear of
peripheral blood. The granules of their cytoplasm stained both acidic and basic dyes. What are these
A Segmented neutrophils *
B Basophils
C Eosinophils
D Young neutrophils
E Monocytes
The cells, which accounts for 0,5% of the total leukocytes number with the S-shaped curved nucleus and
metachromatic colored granules in the cytoplasm, were founded in the patient's blood smear. What are
these cells?
A Basophils*
B Neutrophils
C Eosinophils
D Monocytes
E Lymphocytes
During checking of WBC, a 10 year old child with suspected helminthiasis, reveals a sharp increase in
the number of a particular type of white blood cells. Which white blood cells are these?
A Еosinophils *
B Basophils
C Monocytes
D Lymphocytes
E Monocytes
In a blood smear of a person suffering from allergy, one can observe a large number of cells of spherical
form with segmented nucleus and with large bright pink granules in the cytoplasm. Which blood cells
are these?
A Еosinophils *
B Neutrophils
C Monocytes
D Basophils
E Lymphocytes
Myeloid and lymphoid tissues of haemopoiesis. Myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis.
In myeloid tissue punctate child 6 years cells are found. In these cells there were remove the nucleus
during the process of differentiation. What kind of hematopoiesis, characterized by morphological
changes in the data.
A Erythrocytopoiesis *
B Trombotcytopoiesis.
C Granulcytopoiesis
D Lymphocytopoiesis
E Monocytopoiesis
At histological examination of biopsies of red bone marrow there were found the cells of granulocytic
group. What changes take place in the nucleus during differentiation of these cells?
A Segmentation*
B Poliploidiya
C Piknoz
D Enucleation
E Increasing the size
At electron micrographs of red bone marrow ther were the megakaryocytes wich have demarcation
channels in the peripheral part of the cytoplasm. What is the role of these structures?
A Formation of platelets *
B Increasing the surface area of the cells.
C Increase the number of ion channels.
D Division cell
E Destruction of cells
In punctate of red bone marrow ther were found a significant decrease in the number of megakaryocytes.
What changes in peripheral blood is accompanied?
A Decrease the number of platelets*
B Increasing the number of lymphocytes
C Increase the number of platelets
D Decrease the number of lymphocytes
E Decrease the number of monocytes
During postembryonal haemopoiesis in the red bone marrow the cells of one of the cellular differons
demonstrate a gradual decrease in cytoplasmic basophilia as well as an increase in oxyphilia, the nucleus
is being forced out. Such morphological changes are typical for the following haemopoiesis type:
A Erythropoiesis *
B Lymphopoiesis
C Neutrophil cytopoiesis
D Eosinophil cytopoiesis
E Basophil cytopoiesis
In the red bone marrow specimen conglomerates of giant cells in tight connections with sinusoidal
capillaries are revealed. Call formed elements of the blood which will be formed from these cells.
A. Platelets*
D. Monocytes
As a result of expression of induvidual components of the genome, cells acquire characteristics for their
morphological, biochemical and functional features. What is this process called?
A Differentiation *
B Capacitation
C Reception
D Determination
E Adhesion
In the experiment ribosomes of the poly chromatophil erythroblasts were destroyed in the human red
bone marrow. Synthesis of what specific protein will be disordered?
A. Globin*
B. Fibrinogen
C. Collagen
D. Elastin
E. Laminine
The cells of granulocytic series were revealed at the biopsy material of red bone marrow. Specify what
changes occur in the nucleus during the differentiation of these cells?
A Segmentation*
B Polyploidisation
C Pyknosis
D Enucleation
E Increasing the size
A blood test was done in a patient after few days of stopping of bleeding. What changes occured in the
compositions of the patients blood?
A Increase of reticulocytes*
B Increased erythrocytes
C Decreased monocytes
D Decreased lymphocytes
E Increase of neutrophils with segmented nucleus
A new born baby has an underdeveloped thymus. What type of haematopoiesis was disordered?
A Lymphopoiesis *
B Monocytopoiesis
C Erythropoiesis
D Granulocytopoiesis
E Thrombopoiesis
Fibrous connective tissues.
To the cosmetician the patient with the request has addressed to deprive his tattoo on a shoulder. What
substance which contains in a connective tissue, limits distribution of dye and makes possible such kind
of "painting"?
A. Geparin
B. Fibronektin
C. Gamma-globulin
D. Elastin
E. Hyaluronic acid*
At healing a wound in a site of defect of tissue develops scar from connective tissue. What cells provide
this process?
A. Fibrocytes
B. Маcrophages
C. Fibroblasts*
D. Lymphocytes
E. Меlanocytes
On the histologic section of areolar connective tissue rather big cells filled basophilic granularity are
found; with histochemical methods it is established, that granules contain heparine and histamine.
What’s type of cells?
A. Аdipocytes
B. Fibroblasts
C. Маcrophages
D. Plasma cells
E. Mast cells*
As a result of contact on manufacture with Cr-connections at the woman has arisen allergic dermatitis of
both hands. What cells of the skin have mainly taken part in realization of this disease?
A. Mast cells*
B. Plasma cells
C. Маcrophages
D. Neutrophills
E. Lymphocytes
The esophageal constriction occurred after a chemical burn due to its local scar formation. What cells of
loose connective tissue involved in the formation of scars?
A Mature specialized fibroblasts*
B Young fibroblasts
C Fibrocyte
D Myofibroblasts
E Fibroclast
As a result of thrombosis of the left coronary artery the groups of contractile cardiomyocytes were
damaged. What type of cells will take part in reparative regeneration in the area of damage?
A Fibroblasts*
B Cardiomyocytes
C Miosymplast
D Miosateliocyte
E Smooth myocytes
In the experiment B lymphocytes were labeled. The animal was injected subcutaneous a foreign protein.
What cells of the connective tissue will contain this label?
A Plasmocyte *
B T lymphocytes
C Macrophages
D Basophils
E Fibroblasts
During the training an athlete was injured lower extremity. Traumatologist diagnoses the rupture of
tendon. What type of connective tissue does tendon belongs?
A Dense regular connective tissue*
B Dense irregular connective tissue
C Loose connective tissue
D Reticular tissue
E Cartilage
With age, the human skin is changed, its elasticity decreases. What elements of connective tissue
provide its elasticity?
A Collagen and elastic fibers*
B Ground substance
C cells of the epidermis
D cells of connective tissue
E Reticular fibers
A lot of stem cells of red bone marrow were destroyed in the experiment. Development of what
populations of cells in the loose connective tissue is inhibited?
A Macrophages*
B Fibroblasts
C Pigment cells
D Lipocyte
E Pericytes
Decreased blood supply to the organs causes hypoxia that activates fibroblasts function. Volume of what
elements is increased in this case?
A Extracellular matrices *
B Vessels of microcircular stream
C Nerve elements
D Parenchymatous elements of the organ
E Lymphatic vessels
In loose connective tissue of the salivary glands revealed oval shape middle size cells which synthesized
antibodies. Spherical eccentrically positioned nucleus with chromatin clumps of which resemble
cartwheel or clock face. Call these cells.
A. Plasma cells*
B. Adipose cells
C. Neutrophils
D. Fibroblasts
E. Macrophages
Chronicle inflammation of the gingiva is finished with excessive excrescence of connective tissue fibers.
What cells took active place in this process?
A. Fibroblasts*
B. Osteoblasts
C. Fibrocytes
D. Macrophages
E. Osteoclasts
A foreign body entered into the skin and leads to inflammation development. What connective tissue
cells take place against the foreign body in the skin reaction?
A Neutrophils, macrophages, fibroblasts*
B Macrophages
C Melanocytes
D Adipocytes
E Adventitial cells
During investigation of connective tissue slides neutrophils are revealed. What function do these cells
have when they leave blood and enter tissue?
A. Microorganisms phagocytosis*
B. Trophic
C. Support
D. Regulation of smooth muscle cells contraction
E. Expand blood vessels
A chemical burn of esophagus caused it's local constriction as a result of scar formation. What cells of
loose connective tissue take part in scar formation?
A Mature specialized fibroblasts*
B Immature nonspecialized fibroblasts
C Fibrocytes
D Miofibroblasts
E Fibroclasts
In loose connective tissue histological specimen revealed relatively big cells with basophilic
metachromatic granularity. These granules include histamine and heparin. Call these cells.
A. Mast cells*
B. Fibroblasts
C. Macrophages
D. Plasma cells
E. Adipose cells
Amount of tissue fluid in the connective tissue ground substance can be increased. Ths condition is
called oedema. What can be a reason for local oedema?
A. Increasing of histamine in the connective tissue*
B. Presence of obstacle for venous outflow
C. Difficulty of blood outflow through vessels, heart failure
D. Increased permeability of the capillaries
E. Presence of obstacle for lymph outflow
Round shaped cells jwere found in the loose connective tissue of omentum. Cytoplasm of these cells are
strongly basophilic. Nucleus is oval shape, eccentric located, there are small light area. What are these
A. plasma cells*
B. Fibroblasts
C. Adipose cells
D. Macrophages
E. Mast-cells
Cells with high phagocytic and hydrolytic activity are found in the connective tissue of the uterus just
after pregnancy. These cells participate in dissolving of ground substance. There are large amount of
lysosome in their cytoplasm. Name these cells?
A. Fibroclasts*
B. Fibroblast of I type
C. Fibroblast of II type
D. Fibrocytes
E. Myofibroblasts
Accute cateral inflammation of eye conjuctiva and nasal cavity mucosa develop every spring and
summer in the patient during blossoming of herbs and trees. What cell elements activation and
phagocytosis rest in the base of this syndrome?
A. Mast cells*
B. Platelets
C. Macrophages
D. Neutrophils
E. Endothelium cells
Connective tissues with special properties
At histochemical research of the inflamed umbilical cord increase of activity of hyaluronidase comes to
light. How it influences permeability of the basic substance of a mucous tissue of umbilical cord?
A. Does not influence
B. Permeability increases *
C. Permeability decreases
D. Exchange processes are slowed down
E. The substance is condensed
The damaged Achilles tendon function was renewed after the treating. What is the mechanism of tendon
A Synthesis of the collagen fibers *
B Synthesis of the hyaline cartilage
C Formation of the adipose tissue
D Synthesis of the fibrous cartilage
E Replacements of the place of injury by the muscle tissue
Decreased blood supply of the organs causes hypoxia that activates fibroblasts function. Volume of what
elements does increase in this case?
A Intercellular substance *
B Vessels of microvascular bed
C Nerve elements
D Parenchymatous elements of the organ
E Lymphatic vessels
A specimen of connective tissue of derma was stained with Sudan III and hematoxylin. There are
clusters of big polygonal cells that turned orange. Their nuclei are flattened and located on periphery.
What tissue is it?
A White adipose*
B Brown adipose
C Reticular connective
D Hyaline cartilaginous
E Lamellar osseous
When a wound heals, a scar takes its place. What substance is the main component of its connective
A Collagen*
B Elastin
C Keratan sulfate
D Chondroitin sulfate
E Hyaluronic acid
The lower limb was injured during the athlete training. Traumatologist made the diagnosis: the tendon
rupture. What type of connective tissue the tendon belongs to?
A Dense regular fibrous tissue *
B Dense irregular fibrous tissue
C Loose connective tissue
D Reticular tissue
E Cartilage tissue
Connective tissue consists of parallel collagen fibers separated by fibroblasts. What is the name of this
type of connective tissue?
A. Dense regular connective tissue*
B. Loose connective tissue
C. Reticular connective tissue
D. Dense irregular connective tissue
E. Mucous connective tissue
A patient underwent Caesarean section. During the operation a long incision was made in the uterus wall
and the fetus was extracted from uterus. Healing of the sutured myometrium will proceed in the
following way:
A Formation of a fibrous cicatrix*
B Formation of smooth muscular tissue
C Formation of cross-striated muscle fibers
D Proliferation of myosatellitocytes
E Hypertrophy of smooth myocytes
The large cells are found in the connective tissue slide stained with sudan III and hematoxylin. These
cells are stained in the orange color. Nuclei have flat shape and displaced to the periphery. What tissue is
A. White adipose tissue*
B. Brown adipose tissue
C. Dense fibrous connective tissue
D. Loose fibrous connective tissue
E. Compact bone
Umbilical cord was compressed as a result of extra fetal activity. Circulation between fetus and mother
didn't disorder. Presence of what structures do contribute to this in the first place?
A. *Mucous connective tissue
B. Remnant of alantois
C. Tunica of artery
D. Tunica of vein
E. Yolk sac
Development and structure of cartilage tissue
At electronomicroscopic research of the hyaline cartilage’s cells with well advanced rough endoplasmic
reticulum, Golgy complex come to light. What function is carried out with these cells?
A. Secretion of the lipids
B. Desruction of intercellular substance of a cartilage
C. Keeping of the glycogen
D. Formation of intercellular substance*
E. Nutrition of the cartilage tissue
On histological preparation of cartilage are isogenic group of cells. What are the initial cells in the
formation of these groups?
A Chondrocytes I type *
B Chondroblasts.
C Prechondroblasts.
D Chondrocytes type II.
E Chondrocytes type III
Articular cartilages don’t have perichondrium. What type of these cartilages’ growth are in the process
of regeneration?
A Interstitial*
B Appositional
C By imposing
D Appositional and interstitial
E Does not react
In the histological connective tissue specimen that stained with hematoxylin eosin revealed isogenic
groups of cells surrounded by basophilic ground substance. Fibrous structures are not visible. What
tissue is represented in the slide?
A *Hyaline cartilage
B Elastic cartilage
C Dense regular connective tissue
D Fibrous cartilage
E Bone tissue
Regeneration of articular cartilage of the mandible after damage is a great problem for traumotologists
and dentists. What is the reason of limited hyaline cartilage regeneration of the bone articular surface?
A. *Absence of the perichondrium
B. Absence of isogenic groups
C. Presence of the vessels
D. Huge mechanic loading
E. Large content of nonorganic compounds
In the result of chondrodisplasia (anomaly of cartilage development) fiber cartilage was damaged.
Where pathological changes can be seen?
A. *In the intervertebral discs
B. In the auricle
C. In the trachea
D. In the pharynx
E. In the bronchi
The two slides were proposed to the student. At the 1st one there is the elastic cartilage (stained by the
orcein), at the 2nd one – the hyaline cartilage (stained by the hematoxylin-eosin). According to what
features can we tell one from the other?
A *Presence of the elastic fibers
B Presence of the cells isogenic groups
C Presence of young cartilage zone
D Presence of the perichondrium
E Presence of amorphous substance
The articular cartilage, as it is known, doesn’t have the perichondrium. What kind of growth is possible
at this cartilage during the regeneration process?
A *Interstitial
B Appositional
C By application
D Appositional and interstitial
E It is not growing
As a result of a chest trauma the costal cartilage was damaged. The cartilage regenerates due to the
following layer of perichondrium:
A *Chondrogenic
B Fibrous
C Elastic
D Collagen
E Sharpey's fibers
During the experimental analysis of chondrohistogenesis a sclerotome was damaged. What cells will it
make impossible to differentiate?
A Chondroblasts*
B Smooth myocytes
C Myoblasts
D Fibroblasts
E Epidermocytes
The isogenic cell groups were revealed at the histological slide of the cartilage. What cells are the
primary in the formation of these groups?
A Chondrocytes I type. *
B Chondroblasts
C Prechondroblasts
D Chondrocytes II type
E Chondrocytes III type
Complete regeneration of the cartilagenous joint after injury is left unsolved in traumatology. What
caused the insufficient regeneration of the hyaline cartilage which is located on the articular surface of
the bones?
A Absence of perichondrium*
B Absence of isogenic cells groups
C Presence of vessels
D Considerable mechanical exertion
E High content of inorganic compounds
Fibrous cartilage was damaged due to chondroysplasia(abnormality of cartilage). Where can the
pathological changes be observed?
A Chondroblast*
B Smooth muscle cells
C Myoblasts
D Fibroblasts
E Epidermal cells
Structure of bone tissues.
The resorbtion (destruction) of bones is found in the patient. To what hyperactivity of bone cells it is
A. Оsteocytes
B. Оsteoblasts and osteoclasts
C. Оsteocytes and osteoclasts
D. Оsteoblasts
E. Оsteoclasts*
In section of the tissue which contains cells without processes is submitted and everyone has ten
nucleus. One of surfaces of cells has a goffered zone through which there is a secretion of hydrolyzed
enzymes. What tissue is submitted in section?
A. Cartilage tissue
B. Epithelial tissue
C. Nervouse tissue
D. Bone tissue*
E. Muscle tissue
There is an increased loss of bone mass in older people, which shows the development of osteoporosis.
Activation of what type of bone cells leads to the development of this disease?
A Osteoclasts*
B Osteoblasts
C Macrophages
D Basophils
E Osteocytes
Calcification of the intercellular substance of bone tissue is accompanied by the deposition of
hydroxyapatite crystals along the collagen fibers. This process requires the presence of alkaline
phosphatase in the intercellular substance. What cell produces this enzyme?
A Osteoblasts*
B Osteocytes
C Osteoclasts
D Chondroblasts
E Chondrocytes
There are histogenetic cells row among bone tissue cells. What cells don’t constitute differon?
A. Osteoclasts *
B. Stem cells
C. Osteocytes
D. Osteoblasts
E. Osseus stem cells
There are two ways of bone development during histogenesis. What period doesn’t typical for direct
A. Formation of epiphyseal center of ossification*
B. Formation in the mesenchyme precursor of the bone
C. Osteoid period
D. Formation of spongy bone tissue
E. Replacement of spongy bone tissue by compact bone tissue
In course of indirect histogenesis of tubular bone tissue a plate is formed between epiphyseal and
diaphyseal ossification a center that provides further lengthwise growth of bones. What structure is it?
A Metaphyseal plate *
B Osseous cuff
C Osseous plate
D Osteon
E Layer of interior general plates
The symptoms of regeneration process (callus) on the place of fracture were revealed in the histologic
specimen of tubular bone. What tissue forms this structure?
A Fibrous bone tissue*
B Loose connective tissue
C Reticular tissue
D Epithelial tissue
E Lamellar bone tissue
Examination of a histological specimen of tubular bone revealed signs of regeneration process (callus).
What tissue is this structured formed of?
A Rough fibrous osseous*
B Loose connective
C Reticular
D Epithelial
E Lamellar osseous
A histological specimen presents the tissue that contains cells having no processes and a few tens of
nuclei each. One of cell surfaces has a corrugated zone that provides secretion of hydrolytic elements.
What tissue is it?
A Osseous tissue*
B Cartilaginous tissue
C Epithelial tissue
D Nerve tissue
E Muscular tissue
In the bone tissue multinucleated large cells with numerous lysosomes and ruffled border were revealed.
Call these cells.
A. Osteoclasts*
B. Mesenchymal cells
C. Stem cells
D. Osteoblasts
E. Osteocytes
The excessive loss of bone tissue mass (it reflects the development of osteoporosis) is observed at the
elderly people. Activation of whst bone cells can cause the development of this disease?
A Osteoclast *
B Osteoblasts
C Macrophages
D Tissue basophils
E Osteocytes
A histological specimen presents the tissue that contains cells having no processes and a few tens of
nuclei each. One of cell surfaces has a corrugated zone that provides secretion of hydrolytic elements.
What tissue is it?
A Osseous tissue*
B Cartilaginous tissue
C Epithelial tissue
D Nerve tissue
E Muscular tissue
The clinic received a patient who is diagnosed with a fracture of the clavicle, what cellular elements will
take part in the regeneration of the bone tissue?
B. Osteoclasts
C. Chondrocytes
D. Osteocytes
E. Fibroblasts
A boy with traumatic injuries of the upper extremity was taken to the hospital. X-rays revealed a fracture
of the humerus. What structure will help in reparative regeneration of the bone?
B. Diaphysis
C. Epiphysis
D. Inner circumferential layer plates
E. Outer circumferential layer plates
A 6year old child was diagnosed with a diaphysis fracture of the left humerus. What layers of compact
substance can be distinguished in the diaphysis bone?
The outer and inner layers of common plates, osteon layer*
B. The outer layer plates and general osteon layer
C. Periosteum, common layer plates and osteon layer
D. Periosteum and osteon layer
E. A layer of osteoblasts and osteocytes
In a 68year old patient, the site of fracture of femur formed cartilage instead of bone tissue. Which factor
has the greatest influence on this type of regeneration?
Inadequate blood supply to the area of injury*
B. Avitaminosis C
C. Old age patient
D. Incoreect combining fragments
E. Late diagnosis of fracture
Development of bone tissues.
On the Ro-gram of skeleton it is visible, that all three parts of pelvic bones are separated by intervals
which answer an invisible cartilage on Ro-grams. It is typical of what age?
A. To 25 years old
B. To 30 years old
C. To 16 years old*
D. Till 40 years old
E. To 50 years old
In process of undirect osteogenesis of tubular bone tissue a plate is formed between epiphyseal and
diaphyseal ossification centres that provide further lengthwise growth of bones. What structure is it?
A Metaphyseal plate *
B Osseous cuff
C Osseous plate
D Osteon
E Layer of interior general plates
Development and structure of muscles tissues
In clinical conditions trauma of skeletal muscles is diagnosed for the patient. The fibers recycles slowly
for the account:
A. Mitosis of the myosatelitocytes*
B.Division of the muscle fibres
C.Differentiation of fibroblasts
D. Increases in quantity amount of myofibrilles
E.Increases in quantity amount of sarcoplasm
In a phase of contraction of a myocardium (systole) in sarcoplasm of cardiomyocytes concentration of
calcium’s ions sharply increases. What structures take part in deposition of calcium’s ions?
A. T - system
B. lysosomes
C. Ribosomes
D. L-system *
E. Nucleoles
At research of a cross-section of skeletal muscle fibers after mechanical trauma destruction thick
myofilaments is observed. Where pathological changes will be located?
A. In a disk І
B. In a disk A*
C. In half of disk A
D. In disk A and in disk I
E. In half of disk I
At micropreparations of submandibular salivary glands there were the cells around the terminal parts and
ducts that cover the serocyte and called mioepiteliocyte. What kind of tissue these cells belong to?
A Muscle*
B Epithelial
C Nervous
D Connective with special properties
E Loose connective
In histological preparation tissue is presented, the basic structural unit of which is fiber that consists of
symplast and satellite cells, covered by a basement membrane. For what tissue this structure is
characterized by?
A Skeletal muscle tissue *
B Smooth muscle tissue.
C Cardiac muscle tissue.
D Loose connective tissue.
E Reticular tissue.
At research of striated muscle fibers after the influence of hydrolytic enzymes fracture of thin
myofilaments was observed. Which structures have been damaged?
A Actin myofilaments *
B Tonofibrils
C T - Systems
D Sarcoplasmic reticulum
E Myosin miofilaments
Patient with injured muscles of the lower extremities was admitted to the traumatological department.
Due to what cells is reparative regeneration of the muscle fibers and restoration of the muscle function
A Satellite-cells*
B Myoblasts
C Myofibroblasts
D Fibroblasts
E Myoepithelial cells
The development of mesenchymal cells was inhibited in experiment. Development which muscle tissue
will be disturbed?
A Smooth muscle tissue*
B Muscle tissue neural origin
C Muscle tissue epidermal origin
D Cardiac muscle tissue
E Skeletal muscle tissue
Negative environmental factors have caused the dysfunction of myosatellite cells. What function of the
whole muscle fibre is likely to be changed in this case?
A Regeneration *
B Contraction
C Trophism
D Contractile thermogenesis
E Relaxation
Striated skeletal muscle tissue has all characteristics which were listed further except:
A. Cells structure*
B. Contractive ability
C. Presence of satellite cells
D. Presence of motor plaque
E. Presence of connective tissue layer
Long time mice were swimming in the pool. During morphological investigation of their skeletal
muscles were revealed increasing quantity of the mitochondria with cristae and light matrix. What cell
function will be found in the stressful condition?
A. Energetic*
B. Secretory
C. Synthetic
D. Protective
E. Transport
During histological investigation of the cheek biopsy was found that it formed by skeletal muscle tissue.
Call structural and functional unit of this tissue.
A. Muscle fiber*
B. Cardiac muscle cell
C. Smooth muscle cell
D. Myosatellite cells
E. Myofibril
In the histological specimen are revealed sheaths of the loose connective tissue that immediately
surrounds individual muscle fibers and intertwined with muscle fibers sarcolemma. What histological
structure has been revealed?
A. Endomysium*
B. Capillaries
C. Nervous ending
D. Actin fiber
E. Myosin fiber
Base of the cheek constitutes by cheek muscle which is derivative of second visceral arch. What type of
muscle tissue is it?
A. Somatic*
B. Coelomic
C. Visceral
D. Neural
E. Epidermal
In one of the layers of the hollow organ anastomosing fibers with nucleus are revealed. Fibers consist of
cells which in the connection regions forms intercalated disks. Which tissue constitutes this layer?
A. Cardiac muscle tissue*
B. Skeletal muscle tissue
C. Smooth muscle tissue
D. Dense regular connective tissue
E. Dense irregular connective tissue
The destruction of the thick myofilaments is observed after mechanical injury of striated muscle fibers.
Where is the localization of the pathological changes?
A In the disk A *
B In the disk I
C In the disk A half
D In the A and I disks
E In the disk I half
Destruction of thin microfilaments is observed during the research of a striated muscle fiber after the
action of hydrolytic ferments. Which structures have been damaged?
A. Actin myofilaments*
B. Myosin myofilaments
C. Tonofibrils
D. Tropocollagen complex
E. Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Myotom was destroyed in the rabbit embryo during experiment. Which structure development disorder
has been caused by this manipulation?
A. Skeletal muscle*
B. Skeleton
C. Skin connective tissue
D. Smooth muscle
E. Serous layers
Fibers were presented in the histological specimen of the stomach pyloric region. They include spindle
shape cells with rod like nucleus located in the center. What tissue do these cells form?
A. Smooth muscle*
B. Loose connective tissue
C. Skeletal muscle
D. Epithelial
E. Reticular
It is known, that calcium ions along with other factors provide muscle tissue contraction. With what
structures does calcium interact during contraction?
A. Troponin protein of thin fibrils*
B. Myosin protein of thick fibrils
C. Actin protein of thin fibrils
D. Actomyosin sarcolemma complex
E. Calsequestrin
The regeneration process of damaged skeletal muscles іs very slow. What elements of musculoskeletal
fiber take part in the process of regeneration?
A Myosatellitocytes*
B Myoblasts
C Smooth myocytes
D Myofibroblasts
E Myoepithelial cells
A microspecimen of the submandibular salivary gland shows some basket-shaped cells concentrated
around the acines and excretory ducts. These cells surround bases of the serous cells and are called
myoepitheliocytes. These cells relate to the following tissue:
A Muscular tissue*
B Epithelial tissue
C Neural tissue
D Special connective tissue
E Loose fibrous connective tissue
The regeneration process of damaged skeletal muscles іs very slow. What elements of musculoskeletal
fiber take part in the process of regeneration?
A Myosatellitocytes*
B Myoblasts
C Smooth myocytes
D Myofibroblasts
E Myoepithelial cells
In a laboratory, we interchanged the markings of histological specimens for myocardium and skeletal
muscle. What structural feature can help to determine the specimen of myocardium?
A Intercalated disk*
B Location of the centre
C Absence of myofibrils
D Absence of vessels
E Present striated
In a conditional experiment, were ruined portions of visceral layer of the ventral mesoderm, which lies
adjacent to the endothelial tubes, formed in the cervical region of the embryo at the beginning of the
third week of embryogenesis. The formation of what muscle tissue will be damaged?
ACardiac muscle tissue *
B Skeletal muscle tissue
C Smooth muscle tissue
D Myoepithelial cells
E Muscles of iris
In a histological specimen, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, revealed a non-cellular elongated structure
with a large number of oval nuclei, located under the plasmalemma. The cytoplasm has cross-striations.
What structure is it?
A Skeletal *
B Collagen fiber
C Myelinated nerve fiber
D Cardiac muscle fiber
E Smooth muscle
In a histological microspecimen of brachial muscle slide, we identify myosatelliocytes, located between
the basement membrane and the symplast plasmalemma. What will be the corresponding damage of
these cells?
A Disorderof the muscle development and regeneration*
B Disorder of muscle contracion
C Disorder of muscle nutrition
D Disorder of myoglobin development
E Impulse transmission by T-tubules slowing
As a result of injury to skeletal muscles, the process of regeneration of the striated tissues is slowed
down. Which elements of muscle fiber take part in regeneration?
A Myosatelliocytes*
B Myoblast
C Smooth myocytes
D Myofibroblasts
E Myoepithelial cells
Nervous tissue. Neurons. Neuroglia.
A sensitive neural ganglion consists of roundish neurocytes with one extension that divides into axon
and dendrite at some distance from the perikaryon. What are these cells called?
A Pseudounipolar *
B Unipolar
C Bipolar
D Multipolar
E Apolar
In the histological specimen of the cerebellum transverse section in its gray matter observed large
amount of multipolar neurons. Due to which morphological peculiarity these cells can be classified as
A. Amount of processes*
B. Length]of processes
C. Shape of terminal dilation of axon
D. Perikaryon shape
E. Cells shape
Damaged nervous fibers capable regenerate their integrity. What neuroglia cells take active place in it?
A. Olygodendrocytes*
B. Microglia
C. Ependymal cells
D. Fibrous astrocytes
E. Protoplasmic astrocytes
On a histological specimen are presented three neurons: pseudounipolar, bipolar and multipolar. How
many axons is possible to determine in each of the above listed cell types?
B. Two
C. Absence
D. Many
E. Three
For a histological examination, we took a sample from the cerebellar hemispheres, from which provides
general study of the morphology of nerve cells. What method is appropriate for staining the specimen?
Silver impregnation *
B. Hematoxylin and eosin
C. Sudan
D. Orsein
E. Iron hematoxylin
On a microspecimen taken from the spinal node, we can see neurons which have a rounded formed body
and two processes. To which kind of morphological characteristics of neurons do these cells belong to?
Pseudounipolar neurons*
B. Unipolar neurons
C. Bipolar neurons
D. Multipolar neurons
E. Neuroblast
On a microspecimen made from the brain of adult animals, brain inflammation was modeling during
experiment. We observe the activation of certain cells-gliocytes. These cells are round, motile and give
out their processes similar to granular shape. What are these cells?
Microglial cells*
B. Protoplasmic astrocytes
C. Oligodendrocytes
D. Ependymal cells
Due to a brain injury, were damaged glial cells which are most often found in the central nervous
system. Which of the following names are attributed to these cells?
Protoplasmic astrocytes*
B. Oligodendrocytes
C. Microglial cells
D. Protoplasmic cells
E. Ependymal cells
During some diseases of the nervous system, we observe damage of neurons with occurrences of
chromatolysis. What process of intracellular metabolism of neurons were damaged?
Synthesis of proteins*
B. Synthesis of lipids
C. Synthesis of glycoproteins
D. Synthesis of lipoproteins
E. Formation of keratohyalin
Nervous tissue. Nervous fibres. Regeneration of nervous fibres.
At traumatic damage probably development of degeneration of nervous fibers which is accompanied by
breakage of axial cylinders, disintegration of myelin. Due to what nervous structures there is a renewal
of myelin at regeneration?
A. Gliocytes
B. Shwann cells*
C. Peryneurium
D. Еndoneurium
E. Аstrocytes
Choose one incorrect answer. Myelinated fibers have all character signs except:
A. Several axons *
B. One axon
C. Node of Ranvier
D. Neurofilaments
E. Neurolemmacytes
On a spot of a slide of an animal's nerve fibre, we introduced a substance that retards the reproduction of
neurolemmocytes. How will it affect fibre regeneration?
Regeneration will stop*
B. Regeneration will occur by means of lemmocytes reproduction
C. Regeneration will occur by means of lemmocytes axons
D. Regeneration will accelerate
E. Regeneration will decelerate
On a microspecimen of a nervous tissue, stained with osmium acid, we distinguish myelinated nerve
fibres. They have such properties except:
Bundle of lemmocytes includes several axis casts*
B. Bundle of lemmocytes include one cast
C. The transmission rate of nervous impulse is 5-120m/s
D. Depolarization wave moves saltatory
E. Presence of neurolemma
On a microspecimen of a nerve tissue stained with osmium acid, we distinguish myelinated nerve fibres.
Such morphological characteristics belong to them except:
The transmission rate of nervous impulse is less than 1-2m/s*
B. Presence of myelinic membrane
C. Presence of ranvier's node
D. Presence of Schmid-Lanterman incisures
E. Myelinic membrane has got laminar structure
A patient went to the traumatological centre with anconeal nerve laceration. What pathological processes
occur in the distal part of the damaged nerve?
Degeneration of the axis cast and myelinic membrane*
B. Growth of axis cast in the distal direction
C. Growth of axis cast in the proximal direction
D. Degeneration of Schwann cells
E. Enlargement of myelinic membrane
Nervous endings. Classification and structure.
In conditional experiment action of toxic substance breaks the mechanism of the nervous impulse
conduction. What structure provides performance of the given function?
A. Neurolemma
B. Synaps *
C. Neurofibrills
D. Мitochondria
E. Nissle substance
In histological preparation of nervous tissue you can see, that neurons unite are connected together by
means of contacts that are specialized for the one-sided transmission of nervous impulse. Specify, what
type of intercellular connection is educed on preparation?
A Synapse. *
B Desmosome
C Simple
D Tight junctions
E Gap junction
Structure of nerve cells that contain neuromediators; Acetylcholine and serotonin are called:
Synaptic vessicle*
B. Nissle bodies
C. Neurotubules
D. Axons
E. Dendrites
Name the mediator of the axomuscular synapse that is formed by myelinated nerve fibre and muscular
B. Adrenaline
C. Dopamine
D. Glycine
E. Noradrenaline
On a microspecimen of a section of the epidermis impregnated with silver nitrate solution, we
distinguish nerve endings which are located among epitheliocytes and has the appearance as terminal
branches. They belong to the nerve endings of a definite type, namely:
Free nerve ending*
B. Vater-Pacini corpuscles
C. Golgi's corpuscles
D. Meissner's corpuscles
E. Krause's bulbs
On an electronic microphotography of the brachial muscle, extensions of axonal neurocytes are
identified near the muscle fibre. Its axolemma plays the role as a presynaptic membrane. What kind of
synapses do they belong to?
B. Axosomatic
C. Axodendritic
D. Assymetric
E. Electronical
On an electronic microphotography is shown a synapse. Its upper part has small vessicles while in the
lower part they are absent. Which of these is presynaptic and in what direction in the synapse is impulse
First, from the top to the bottom*
B. Second, from the top to the bottom
C. First, form the bottom to the top
D. None, from the top to the bottom
E. First, doesn't pass
During a conditional experiment the action of toxic substance enhances the mechanism of nerve impulse
transfer. What structure provides this function?
A. Synapse*
B. Neurolemma
C. Neurofibril
D. Mitochondrio
E. Nissl’s body