Difference between interpretations (4). Interpretation 1 suggests that Hitler’s personal appeal was the main reason for the growth of support for the Nazi party. This can be seen where it states “Hitler Himself was central to the success of the Nazis in the years 1929-32”. Interpretation 2 suggests that the Nazis’ rise to power was determined by unpredictable events. This can be seen with the line “Chance events, such as depression and unemployment, played a much larger role than any actions of the Nazi leader himself in bringing Hitler to power.”. Therefore, the difference between the 2 Interpretations is the major reasons behind the Nazi growth. One reason why the interpretations give differing views (4) One reason why the interpretations give differing views could be because they are basing their viewpoints on different sources. Interpretation 1 could be based on Source C, as both heavily lean into the idea that Hitler’s personal appeal is what brought him to power. Interpretation 2, on the other hand, could be gaining information from Source B, as both heavily suggest that depression, unemployment, and a lack of trust in the Weimar government is what lead people to supporting extreme parties instead. Therefore, the reason why the interpretations give different views is because of the sources they use. How useful are Sources B and C (8) Source B is highly useful as an enquiry into the growth of Nazi support from 1929-32 because it shows how the lack of trust in the government moved people towards the Nazis. was. Source B shows several people lining up for their unemployment benefits. The amount of people queuing and the “Vote Hitler” written on the wall suggests a high amount of distrust towards the Weimar Government and a high level of unemployment, poverty and other economic struggles, which would lead to more people voting for the Nazis instead as the party promised to fix these issues.. This lines up with my own knowledge as I know that by 1932 unemployment had risen to around 6million and trust in the government was still low as people had not fully recovered from the Wall Street Crash in 1929. Trust in the government had also diminished after Bruning raised taxes to aid with the recovery of the economy. The source comes from a newspaper published in 1932, however we don’t actually know when the photo was taken. Despite this, the origin aids the source's usefulness as it shows a clear reflection of public opinion at the time. Overall Source B is highly useful as an enquiry into the growth of Nazi support from 1929-32 because it shows how the lack of trust in the government moved people towards the Nazis. Source C is also highly useful as an enquiry into the growth of Nazi support from 1929 because it shows how influential Hitler was. It claims that Hiter and the Nazis had very strong personal appeal which drew attention to them during the depression, which can be seen by “the impression of energy in an atmosphere of hopelessness, seems to have won her over to the Nazis as well.” This lines up with my own knowledge as I know that Hitler was very dynamic in the ways he indoctrinated Germany, with Nazi rallies that were colourful and appealed to children and, as well as speeches that were high in energy and promises. He used basic English to deliver his points to a wider audience, and used propaganda to heavily spread his ideologies to people such as women. The origin of this source is that it comes from a narrative account of a Nazi minister. The fact that he chose to work for the Nazis showed that he clearly was convinced by the Nazis to work for them, aiding in the source’s credibility. In conclusion, Source C is also highly useful as an enquiry into the growth of Nazi support from 1929 because it shows how influential Hitler was. How far do you agree with Interpretation 2 (20) Interpretation 2 suggests that a key factor in the growth in support for the Nazi party was depression in Germany. This can be seen where it says “Events such as the Wall Street Crash, which led to depression in Germany, brought increased support for the Nazis”. I agree with the idea because of just how high unemployment rates in Germany were because of the Wall Street Crash and how dependent they were on America’s economy, reaching 6,000,000 unemployed by 1932. Additionally, at the time, economic instability caused Bruning to use Article 48 to increase taxes, which shifted support away from the Weimar government and more towards the extremist parties such as the Nazis. I also agree because the depression caused an increase in support for a communist society, which people such as businessmen and others who owned private property would be against, which also led to an increase in support for the Nazis. However, I do disagree with Interpretation 2 to an extent because of how it devalues the efforts Hitler himself made to rising to power. It suggests that “Chance events, such as the depression and unemployment, played a much larger role than any actions of the Nazi leader himself.” I disagree with this, as Hitler made himself very well known and utilized specific propaganda to appeal to a variety of Germans. For example, he would organise Nazi rallies which were bright and colourful and appealed to youths. He would also use speeches that were high in energy and promises. He used basic English to deliver his points to a wider audience, and used propaganda to heavily spread his ideologies to people such as women. Interpretation 1 suggests that a key factor in the growth of the Nazi party was Hitler’s strong sense of personal appeal. This can be seen with “I was carried away on a wave of enthusiasm by the speech.” From my own knowledge, I know that Hitler used modern technology such as the radio and travelled using planes in order to further endorse his ideologies to people all around Germany. In particular, the discipline and organisation of the party attracted many Germans and the use of the SA having soup kitchens at a time of extreme poverty lured many more people in. However, the interpretation is somewhat limited since propaganda and Hitler’s appeal had not gained votes in the 1920s. The Nazi votes were under 10% demonstrating the lack of support despite using propaganda. Therefore, interpretation 1 whilst mentioning the use of propaganda and Hitler’s appeal it does not show a significant increase in votes from early on in the years. In conclusion, while interpretation 1 suggests that Hitler’s personal appeal was what helped the Nazi party to gain the maority vote, ultimately it was chance events such as the Wall Street Crash which turned people away from the Weimar government and towards extremist parties such as the Nazis instead. This can be seen with the votes for the Nazi party rising from 2.6% in May of 1928 to 37.4% in July of 1930. Therefore, I agree with interpretation 2 more than I agree with interpretation 1. What can you infer from the source (4) - NSDAP was initially made up of army men - “I introduced all my army friends to the German Workers’ Party” Popularity of the Nazi party increased starting 1920 - “From that day on, the party began to increase so much” How did Hitler create a dictatorship 1933-34 (12) Hitler held a dim view of the value of democracy, which he had consistently criticised as being un-German, and that it was a political system that had been forced upon the German people, as part of the unfair Versailles settlement. As Hitler entered government in the winter to 1933, he did so at a time of economic depression for the nation, which was going to bring to bear a lot of pressure on the German political system. The German people had been increasingly desperate to find a solution to the growing problems in their country; and it were these problems and issues within the political system that Hitler was able to prey upon. Hitler initially entered power in a democratic position and his vision was to change this into a more dictatorial power. Due to the fragile nature of German politics at this time, where the government had gone through a string of chancellors (e.g Bruning) in late 1932, Hitler had been able to use the increased political strength of the Nazi Party to leverage more concessions from President Hindenburg, who had resisted allowing Hitler to ascend to the Chancellorship. This was also connected to the fact that no single party was able to get an outright majority in the Reichstag, thus placing the Nazis in an influential position, which Hitler used to disrupt the democratic process, through a policy of noncooperation. Having become Chancellor, another event that helped him to achieve this vision was the Reichstag Fire which happened on the 27th of February 1933. This is because an opportunity presented itself to reduce the threat of communism, a movement that had been growing for some time now. A Dutch Communist named van der Lubbe was caught red-handed with matches and fire-lighting materials. As a result of this, Hitler used it as an excuse to arrest many of his Communist opponents, and as a major platform in his election campaign of March 1933. The fire was so convenient that many people at the time claimed that the Nazis had burned it down, and then just blamed the Communists. On March 27th, Hitler held a general election, appealing to the German people to give him a clear mandate. Less than 50% of the people voted Nazi, which did not give him a majority in the Reichstag. Therefore, by using the Reichstag as his driving point, he arrested the 81 Communist deputies which gave him a majority. Herman Goring, Hitler’s most loyal supporter Göring’s worked in the Reichstag and his sole concern was to stultify the democratic system and the opportunity to do this more effectively happened when he was elected as speaker of the Reichstag. Nazi stormtroopers stopped opposition deputies going in, and beat up anyone who dared to speak against it, thus highlighting the weak nature of German democracy and its inability to prevent intimidation. Therefore, these events enabled Hitler`s vision of changing the democratic bureaucracy to suit his goals, and this was further enhanced when on the 23rd of March, the Reichstag voted to give Hitler the power to make his own laws. The subsequent Enabling Act resulted in making Hitler the dictator of Germany, with power to do anything he liked - legally. He used these powers to begin to establish a dictatorship. Because of this, life under Hitler changed drastically at this time because of the impact that the change in laws were having on Germany. As a result, this affected a wide range of areas of German society, such as local government, trade unions and political parties. The Nazis took over local government and the police. They started to replace anti-Nazi teachers and University professors. Hitler set up the Gestapo (the secret police) and encouraged Germans to report opponents and 'grumblers'. Tens of thousands of Jews, Communists, Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, gypsies, homosexuals, alcoholics and prostitutes were arrested and sent to concentration camps for 'crimes' as small as writing anti-Nazi graffiti, possessing a banned book, or saying that business was bad. This enabled Hitler to suppress much dissent within Germany and prevent an effective political opposition to the Nazis. Trade Unions offices were closed, their money confiscated, and their leaders put in prison. In their place, Hitler put the German Labour Front which reduced workers' pay and took away the right to strike. Therefore, Hitler was able to largely prevent open democratic discourse within Germany and stop the growth of any open opposition to his aims and ambitions, thus making Germany more and more feel like a dictatorship. Once Hitler had consolidated his position with regard to Germany`s political structure, he turned his attention to suppressing any dissent within the Nazi Party itself. One of the ways in which this happened was in the `night of the long knives` in June 1934 when Hitler used the SS to arrest and execute over 200 SA leaders, including Ernst Rohm. This allowed Hitler to consolidate his control over the Nazi Party and remove any potential threat to his power base, as by 1934 the SA had around 2 million members. As a result of this, Hitler was able to appease the German army elite and to a certain degree win over their support. This enabled Hitler to start to control another aspect of German society, namely the military, and start to plan a rearmament programme. Therefore, this further eroded the separation of powers within the German political system, as Hitler was able to control more of its areas. However, with the death of President Hindenburg in August 1934, one of the final obstacles to Hitler`s creation of a dictatorship had gone. Therefore, Hitler could takeover the position of President, practically unopposed, due to the fact that he had enough control within the German government. The significance of President Hindenburg`s death was that as a WW1 war hero, he was one of the few people left in Germany who arguably had more support from the German people than Hitler, and who potentially could have stopped or slowed down the path towards dictatorship that Germany had found itself on during the years of 1933-34.