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PN5 RenalFailure

Student Name:
Disease: Chronic Renal Failure
How often does this disease occur in different groups of people / populations?
Ex: As of 2015, 9.4% of the U.S. population (30.3 million) has diabetes mellitus and 84.1 million have
prediabetes (CDC Press Release, July 2017).
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is present in 35% of those who are older than 70, while 8% of those who are 20
years old or older possess qualifications that could suggest the diagnosis of the condition (Capriotti &
Frizzell, 2016).
In the table below, indicate whether any of the following risk factors apply.
Ex: If the patient has Sickle Cell Disease, “Race” and “Genetic” both apply. You would then describe which
races are at risk and you would describe how it is inherited (autosomal recessive pattern).
As we age, histological, structural and physiological changes
occur to the kidneys resulting in the gradual decline in its
functioning ( O’Sullivan, 2017).
Although chronic kidney disease prevalence is higher among
women, men tend to be the ones with higher incidences of
receiving treatment for ESRD (Carrero, 2018).
Those of African American (hypertension), Native American
(DM), and Asian American descent are at higher risk of kidney
RACE disease and the progression to chronic renal failure (Mayo
Clinic, 2019).
Certain diseases (Ex: polycystic kidney disease) possess a
genetic factor that can predispose an individual to chronic renal
failure (Capriotti & Frizzell, 2016).
Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and
other chronic kidney conditions may all put an individual at
increased risk of going into chronic renal failure(Capriotti &
Ex: Family history of heart disease or stroke…
Frizzell, 2016).
Certain autoimmune conditions like Goodpasture’s syndrome,
can progress to the point of chronic renal failure and eventually
AUTOIMMUNE end stage renal disease (ESRD) (National Kidney Foundation,
Obesity, smoking, taking nephrotoxic medications, and poor
management of underlying disease are all factors that could
increase the likelihood of progressing into chronic renal failure
Ex: Alcohol, drugs, smoking, overweight…
(Capriotti & Frizzell, 2016).
IN YOUR OWN WORDS (do NOT copy from the book) describe the pathophysiology of this disease.
Begin by explaining the ETIOLOGY (CAUSE) of the disease: Ex: Infection (type), Injury, Metabolic …
Chronic renal failure involves the progressive deterioration of nephrons in the kidneys, with damage ranging
in 5 stages. The rate in which nephrons deteriorate is dependent upon its underlying cause (ex:
mismanagement/ severe hypertension),and will ultimately affect the kidney’s ability to excrete waste
products and control blood volume until dialysis or a kidney transplants are the only way to properly sustain
life. The onset of chronic renal failure happens gradually, but onset and damage is irreversible.
In the table below, identify five of the main clinical manifestations (signs and symptoms) of the disease.
Then, explain the cause for each of these manifestations.
What are the top 5 clinical
manifestations of this disease?
Excessive bleeding/ bruising
Fatigue/ weakness
Muscle cramps
Explain the CAUSE for each clinical manifestation.
In other words, WHY does this symptom occur?
Platelets will lyse to due high amount of nitrogen in the blood that
would otherwise be filtered by the kidneys
RBCs lyse (resulting in anemia) due high amount of nitrogen in
the blood that would otherwise be filtered by the kidneys
Due to hypocalcemia, will cause neuromuscular irritability
(Capriotti & Frizzell, 2016).
Increased fluid retention from lack of filtration
In the table below, list three primary labs or other diagnostic tests that are used to confirm a diagnosis of the
disease. Then, describe what it is that we expect to find with those tests if the patient has the disease.
Ex: If we think the patient may have pneumonia, the healthcare provider will order a Chest XRAY.
If the patient has pneumonia, we would expect to see consolidation in the lungs on the XRAY.
Typical Labs & Diagnostics
Describe the expected findings for this disease
Blood test
Presence of albumin (protein found in blood)
Increased BUN, serum creatine, serum electrolytes can indicate
Looks for structural abnormalities, or the presence of obstructions
In the table below, list at least three medical treatments or interventions that are common for this condition.
1.Medications to help treat symptoms (diuretics, blood pressure medications, etc.)
3.Kideny Transplant
What is the expected outcome for this patient? Ex: If they have cancer, what is the five-year survival rate?
Renal failure progression can vary greatly; however, those who are older are expected to have lower life
expectancies. Those that are reaching the end stage of their diagnosis can expect to have a life expectancy of up
to 6 years (Landry, 2019).
List all sources of information you used, including the internet websites, periodicals, textbook…
Carrero, J. J., Hecking, M., Chesnaye, N. C., & Jager, K. J. (2018, January 22). Sex and gender disparities in the
epidemiology and outcomes of chronic kidney disease. Retrieved from
Capriotti, T., & Frizzell, J. P. (2016). Pathophysiology: Introductory Concepts and Clinical Perspectives.
Chronic kidney disease. (2019, August 15). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseasesconditions/chronic-kidney-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20354521
Goodpasture's Syndrome. (2017, February 3). Retrieved from https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/goodpasture
Landry, B., & Cain, D. (2019, September 5). Living with Kidney Disease. Retrieved from
O’Sullivan, E. D., Hughes, J., & Ferenbach, D. A. (2017, February 1). Renal Aging: Causes and Consequences.
Retrieved from https://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/28/2/407