NADN 180 Clinical: Labs & Diagnostic Tests Test name: CBC Date(s) & results: 9/15 WBC 15.64 RBC 5.75 Hgb. 16.9 HCT 52.2 MPV. 11.4 Normal values/results: WBC 5,000-10,000 RBC 4.2-5.4 Hgb 12-16 HCT 37-47 MPV 7.4-10.4 What the results and trends indicate: Patient diagnosed with Diabetic ketoacidosis. Elevated WBC is likely caused from stress and dehydration from the diarrhea she’s had for the last few days. Patients with DKA may present with leukocytosis relating to the blood ketone body concentrations. Normal values/results: Na 136-145 HCO 3. 23-29 Glucose. 70-100 BUN 6-20 Create 0.5-1.1 Anion gap <12 Chloride 98-106 eGFR >60 What the results and trends indicate: These labs indicate diabetic ketoacidosis. This indicates that the patient needs to continue insulin drip and replacement fluids. How I am using this information to plan and provide nursing care: IV fluids, electrolyte replenish, find underlying cause for vomiting and diarrhea resulting in dehydration (DKA). Encourage fluids, monitor intake and output. 9/16 WBC 13.77 MPV. 12.6 Test name: CMP Date(s) & results: 9/15 Na 133 HCO 3. 14 Glucose 275 BUN 23 Creat 1.56 Anion Gap 23 Chloride 96 eGFR 36 How I am using this information to plan and provide nursing care: Assessing breath sounds, daily weights, and evidence of hypovolemia. Continue Endotool, adjusting titration of insulin drip and checking BG levels as instructed. Educate patient on heart healthy diet and ways to prevent DKA. Verify they are using proper insulin administration at home. 9/16 HCO 3. 18 Glucose 165 Na 135 Test name: UA Date(s) & results: 9/15 Glucose. >500 Ketones. 80 protein. 30 Normal values/results: glucose. <130 Ketones. None Protein. <150 What the results and trends indicate: Confirms diagnosis of DKA How I am using this information to plan and provide nursing care: Closely monitoring blood glucose levels, insulin dosing, meal intake and assessing for s/s of hyperglycemia Test name: ABG Date(s) & results: 9/15 PH. 7.28 Normal values/results: PH. 7.31-7.41 PCO 2. 40-50 What the results and trends indicate: Respiratory acidosis increasing Ph indicates a return to homeostasis PCO 2. 36.7 bicarb 16.9 base excess. -8.9 02 57.6 9/16 PH. 7.3. PCO 2. 36.9 Bicarb 17.9 base access. 7.7. 02 85.2 Bicarb 21-28 base access. 0+2 02 How I am using this information to plan and provide nursing care: Addressing metabolic deficiency. Assessing for hypovolemia and hypervolemia with daily weights, monitoring I&O, lung sounds, checking for edema. Test name: Chest X-ray Date(s) & results: 9/15 Mild Vascular Congestion Normal values/results: What the results and trends indicate: Pulmonary arterial hypertension Normal lungs and surrounding structures How I am using this information to plan and provide nursing care: Checking B/P and HR frequently, but most importantly before administration of medications. She is prescribed Atorvastatin for HTN. Recommended educating patient on a DASH diet to help lower LDL and mild exercise. Test name: Blood Glucose Date(s) & results: 9/15 275 (Lab draw) 9/16 0600- 165 (Lab draw) 9/16 (Q 1-2hrs as indicated POC) 0816- 141 0916- 155 1016- 164 (Was off unit) 1230- 124 1350- 164 Normal values/results: Fasting 70-110 Casual < 200 What the results and trends indicate: Uncontrolled DM How I am using this information to plan and provide nursing care: Patient is receiving regular insulin via Endotool. POC BS is ordered Q2hr and to follow hospital protocol utilizing the Endotool Smart Pump. Monitoring amount of carbohydrates consumed during meals and adjusting dosing as indicated. Frequent checks of BS before meals and after. Encouraging a carb controlled diabetic diet. Educate on diet and encourage exercise. Educate patient and family on s/s of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and when BS should be checked. Educate on s/s of DKA and when to seek help from HCP or return to ED.