Human Anatomy Unit 2 Exam Study Guide Chapter 6 1. Where would you find hyaline cartilage? 2. Where would you find elastic cartilage? 3. Where would you find fibrocartilage? 4. What is a perichondrium? 5. Cartilage matrix is mostly __________. 6. What is the difference between a chondroblast and a chondrocyte? 7. Which type of cartilage is the most abundant? 8. What is the difference between appositional and interstitial growth? a. Which one is from the perichondrium (and periosteum)? 9. Know the 6 functions of bone. a. Try to be specific and pay attention if I write something different on the board. 10. What do the organic components of bone tissue provide? 11. What do the inorganic components of bone tissue provide? a. Is the bone matrix more organic or inorganic? 12. Know the functions of the 4 kinds bone cells. a. Where do the osteoblasts and osteocytes come from? b. How do osteoclasts work? c. What is osteoid? 13. What are the 4 classes of bones and what do they look like (in general)? 14. What are the differences between compact and spongy bone? 15. Know the structures (listed below) of a typical long bone (macroscopic anatomy): a. Diaphysis, epiphysis, medullary cavity, periosteum, endosteum, Sharpey’s fibers, red marrow, yellow marrow, and nutrient foramen. 16. Know the microscopic structures of compact bone: a. Osteon, central canal, perforating canal, lacuna, canaliculi, lamella 17. What is the difference between concentric lamella, circumferential lamella, and interstitial lamella? 18. What is the “functional unit” of spongy bone? 19. Be able to answer the following questions about intramembranous ossification: a. What is it? b. What is the starting material? c. What is woven bone? d. What is the name of the special arrangement of compact and woven bone in a flat bone? 20. Be able to answer the following questions about endochondral ossification: a. What is the definition? b. What is the starting material? c. When does it begin? d. What is a bone collar? e. Where is the primary ossification center? f. Where are the secondary ossification centers? g. What does it look like at the end of childhood and into adolescence? 21. Know the following about the epiphyseal growth plate: a. Know the zones in order from superficial to deep or vice versa b. What happens in each zone? c. When do they fuse? Chapter 9 1. What are the functional classifications of joints and how are they different? 2. What are the structural classifications of joints and how are they different? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. What are the 3 types of fibrous joints? Where are sutures? Where are syndesmoses? Where are gomphoses? a. What is a periodontal ligament? What is the main difference between synchondroses and symphyses? Where are synchondroses? Where are symphyses? Know the following structures of synovial joints a. Articular cartilage, joint cavity, the fibrous layer of the articular capsule, synovial membrane, reinforcing ligaments, articular discs, and bursae. What is the function of synovial fluid? a. How is it made by the synovial membrane? b. What is weeping lubrication? Know the angular movements: a. Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, supination, and pronation, inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, and plantar flexion Know the 6 synovial joint classes. Where are plane joints? Where are hinge joints? Where are pivot joints? Where are condylar joints? Where is the main saddle joint? Where are the ball-and-socket joints? What are the main parts of the TMJ? What are the two bones in the glenohumeral joint? a. What are the muscles of the rotator cuff? What are the specific parts of the humerus and ulna in the elbow? Know the parts of the bones involved in the hip joint. What are the specific parts of the femur and tibia in the knee? a. What is the ACL? b. What is the PCL? Chapter 10 1. What are the differences between skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle? a. What are the locations? b. How are they different physically? c. How are their functions different? d. We also did this in chapter 4. 2. Know the properties of muscle tissue (make sure you know their definitions). 3. What are the 4 main functions of muscle tissue? 4. Know the locations of epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium a. What is a fascicle? 5. What is the difference between the origin and insertion of a muscle? 6. What are myofibrils? a. What is the difference between myofibril and muscle fiber? 7. What is a sarcomere? 8. Know the microscopic anatomy of the sarcomere. a. Z disc/Z line, A band, I band, H zone, M line, titin 9. Know the functions of the following organelles of a skeletal muscle fiber: a. Sarcoplasmic reticulum, triad, cisternae, T tubule, sarcolemma 10. Know the following about the sliding filament mechanism: a. What is the difference between myosin and actin? b. What part of myosin is involved? c. What part of actin is involved? d. Which ion is required? e. What does the myosin head attach to? f. What does calcium attach to? g. Which parts of the muscle fiber shorten during contraction? h. Which parts of the muscle fiber do NOT shorten during contraction? 11. Know the following concerning the neuromuscular junction: a. What is the NMJ? b. What are axon terminals? c. What is a neurotransmitter? i. Where is the neurotransmitter stored? ii. Why is the neurotransmitter required? d. What is the synaptic cleft? e. Where are the receptors for the neurotransmitter? 12. What is the difference between oxidative and glycolytic fibers? Chapter 11 1. Know how the arrangements of muscle fascicles look: a. Parallel, pennate (uni-, bi-, and multi-), convergent, unipennate, and circular 2. What is: a. Prime mover (agonist), antagonist, and synergist 3. What are the movements of the following facial muscles: a. Frontalis, orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus major, orbicularis oris, and platysma. 4. What is the buccinator muscle? 5. What are the 2 main muscles of mastication? 6. What are the specific attachments of the SCM? 7. What are the 2 main movements of the SCM? 8. What is the (1) main movement of the splenius muscles? 9. What is the main function of the diaphragm? 10. What is the difference in movement between the external and internal intercostal muscles? 11. What are the 4 abdominal muscles? a. What splits the rectus muscles into right and left halves? 12. What is the main shoulder (arm) movement of the pectoralis major? 13. What is the main shoulder (arm) movement of the deltoid? 14. What is the main shoulder (arm) movement of the latissimus dorsi? 15. What is the main elbow (forearm) movement of the triceps brachii? 16. What is the main elbow (forearm) movement of the biceps brachii? 17. What is the main movement of the anterior forearm muscles? 18. What is the main movement of the posterior forearm muscles? 19. What are the (2) main movements of the iliopsoas muscle? 20. What is the main movement of the TFL? 21. What is the longest muscle of the body? 22. What are the 4 muscles of the quadriceps femoris? 23. What are the (2) main movements of the quadriceps femoris? 24. What is the main movement of the medial thigh muscles? 25. What is the main movement of the gluteus maximus muscle? 26. What are the muscles of the hamstrings? 27. What are the (2) main movements of the hamstrings? 28. What is the main movement of the tibialis anterior? 29. What are the 2 main calf muscles? a. What is their main muscle movement?