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Reproductive and Endocrine System - Grade 10 Science DepE...

Speaker 1 (00:11)
Hi there in 7th grade, we learn that cells make up a tissue, tissues make up an organ, and organs make
up a system. In this video, we will get to know how the individual cells of the reproductive system work.
The reproductive system of humans does not fully become active until an individual reaches puberty.
Speaker 1 (00:41)
Most organ systems of the body show little differences in the male and female organs, except in the case
of the reproductive system. There are major differences between the male and the female reproductive
system, although they also share several similarities. The male and female reproductive organs are
developed from the same embryological structures, and some hormones are the same for both, although
they produce different responses. Reproduction is an essential characteristic of living organisms, and
functional male and female reproductive systems are necessary for humans to reproduce. The
reproductive system performs the following functions one production of gametes, two fertilization, three
development and nourishment of a new individual, and for production of Reproductive Hormones let's
begin with the male reproductive system.
Speaker 1 (01:49)
The male reproductive system performs the following functions. Secretion of the Male Sex Hormones,
Production of Sperm Cells and Transfer of Sperm Cells The male reproductive system includes the testis,
scrotum, penis, VAS deference, urethra, seminal, vesicle, and prostate gland. The male gonads are the
testes hanging in the scrotum. Sperm production requires slightly lower temperature than the human
body. This is why the scrotum hangs loosely outside the body cavity.
Speaker 1 (02:30)
However, when the testis fails to descend, it leads to sterility because of the inhibiting effect of normal
body temperature on sperm development. The scrotum consists of skin. In cold temperatures, the
scrotum becomes firm and wrinkled, reducing the overall size of the scrotum. The testes are organs within
the scrotum, each about four to 5 CM long, and are composed of cone shaped, lobules that contain
seminifer tubules where the sperm cells develop. The epididymis is a tightly coiled series of threadlike
tubules that form a comma shaped structure at the back of the testes.
Speaker 1 (03:18)
The sperm cells continue to mature along this tube. The vast deference emerges from the epidemic and
ascends along the back of the testes to become associated with the blood vessels and nerves. The
ejaculatory duck connects into the prostate gland and ends by joining the urethra within the prostate
gland. The urethra is a pathway for both urine and male reproductive fluids, but these do not exit the
urethra at the same time. Thus, there is no mixing.
Speaker 1 (03:55)
The male urethra connects from the urinary bladder to the distal end of the penis, while seminal fluid
passes through the urethra. A reflex causes the urinary sphincter muscles to contract tightly to keep urine
from passing the urinary bladder through the urethra. The penis is only an accessory organ for
reproduction and not the reproductive organ itself, as most people think, it is the organ for population, and
it functions in a transfer of sperm cells from the male to the vagina of the female. The penis is composed
of erectile tissues. The engorgement of the erectile tissue with blood causes the penis to enlarge and
become firm in a process called erection.
Speaker 1 (04:46)
Testosterone is the main male sex hormone secreted by the testes. This hormone is responsible for the
normal development of the organs of the male reproductive system. It also brings about the.
Speaker 1 (05:00)
A change's experience during puberty. The changes that appear at ten to 14 years of age eventually
distinguish the male secondary characteristics. Secondary male characteristics include growth of facial
underarm, chest pubic and body hair, enlargement of the voice box resulting to deepening of the voice,
development of the male musculature and genitals, and increased secretion of sweat and oil resulting to
Speaker 1 (05:35)
Moreover, testosterone is responsible for male's muscular strength. This is why some athletes take
steroids that contain testosterone or other similar compounds. However, taking steroids have been
proven to produce harmful effects and may even result to mental problems. All right, that's all for the male
reproductive system. Let's proceed to the female reproductive system.
Speaker 1 (06:04)
The female reproductive system has the following functions. Production of female sex cells, production of
female sex hormones, reception of sperm cells from the male and nurturing the development of and
providing nourishment for the new individual. The female reproductive system performs female sexual
and childbearing functions. It consists of a pair of gonads or the ovaries, fallopian tubes or oviducts, the
uterus, the vagina, and the external genitalia or the vulva. There are two ovaries, each comparable to the
size of an almond nut in every female.
Speaker 1 (06:53)
The ovary contains an ovarian follicle, which contains an oocyte or the female germ cell. When follicles
mature, they expand and rupture to release the egg. This process is called ovulation. After ovulation, the
remaining cells of the ruptured follicle transform into a glandular structure known as the corpus luteum.
The fallopian tubes, also called uterine tubes, extend from the area of the ovaries to the uterus.
Speaker 1 (07:28)
The long and thin processes called fimbriae, surround the opening of each uterine tube. Fertilization
usually occurs in the part of the fallopian tube near the ovary. The uterus is as big as a medium sized
pair. The part of the uterus above and near the entrance of the fallopian tubes is called the fungus. The
main part is called the body, and the narrower part is the cervix.
Speaker 1 (07:59)
Internally, the uterine cavity continues through the cervix as the cervical canal, which opens into the
vagina. The vagina is the female organ for copulation, and it functions to receive the penis during
intercourse. It also allows menstrual flow and childbirth. This extends from the uterus to the outside of the
body. In young females, the vaginal opening is covered by a thin mucous membrane called hymen.
Speaker 1 (08:32)
The hymen can completely close to vaginal opening, in which case it must be removed to allow menstrual
flow. This can be torn at some earlier time in a young female's life during a variety of activities, which may
include strenuous, exercise. The condition of the hymen is therefore not a reliable indicator of virginity.
Did you know that a woman's ovaries contain follicles that nurture eggs and produce sex hormones? The
pair of ovaries lying on the right and left depression of the upper pelvic cavity produces the mature egg
Speaker 1 (09:13)
This mature egg cell is swept by the tiny fingerlike projections of the oviducts or fallopian tubes. The egg
moves along this tube with the help of the tiny hair or Celia that line the fallopian tubes. These tubes
extend until the uterus the uterus an inverted pear-shaped muscular organ is where the embryo attaches
specifically on its inner wall. The endometrium A female is considered pregnant when successful
implantation happens, the uterus opens into the vagina which receives the penis during intercourse and
serves as the birth canal. The cervix an important reproductive part during birthing.