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زبان عمومی درس اول قسمت اول و دوم

Unit one
Body language
Are you good at interpreting body language? You’re probably better than you think, according to
the experts. There’s a popular series on US television (Lie to Me) all about a body language
expert. English actor Tim Roth plays the part of Dr Cal Lightman – the world’s leading
“deception expert”. He solves crimes by observing suspects during questioning. And if
someone lies, he knows it. The series is inspired by a real-life expert who helps with criminal
cases and investigations. He does this by “reading” the human face, body and voice.
Basically, it’s a series of signals (usually sent unconsciously) in the form of body movement,
gesture, eye movement and voice. Body language can actually transmit an enormous amount,
and it can help us understand a person’s attitude or state of mind. In fact, studies have
suggested that only 7% of communication involves actual words, while 55% is visual (body
language, eye contact) and 38% is vocal (pitch, speed, volume, tone of voice).
Many examples of body language are easy to identify. In most cultures, smiling shows
happiness and a friendly attitude. So, when someone smiles at you, they’re telling you that
they’re open, interested and happy to communicate. But if someone puts their arms across their
chest, they’re putting a barrier between themselves and you. And if this is combined with a
harsh facial expression, watch out as this can indicate hostility.
Other examples are more complex. Experts say that if the person you’re speaking to looks from
one eye to the other and then at your forehead, they think they have authority over you. If it’s
your eyes and then your nose that they look at, then they consider you an equal. And if it’s your
eyes and then your mouth that they look at, they might be attracted to you.
It’s very difficult to lie with your body language. For example, people who fake a smile only use
the muscles around the mouth – and the top half of their face remains unchanged. However, a
genuine smile involves the whole face, including the eyes. Research shows that most people
unconsciously recognize the sincerity of a smile by looking at the top half of the face.
One of the great advantages with body language is that you don’t have to learn it – you already
know it, even if you don’t know you do... if you know what I mean!
expert/ˈɛkspəːt/ someone who has
a special skill or special knowledge
of a subject.
pitch/pɪtʃ/ the quality of a sound
governed by the rate of vibrations
producing it.
deception/dɪˈsepʃən/ the act of
believe something that is not true.
hostility/hɒˈstɪləti/when someone
is unfriendly and full of anger
towards another person.
suspect/səˈspekt/a person thought
to be guilty of a crime or offense.
inspire/ɪnˈspʌɪə/to give someone
the idea for something, especially a
attitude/ˈatɪtjuːd/the opinions and
feelings that you usually have
about something.
authority/ɔːˈθɒrəti / the power you
have because of your official
attract/əˈtrækt/to make someone
interested in something.
Comprehension Check
A. True or False
………… A popular series on US television lies about a body language.
………… Dr Cal Lightman is an English actor.
………… Body language can transmit your state of mind.
………… When somebody smiles to you, they are open to communicate.
………… Lying with your body language is very easy.
B. Choose the best answer.
1) Body language is one of the ……………
a. visual
b. vocal
c. actual
2) He in line 4 refers to………
a. Writer
b. Dr Cal lightman
c. Tim Roth
3) Dr Cal lightman who helps with criminal cases by ……………
a. Observing suspects
b. Reading the human face
c. Questioning suspect
4) According to the passage:
a. Body language can transmit a little amount of personal attitude.
b. In a fake smile , the top half of face remains unchanged.
c. A genuine smile involves the muscles around the mouth.
5) Harsh facial expression indicates………
a. Happiness
b. A friendly attitude
c. hostility