BIOMOLECULES LEARNING TARGETS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What are the most prevalent (common) elements found in living organisms? What element is found in all organic biomolecules? Why is this element able to build large complex macromolecules? What is a monomer? What is a polymer? What is a macromolecule? What is the name of the reaction that is used to produce large organic macromolecules (biomolecules)? What substance is removed from the reactants as this reaction occurs? 8. What is the name of the reaction that is used to break down large organic macromolecules (biomolecules)? What substance is added to the products as they are being formed? 9. What are the 4 major classes of biomolecules? CARBOHYDRATES 10. What elements are found in carbohydrates? What is the H:O ratio? 11. List examples of a monosaccharide and a disaccharide. 12. What chemical reagent can be used to detect sugar (other than sucrose) in a substance? What happens to this reagent in the presence of sugar? 13. Give the monomer building block for polymer carbohydrates. 14. Give three examples of carbohydrate polymers. 15. What are the two main functions of carbohydrates? 16. Name two carbohydrate polymers found in plants. 17. Name an important carbohydrate polymer found in the human body (liver and muscles). 18. Name foods that contain carbohydrates. 19. What chemical can be used to detect the presence of starch in a substance? What happens to this chemical in the presence of starch? LIPIDS 20. What elements are found in lipids? What is the H:O ratio? 21. By looking at the molecular formula, determine which of the following is a carbohydrate and which is a lipid? A. C6H12O6 B. C6H34O2 C. C18H36O18 D. C18H36O2 22. What are the basic subunit monomers of a lipid? 23. What are the four types (classes) of lipids? 24. What are the 5 functions of lipids? 25. Name foods that contain a high amount of lipids? 26. What does “hydrophilic:” mean? 27. What does “hydrophobic” mean? 28. When referring to a molecule, what does “polar” mean? 29. When referring to a molecule, what does “nonpolar” mean? 30. Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Are they polar or nonpolar molecules? 31. Describe a simple test to detect lipids in a substance. (Think about the last time you got a burger and fries from Cookout) 32. What are the major elements found in proteins? 33. What is the basic subunit monomer of a protein? 34. What is the name of the bond that forms between amino acids when building a polypeptide or protein? 35. What is a polypeptide? 36. What are the functions of proteins? 37. What foods contain high amounts of protein? 38. What are the four levels of structure found in proteins? 39. What does the statement “Form determines Function” mean and how does it relate to proteins. 40. What chemical can be used to detect the presence of protein in a substance? What happens to this chemical in the presence of protein? 41. Give two examples of nucleic acids. 42. What is the basic subunit of a nucleic acid? 43. What are the functions of nucleic acids? 44. Match each diagram below to the correct term: 1-amino acid 2-fatty acid 3- monosaccharide d. 45. 1. 2. 3. 4. a. c. Match each diagram below to the correct term: Starch Monosaccharide Disaccharide Triglyceride (fat) b. d.