THE MIDDLE AGES THE MIDDLE AGES • 400 – 1500 AD • Period from fall of Roman Empire to Early Modern Period (Renaissance) Middle Ages: Divided into 3 stages 1. Early Middle Ages (‘The Dark Ages’) -Breakup of Roman Empire - Invasion by non-Christians 2. The High Middle Ages - the time of feudalism / castles warfare /growth of towns 3. The Late Middle Ages - growing power of kings / queens - bubonic plague - decline of feudal system TIMELINE Classical Romans M.Ages Low M. High M. Late M. Ages Ages Ages 500 - 900 1000 - 1200 1300 - 1500 Early Modern Renaissance The Feudal System Castles Knights The Manor The Feudal System The King Lords / Bishops Knights Peasants Special ceremony The Lord kneels before the King Takes an oath of loyalty. Becomes a vassal The land that is granted - Fief Loyalty Tax (money/ crops) Accomadation The King received: Military service! Protection! Land to rent The Vassal received: Motte and Bailey Castles – The First Castles An Dún An Sráidbhaile D’úsáid na Normanaigh daoine áitiúla le caisleáin a thógaint Díog Droichead Árdú nó dó in am ionsaí Stone Castles Tampere, Finland Carcassonne, France Neuschwantstein, Germany Bardi, Italy Stone Castle - Features The Keep Thick Walls The Murder Hole The Moat Drawbridge The Gate House Curtain Walls – the outer protective walls Battlements – on top of these walls Towers – at various points along the curtain wall Portcullis – iron grid at entrance / for defence The Keep In the centre of the castle Cold, damp / windy Protection: - Entrance – above the level of the ground - Spiral Staircases – twisting to the right as you go up / advantage to the defenders - the Murder Hole Attacking a Castle o Extremely difficult To lay a Siege – sorounding the castle Weapons of attack -> • ‘trebuchet’/ siege ladders /.. Other Tactics To fill the moat with earth Ladders / Siege towers Battering Rams Mining under the walls Disadvantage of Siege -> could last for months!