Uploaded by Abhishek Narkar

3rd cut

1. Abstract
2. Pastoralism
2.1 Significance
2.2 Survival mechanisms
3. In Indian context
3.1 Communities
3.2 Timeline of major events
3.3 Adapting to uncertainties
4. Role of Architecture
5. Raikas
5.1 Timeline
5.2 Clans
5.3 Survival mechanisms
5.4 Migrational Patterns
5.5 Camping locations
5.6 Exchanges and Interactions
5.7 Social structure
5.8 Daily life
5.9 Gender roles
5.10 Beliefs, customs, festivals
5.11 Accessible services and facilities
5.12 Restrictions and challenges
5.13 Possibilties and opportunities
6. Laws and policies
6.1 Land use, access, control and management
6.2 Provisions
7. Major movement and mobility networks throughout the state
8. Major Stakeholders and schemes
9. Identifying Site
9.1 Overlap between two entities
The thesis looks at the concept of pastoralism in the
current times of modernization. The living habits of
pastoralist communities are changing from a nomadic
method of life to one of urbanization and is forcing them
to adapt to new ways of living. In economics where
agriculture and industry are majorly discussed , pastoralism
is rarely talked about. The pastoralists whose traditional
lifestyles have developed and sustained the ecology of
specific regions are now being treated as some figures
from the past who have no place in modern society. Their
low intensive and suistainable livestock production being
significant in current times of climate change and food shortages, demand an urgent need to support and encourage the
existing pastoralist systems.
The thesis is based in Rajasthan looking at the Raika pastoral
community which is well known for rearing camels. Exploring
their survival mechanisms leads the thesis further towards a
detailed study of their migrational patterns. The emergence of
new exclusive infrastructure development, laws and policies is
rather making it difficult for the community to survive. Their
collapse will have serious implications for both livelihoods and
the conservation of biodiversity. Inclusive developmental
goals needs to be achieved to support the survival of such
indigenous communities and their herds.
The thesis intends to explore the possibility of architecture,
becoming a part attractor or part program container that
allows for the dispensation of basic services to these
marginalized nomadic communities and their future
is a specialised form of natural resource management adapted to ecosystems
and practiced by specific communities. Pastoral resource management relies on the centrality of
livestock as the main ‘technology’ for converting available grasslands into human food—animal protein
in the form of milk and meat—and other products and also for transferring them from one place to
another and from one season to another
Survival mechanisms of pastoralists
mobility, diversification and exchange
Mobility is a factor central to pastoral resource management and livelihood patterns. Mobility is also a
strategy for accessing and exchanging products and services, seizing opportunities, or evading
animal diseases or other trouble. The geographical dimensions of mobility vary according to conditions and cultures.
Why Pastoralism?
- Suistainable livestock production
- Secure local livelihoods
- Remedy for food shortages
- Maintain ecological
balance of a place
- Contributes to the
regional economy
Indian pastoralism
is under-researched and poorly documented.
India has the largest livestock population in the world .
Pastoral systems in India are quite diverse and contribute significantly to the economy in terms of
food security, either directly or by providing services and inputs for agriculture
In 2015, extensive livestock-keeping where animals feed on natural grass accounted for roughly
50% of the country’s milk production and met 75 per cent of the national meat consumption.
Gujjars and Bakarwals,
1975 during emergency
-central government issued 20 point programme
-1 point being protection of forests and establishment of nurseries
- they started charging for grazing
-World bank established a programme to develop Aravallis into National Park
- ban on all livestock from grazing
Adapting to uncertainties
State interventions aimed at development or modernisation or both, sedentarisation programs, rangeland and wildlife protection,
insecurity at the local or regional levels, as well as technological development shortening and re-connecting distances, places, resources and
communities all contribute to the reconfiguration of the uncertainties pastoralists experience in the various settings.
Role of Architecture
Evolutions of strategies, practices, customs, beliefs and way of living
Shifting conditions
Emergence of new infrastructure,laws, policies and schemes
Risks and
between two entities
Pastoral Systems
- Communities
suistainable livestock
production, biodiversity
Possibilities and
Development Agencies
Road Amenities,
Architecture as a medium for
bringing two entities together
Architecture as an insert to help achieve commom grounds for both entities
Analyzing the current risks and constraints and simultaneously looking at
possibilties and opportunities through the lens of architecture to support and revive
the diminishing pastoral systems and their cultural identities.
Keepers of Genes
- Mapping different mobility and movement networks
- Different forms of exchanges and interactions
- looking at new infrastructure development, laws,policies and relationships and how it
affects the community
- looking at negotiated contents and the contracts
- inclusive infrastructure and amenities along the movement corridors
Tracking Mobility and movement
The Raikas
Raikas are a pastoral community in Rajasthan herding
camels, goats and sheep. They are most well known
for raising camels
Raikas have been preserving and practicing the
traditional breeding and ethno-veterinary
knowledge for centuries
They are located in the western districts of Rajasthan
and Gujarat.
In the present
No entitlement to basic facilities such as
education, healthcare,welfare.
Less demand for their animal products.
Exclusion of the community in policy
making and other management systems.
Losing their traditional practices of
pastoralism and livestock keeping and also
their way of living.
Younger generation are seeking
new livelihoods
No government aid
NHAI Proposal
Camping locations
monsoon - Karoli, Sawai Madhopur,
It is more the shepherds from Jodhpur, Jalore, Pali
and Nagaur districts that are on
permanent migration.
Dholpur, Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, and
Chittorgarh in Rajasthan.
summer - Bulandshahar, Mathura, Agra,
Etawah, Etah, Mainpuri, Shikokabad and
winter - Gwalior, Guna, Rajgarh, Ashonagar
and Chanderi in Madhya Pradesh.
-NHAI is working on the development of wayside
amenities based on BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer)
-NHAI has identified nearly 183 sites for setting up
wayside amenities along National highways
Major Road Developments by NHAI
- To be located every 40-60 km of the driving distance
national highways
- Jaisalmer-Barmer
- Jodhpur-Pokaran
- Karauli-Dholpur
- Phalodi-Jaisalmer
- Jaipur to Nagaur
- 4 laning with PSS of Jodhpur-Pali section
- 4 laning of Beawar Pali Pindwara section of NH 14
- 6 Laning of Jaipur-Tonk-Deoli section of NH 12
- 6 Laning of Kishangarh-Ajmer-Beawar section of NH 8
- 4 laning of Ajmer to Nagaur section on NH 89
- 2 laning of Lalsot-Kota section
- 2- 6 lanes including rehabilitation of 2 lanes Jaipur-Kishangarh
section of NH8
Daily life at camp
Wool shearing
5 a.m.
The dang
- The innermost circle is occupied by the
women, children and the belongings.
- The sheeps are kept in the second circle.
- The third circle is occupied by the camels.
A site with sufficient water, feed
is selected for wool shearing
The shepherds rise first and take their
sheeps for grazing within 3-5 kms
Sheared animals are kept in
separate enclosures to avoid
confusion while counting
9 a.m.
- The men guard the dang in the outer most circle
Negotiations are done with the
settled farmers for site
Sources of Income
Raikas earn money by selling milk to tea shops for the use in tea.
Raikas also make different products from milk such as
cheese, ghee , rice pudding and special tonics
Raikas shear the wool of the camel and sheeps very often and
it is used for creating a range of items.
Wool is filled in sacks
The shepherds return and camels are
taken out for grazing by other members
12 p.m.
Sacks are stored in a
dry place on site
After lunch the shepherds leave again
with the sheeps
1 p.m.
Lavas are sent by the wool
merchants and prices for
shearing are decided upon
Animals provide the organic fertilizer for the crops of the farmers
on the migration route. Raikas are paid for it with
either cash or food supplies.
Camels are mostly used for transportation and to carry heavy loads
over long distances.Raikas are the main suppliers of camels
to farmers and small scale transport entrepreneurs.
Once site is finalized wool
merchants are contacted
Upon completion sacks are
transported to the wool
Camels return and loaded with household
goods to move off to new camping
Shearing happens thereafter
Books and monographs
Keepers of Genes (Book) - Ilse Köhler-Rollefson
Grass is greener on the other side (Book) - Arun Agrawal
How to design with animals(Book) – Edward M. Dodington
Indigenous breeds ,Local communities (Book)
Indias pastoralists and their breeds by Ilse Köhler-Rollefson :
Recognising Customary Rights :
Livestock Futures, Ilse Köhler-Rollefson