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The Contribution of Pastoralism
to National Economies
Regional Sensitization Seminar on the Rights
of Indigenous Populations/Communities in
Central and East Africa
Melakou Tegegn
• background to the issue
– PFE conference 2003: Pastoralism and
Accumulation
• actual potential
– World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism
• 5 country studies
• Conclusion: same
• pastoral demography and economy
– [pastoral cattle: Kenya 75%, Ug. 95%, Tz 97%]
• rural development and accumulation: crucial
link towards livelihood diversification
– economic growth
– social development
– rural industrialization
• the principal traditional sectors
o pastoralism, peasant agriculture, [hunting-gathering]
• challenges to the traditional sector : vis a vis
sustainable development
– climate change
– globalization of the market [policy prescriptions]
– over-population
– Policy bias: the dominant discourse [African elite]
• despite advances in global recognition of IP rights
• the most serious hurdle for IP rights and pastoralism’s
contribution to national economies
• the dominant discourse and the African elite
• decolonization?
• misconceptions about pastoralism:
characterized
– “economic irrationality”
– “low economic performance”
– “reluctance to engage in markets
– “unsustainable resource management”
Pastoralism vis a vis sustainable development
• pastoralism and the environment
• Pastoralism as the most effective and
economically rational way of sustainbly
managing dry lands
• pastoral livestock as wealth occupying
strategic position in some economies [Sudan,
Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, etc…]
– the Ethiopian example
Contributions of pastoralism to
national economies
• the actual and potential
1.General to GDPs
– Uganda
– Ethiopia
– Mali
– Kyrgiztan
8.5%
9%
10%
20%
• contribution to the informal economy
• contributions of pastoralism to agricultural
GDP
–
–
–
–
–
Sudan
Senegal
Niger
Mauritania
Mali
– Kenya
– Ethiopia
80%
78%
84%
33%
33%
50%
35%
Chad
34%
Burkina Faso 24%
Challenges
• Reduction in the overall number of agropastoralists
• Increasing need of mobility in pastoral areas
• Recurrent drought and lack of copying
mechanism
2. Animal sales and consumption: export and local
markets
• the potential: the various sub-regions
Volume and value of livestock exports from Ethiopia
• Year
Live animals Value (US$1,000) Meat (tons) Value (US$1,000)
• 2005‐ 6 163,000
27,259
7,717
15,598
• 2006‐7 234,000
36,507
7,917
18,448
• 2007‐ 8 298,000
40,865
5,875
15,471
• 2008‐ 9 150,000
77,350
6,400
24,480
• 2009‐10 334,000
91,000
10,000
34,000
•
Source: Mind the Gap, Yacob Aklilu and Andy Catley
3. Milk sales and consumption
• Producing for consumption need to be
considered as an important economic activity
– Why this is not considered: market philosophy
holds only production of commodities should be
included in economic calculation
• the actual and potential per sub-region
4. hides and skins sales, local consumption
• beefing up the shoes/ leather industry
– need for a protectionist macro-economic policy
– protectionism: WM/IMF v/s the 4 tigers
– the actual and potential
• Ethiopia: hides/skins 85% of the total livestock
export with the value of $600 million
• Pastoralits’ share in value of exports: $43 million
5. Wool sales and consumption
6. Manure sales and consumption: burning fuel
Indirect contributions
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