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Virtual Lab Objectives 2020

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MMS Histology
Virtual Laboratory - Fall 2020
Directives:
1. Examine the virtual microscope slides on the LUMEN website:
a. http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/Histo/virtualhistology.htm
b. Please note that each slide can be scanned and zoomed – see Image Navigation Help.
c. You will need to examine each slide under both low (-) and high power (+) to identify all structures for
which you are responsible.
2. Most slides on the LUMEN site include a “Show description” which provides a brief description and/or guide to
the section.
3. It is recommended that you study additional virtual specimens using the links below:
a. http://www.histologyguide.com/slidebox/slidebox.html ****(very good resource)
b. http://141.214.65.171/Histology/Basic%20Tissues/view.apml
4. For each slide:
a. Identify the organ and tissues present, cell types, connective tissue and character of the extracellular
matrix.
b. Correlate structure of cells/tissue with function.
5. Use your class notes and text book to work through the sections. The Atlas part of each chapter will be
especially helpful.
October 14, 2020
Lab 1: Epithelium, Connective Tissue Proper, Blood
Objectives:
1. Examine the slides listed below. Classify all epithelium and identify types of connective tissue. Identify cell types
and connective tissue fibers/extracellular matrix where appropriate.
a. Epithelium - http://zoomify.lumc.edu/epithelium/epithelium_main.htm
 Trachea #98



What type of epithelium lines the trachea?
• Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (cilia – motility)
Identify the different cell types.
• LCT, DRCT, fibroblasts, basement membrane (thick in trachea)
• Scattered goblet cells (secret mucus) and plasma cells
Zoom in (+) to identify microvilli and cilia.

Salivary Gland #117 and #118
#117
#118



What type of epithelium lines the duct system?
• Simple cuboidal – both
What types of secretions are made by these glands?
• Mix of mucous (sublingual – low water content) and serous (parotid – high
water content), as well as serous demilunes (caps - submandibular) – both
What type of glands are present?
• Compound tubuloacinar – both

Esophagus #120



What type of epithelium lines the esophagus?
• Stratified squamous
Do all epithelial cells exhibit the same morphology?
• No! The most superficial cells still contain visible, albeit, pyknotic nuclei and
may retain some viability prior to their sloughing
• Look more cuboidal as you go down the epithelium
What type of glands are present?
• Simple branched tubular

Jejunum #130


What type of epithelium lines the jejunum?
• Simple columnar
Identify microvilli and villi
• Microvilli – absorption
What type of glands are present?

• Simple tubular
a. Identify a goblet cell (first picture)
Be sure to examine the epithelium at the base of the glands.

Goblet cell

Mesentery DMS030
 The mesentery is composed of what type of epithelium?
• Simple squamous (pic from lab wasn’t great so I found another)

Ureter #157


What type of epithelium lines the ureter?
• Transitional (dome/umbrella cells)
How does this particular epithelium change with alterations in volume?
• Specialized for distension – cells flatten and “unfold”

Thyroid #195


What type of epithelium lines the thyroid follicles?
• Simple cuboidal
What type of gland is this?
• Endocrine (ductless) – glands that synthesize and secrete products, called
hormones (thyroid hormone here), directly into the blood rather than
through a duct
b. Skin and Oral Cavity - http://zoomify.lumc.edu/skin/skin_main.htm
i. Lip Sagittal #112
 What are the two types of lining epithelium?
• Keratinized (outer) and non-keratinized (inner) stratified squamous
epithelium

What glands are present?
•
Simple coiled tubular
c. Connective Tissue Proper - http://zoomify.lumc.edu/connective/connective_main.htm
i. Mesenchyme DMS051

Zoom in. Identify the features of mesenchyme.
• Embryonic CT, undifferentiated CT, very cellular, sparse collagen and
reticular fibers, high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, contains developing
collagen
ii. Areolar CT #12

Zoom in. What types of cells and CT fibers are present?
• Loose CT
• (purple) elastic fibers and (pale pink) collagen fibers
• Relatively cellular (many “wandering” cells) with thin, sparse fibers
• Abundant ground substance– site of inflammatory/immune response,
ideal for diffusion
iii. Tendon #16

Zoom in. What types of cells and CT fibers are present?
•
Dense regular CT, fibroblasts present, collagen bundles in parallel
iv. Ileum #131
 Zoom in. What types of cells and CT fibers are present?
•
Simple columnar epithelium w/ microvilli (absorption)
Dense irregular CT (fibroblasts, collagen bundles)
White
adipose
tissue
v. Colon #135
Dense regular CT (fibroblasts, collagen bundles)
LCT under
basement
membrane

What type of connective tissue is present?
•
Dense regular CT and LCT

• LCT
What CT cells can be found?
• Fibroblasts, collagen, plasma cells, goblet cells, some eosinophils

Also note: simple columnar epithelium and simple tubular glands
d. Blood and Capillaries - http://zoomify.lumc.edu/blood/blood_main.htm
i. Blood smear – Wright stain DMS101 (see description!)
 What properties warrant the classification of blood as a “connective tissue”?
•
•

Platelet
(thrombocyte)

Has ECM and different cell types; it’s a fluid CT
Cells: RBCs (erythrocytes – 45%), WBCs – leukocytes (agranulocytes
and granulocytes – WBC w/ secretory granules in cytoplasm – i.e.
neutrophil, basophil, or eosinophil), and platelets (thrombocytes)
What composes the matrix?
• Plasma: liquid extracellular material that gives fluid properties to
blood. Volume of cells and plasma in blood is 45-55%
Zoom and scan for leukocytes. Identify them. What histological features distinguish the
different types of leukocytes?
RBC
(erythrocyte)
Eosinophil
Neutrophil
Monocyte
Lymphocyte
(small)
Lymphocyte (large - activated)
Basophil
ii. See slide 63X @
http://virtualslides.med.umich.edu/histology/Cardiovascular%20System/Hematology%20Lab%2
0Normal1%2063X.svs/view.apml?X=0&Y=0&zoom=4.77038310412574
October 27, 2020
Lab 2: Bone and Cartilage
Objectives:
1. Examine the slides listed below. Identify and classify all tissues, cell types and structures.
a. Bone and Cartilage - http://zoomify.lumc.edu/bone/bone_main.htm
i. Elastic cartilage #19, External Ear DMS056

Find the cartilage. What features designate it as “elastic” cartilage?
Elastic cartilage is like hyaline cartilage except that the matrix also contains a dense
network of branching and anastomosing elastic fibers. It provide support and is present
in the outer ear and epiglottis. When stained with H&E, the elastic fibers are unstained.
Elastic cartilage is in extracellular matrix and does not calcify. The perichondrium is a
layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage. It is divided into 2
layers:
1) Outer fibrous layer-fibroblasts that produce the type I collagen on the outer surface of
the perichondrium
2) the inner chondrogenic layer-contains mesenchymal cells that differentiate into
chondroblasts, initiate matrix production (elastin and type II collagen) and become
immature chondrocytes.

What cell type is present in the cartilage?
Chondrocytes- cells within lacunae inside the cartilage that occurs singularly or in clusters
called isogenous groups

What type of epithelium is on the outside? What other CT is present?
Fibroblasts produce the type I collagen on the outer surface of the perichondrium. The
perichondrium is the layer of dense irregular CT
ii. Pubic Symphysis DMS066, Fibro-cartilage #20
 Identify the cartilage. Compare and contrast to elastic and hyaline cartilage.
Made of hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.
x
 Identify an isogenous group.
 What other locations in the human body can you find fibrocartilage?
iii. Trachea – transverse section LU095, Larynx DMS065

What type of cartilage is present?
Tracheal cartilage & hyaline cartilage which is “C”-shaped (have chondrocytes)
Hyaline cartilage

Review the epithelium and glands.
Respiratory epithelium- the trachea is lined with. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
with cilia and goblet cells (secrete mucus).
Have sero-mucous glands that add moisture to air and aid in trapping contaminants. The
cilia propel mucus towards the esophagus where it is swallowed.
Sero-mucous glands
iv. Bone #22, Bone #23

Identify the periosteum, endosteum and bone marrow.
Outer surface: the periosteum covers the outside surface of all bones and consists of
dense irregular connective tissue with collagen type I and fibroblasts (outer fibrous layer
(pink, only fibroblasts), inner cellular layer (purple nuclei, osteoblasts, fibroblasts) ),
periosteal cells, Sharpey’s fibers
Inner surface: endosteum (osteoblasts, osteoclasts), endosteal cells, bone marrow
Osteoblasts are cuboidal-columnar and are flattened with inactive- they make bone!
Osteoclasts are giant multinucleated cells

What cell types are present?
Osteoprogenitor cellsdifferentiate into osteoblasts and can also form chondroblasts,
adipocytes, and fibroblasts
Dense irregular connective tissue
v. Ground Bone #24

Identify an osteon, Haversian canal and the lamellae (interstitial, outer and inner
circumferential).

What cell type lines the Haversian canals?
osteoblasts

Identify an osteocyte.
vi. Developing long bone DMS072
 Identify all component features.
 Identify the endosteum and periosteum.
vii. Endochondral Ossification - Fetal Finger #26, Ossification DMS068
 Identify all cartilaginous and bony regions and all zones of epiphyseal cartilage.



Find newly formed bone.
What type of cartilage is present?
Find perichondrium.
November 3, 2020
Lab 3: Muscle and Nerve
Objectives:
1. Examine the slides listed below. Identify and classify all tissues, cell types and structures.
a. Muscle - http://zoomify.lumc.edu/muscle/muscle_main.htm
i. Skeletal Muscle #46, #48, DMS076, DMS078
 Be able to distinguish skeletal muscle from dense regular CT and peripheral nerve.
 Zoom in to identify Z lines, etc.
ii. Heart #50, #54, DMS082
 Identify the features that characterize this as cardiac muscle.
iii. Smooth Muscle – Ileum #131
 Distinguish smooth muscle from dense irregular CT and peripheral nerve.
b. Nerve - http://zoomify.lumc.edu/neuro/neuro_main.htm
i. Peripheral Nerve #57, #58, #60, DMS094 and DMS095
 Identify the CT layers associated with peripheral nerve. Also, identify axons and myelin
sheaths. Compare and contrast to dense regular CT, skeletal muscle and smooth muscle.
ii. Dorsal root #62 + Spinal cord #75
 Examine the gray and white matter of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion.
 What cell types are present in the dorsal root ganglion?
iii. Spinal cord #76, DMS092
 Zoom in to find neuronal cell bodies and primary dendrites.
 Identify Nissl substance, the cell nucleus and the nucleolus.
 Identify other cell types that are present.
iv. Sympathetic ganglion #64, DMS093


Compare and contrast to dorsal root ganglion.
What neuronal cell types are present?
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