FREDERICK DOUGLASS 1818 - 1895 What do you already know about Federick Douglas? One of the most important figures in America's struggle for civil rights and racial equality Born into slavery around 1818 in Talbot County, Maryland. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC Federick Douglas was a slave in Maryland Maryland is geographically in the North, however, the Mason Dixon Line legally grouped it with southern states Pre-Civil War years, the Mason Dixon line divided the free states from the slave states Federick Douglas escaped to New York so that he could reside in a free state on September 3, 1838 Throughout his life Douglass: • remained close to many Republican politicians, including President Grant and Abraham Lincoln. • worked hard to persuade the Union to accept African Americans in the military • Assisted Susan B. Anthony in the fight for women’s voting rights. • Hosted escaping slaves in the Underground Railroad The United States in the 1820’s The country continues to grow apart over the issue of slavery Sectionalism Sectionalism is feelings of loyalty to a certain part of the country rather than having a sense of connection to the entire country as a whole. Growing sectionalism in the United States in the early 19th century caused the country to near towards the beginning of the Civil War. 1860- Abraham Lincoln is elected president Secession begins in 1960 with South Carolina leaving the Union • Secession is the action of withdrawing membership from a federation or body • 11 states declared separation from the Northern part of the county • The Confederate States of America – president: Jefferson Davis • The main points of the CSA constitution was to protect slavery and the rights of Southern states. The Civil War • April 1861 1865 – Lincoln assassinated, Civil War ends In the emotional period after Lincoln’s death and the defeat of the South, Congress passed the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment to the United States Constitution • The THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT (abolishing slavery) • The FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT (defining citizenship. For the first time, citizenship was defined by the Constitution and was extended to all people born within the United States – including African Americans – but excluding Native Americans who received citizenship in 1924) • The FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT (granting suffrage, voting rights to African Americans – a right denied American women until 1920 and Native Americans until 1924). Federick Douglas role as an abolitionist had a significant impact on the addition of these amendments to the constitution Activist for African American rights Successful work towards black suffrage Suffrage= the right to vote in political elections The Right To Vote Although, the 15th Amendment granted African American citizens the right to vote, Southern states were allowed to dictate qualifications for voting Many laws were put into place with the sole purpose of disenfranchising a majority of Black voters Voter Suppression Poll Taxes • • • Jim Crow Laws • Voting fee A “grandfather clause” excused some poor whites from payment if they had an ancestor who voted before the Civil War No such exemption for African Americans Legalized segregation Literacy Tests • • designed so that the test-takers would pass or fail simply at the discretion of the registrar who administered the test. The questions were so imprecisely written that the examiner could decree almost any answer correct or incorrect, at his whim THESE PRACTICES WERE FINALLY DEEMED UNCONSTITUTIONAL AND WERE BANNED WITH THE 24TH AMENDMENT IN 1964. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/elections/2020/1 0/20/2020-election-voter-rights-polls-trump-biden/3710714001/ Voter Eligibility be a citizen of the United States be a resident of this state and the county, city or village for at least 30 days before the election be 18 years old (you may pre-register at 16 or 17 but cannot vote until you are 18) not be in jail or on parole for a felony conviction (unless parolee pardoned or restored rights of citizenship) not currently be judged incompetent by order of a court of competent judicial authority not claim the right to vote elsewhere LET’S PRETEND THAT YOU HAVE MET ALL OF THE QUALIFICATIONS ABOVE. CAST YOUR VOTE FOR THE 2020 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION: PollEv.com/tonyabettine53 HOMEWORK MS. B WILL BE PUTTING HOMEWORK UP IN YOUR GOOGLE CLASSROOM THIS HOMEWORK WILL BE A QUIZ DON’T CHEAT! SUBMIT YOUR ANSWERS HONESTLY BASED ON YOUR OWN OPINIONS RESULTS WILL BE COMPLETELY ANONYMOUS THIS QUIZ WILL TELL YOU, BASED ON YOUR OPINIONS ON POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC MATTERS, WHICH PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE YOU ARE MORE ALIGNED WITH. THIS SHOULD SHOW YOU THAT WHEN VOTING, YOU SHOULD ALWAYS DO YOUR RESEARCH BEFORE CASTING YOUR VOTE AND MAKE SURE THAT THE CANDIDATE YOU ARE VOTING FOR IS SOMEONE WHO WILL PROTECT YOUR INTERESTS ON (OR BEFORE) ELECTION DAY, MS. B WILL LOOK AT THE RESULTS OF THIS QUIZ AND WE WILL COMPARE IT TO THE “POLL EVERYWHERE” RESULTS WE DID IN CLASS TODAY AND DISCUSS ANYTHING THAT WAS SHOCKING TO US !