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Slavery Divides the Nation PPT

Slavery Divides the Nation…
Section 1: Slavery in the Territories
The Missouri Compromise
• Missouri
– Agreement
proposed in
– By Henry Clay to
keep the number
of slave and free
states equal.
The Missouri
• Debates about slavery in
new territories.....Yes or No!!!
• 1819:
– 11 free states
– 11 slave states
• Missouri wanted to join the
union as a slave state.
• This would give the South
the majority in the Senate!!!
The Missouri
• Maine wanted to become
a state as well.
• Henry Clay came up with
a compromise.
• Maine was admitted as a
free state and Missouri as
a slave state....This would
keep everything
The Missouri
• Congress drew an
imaginary line through
• Slavery was permitted in
Louisiana Purchase
territory south of the line.
• And banned slavery north
of the line.
• Exception: Missouri itself
(all slave state)
Slavery in the West…
• Wilmot Proviso-
– Law passed in 1846
that banned slavery in
any territories won by
the U.S. from Mexico.
• Popular Sovereignty:
– Mid-1800's
– Idea that each
territory could decide
for itself whether or
not to allow slavery.
Wilmot Proviso
• 1848:
– Mexican War adds much land
to the U.S. in the West!
• David Wilmot:
– Member of Congress from
– Tried to have all new Mexican
territory slave free
– Ban on slavery!
• Called this the Wilmot
Wilmot Proviso
• Wilmot Proviso:
• Passed by House
of Reps.
• Senate rejected the
Wilmot Proviso.
• Continued
arguments about
Opposing Views
• Southerners: Wanted slavery
• Northerners: Opposed slavery
• In between the two extremes:
• Felt that the Missouri
Compromise line should
extend to the Pacific Ocean.
• Some felt that the new states
should be able to decide for
The Free-Soil Party
• Free-Soil party:
– Bipartisan
antislavery party
founded by the
U.S. in 1848 to
keep slavery out
of the western
Free Soil Party
• Antislavery members
that came from two
• 1. The Northern
• 2. Whigs.
• Goal of party:
– Keep slavery out of
western territories
Election of 1848
• Free-Soil Party:
– Martin Van Buren(Ban
on Slaves)
• Democrats:
– Lewis Cass(popular
• Whigs:
– Zachary Taylor(wins
election)(slave owner)
• Slavery was main
The Compromise of 1850
Section 2 Chapter 16
California’s Impact
• 1849:
– 15 free states
– 15 slave states
• California wanted to enter
as a free state.
• Along with possibly :
– Oregon.
– Utah.
– And New Mexico.
• South would be out-voted
by free states in the Senate!
• South wanted to secede
from the U.S.
Clay v. Calhoun
• Clay:
– AKA "The Great Compromiser"
feared the nation would break
• John C. Calhoun(S.C.):
– Refused to compromise
– 1.Wanted slavery in western
– 2. Demanded that fugitive
slaves be returned to their
• If the North did not agree, the
South would part in peace.
The Compromise of 1850
Five Parts:
1. California would enter Union as
a free state.
2. Divided the rest of the Mexican
Cession into
– New Mexico and Utah. (popular
3. Ended the slave trade in
Washington D.C.
– (Congress would have no power
over slave trade between slave
4. Strict fugitive slave law.
5. Settled border disputes
between Texas and New Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Act
• Required all citizens to
help catch runaway slaves.
• If anyone let a fugitive
escape....$1,000 fine and
jail time.
• Special courts were created
to handle cases--• NO suspects were allowed
a jury trial!!
• Judges received $10 for
sending the accused
runaway to the South....$5
to set them free.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Antislavery Bestseller:
• Harriet Beecher Stowe
• Tells of an enslaved African
American noted for his kindness.
• His owner whips him to death for
not telling the whereabouts of
two runaway slaves.
• Uncle Tom's Cabin outsold every
book except the Bible in the
years leading up to the Civil War.
• Translated into over 20 different
The Crisis Deepens…
Section 3 Chapter 16
Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Proposed by Senator
Stephen Douglas
• 1854:
– law that established the
territories of Kansas and
– Giving the settlers the right
of popular sovereignty to
decide on the issue of
• This territory stretched from
Texas to Canada.
• President Franklin Pierce
and Stephen Douglas
helped to push it through
Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Southerners were happy with
the Act.
• Northerners were outraged!
• The Missouri Compromise
already banned slavery in
these territories.
• It seemed the KansasNebraska Act would repeal
the Missouri Compromise!
• Northerners openly
challenged the Fugitive Slave
The Crisis Turns Violent
• Most new settlers came
because they wanted land
• Abolitionists moved into
area as well as proslavery
• Border Ruffians-
– proslavery bands from
Missouri who often battled
antislavery forces in Kansas.
• 1855:
– Kansas held elections to
choose law-makers.
– Border Ruffians crossed the
border into Kansas and
voted illegally.
Two Governments
Proslavery legislature was
elected and passed laws that
angered Northerners.
1. People could be put to death
for helping slaves escape.
2. Speaking out about slavery
became a crime punishable by
two years of hard labor.
The antislavery settlers refused
to follow laws and created their
own legislature and governor!
Kansas now had TWO separate
Bleeding Kansas
• Nickname of Kansas
because of the guerrilla
warfare that took place
throughout 1856.
• Guerrilla warfare:
– The use of hit-and-run
• Killings at Pottawatomie
– Led by antislavery activist
John Brown sparked
many deaths in Kansas.
Dred Scott Case
• Dred Scott was enslaved in
Missouri for many years.
• He moved with his owner to
Illinois and then to Wisconsin
where slavery was banned.
• They eventually moved back
to Missouri where Scott's
owner died.
• Scott filed a lawsuit and
argued that because he had
lived in free territory, he had
become a free man!
The Supreme Court Ruling..
• Angered Northerners!
• 1. Supreme Court stated that
Scott could not file a suit
because slaves were not
• 2. Slaves were considered
• 3. The Court did not have the
power to outlaw slavery in
any territory--• The Missouri Compromise,
according to the Court, was
• This meant that slavery was
legal in all territories!!!!
The Republican Party Emerges…
Section 4 Chapter 16
The Republican Party…
Developed in 1854.
Northern Democrats.
Antislavery Whigs.
ALL wanted to stop
Election of 1856
• John C. Fremont:
– Republican
– Frontiersman who
helped with California's
– Little political
– Opposed slavery.
Election of 1856
• James Buchanan:
– Democrat:
– “Northern man with
southern principles"
– Hoped to attract people
from the North and
Election of 1856
• Millard Fillmore:
– "Know-NothingParty“
– Wanted to preserve
the Union.
• Buchanan wins the
• The Republicans did
win 1/3 of popular
• This showed that they
had a lot of influence!
• Southerners began to
worry that their
influence was fading!!
Abe Lincoln
Born in Kentucky.
Grew up in Illinois.
Self taught education. (only was
in school for 1 yr.)
Studied to be a lawyer
"Just Folks“: simple man.
Honest-plain spoken.
Opposed the Kansas-Nebraska
Decided to run for Senate
against Stephen Douglas!
Lincoln- Douglas Debates
• Seven debates between
Lincoln and Douglas.
• Slavery was main issue.
• Douglas was a supporter of
popular sovereignty.
• Lincoln opposed slavery in
new territories.
• Douglas won the debates
by a slim margin...
• Lincoln did become very
popular from the debates
(esp. in the North).
John Brown’s Raid
Raids Harpers Ferry, Virginia
Raided a federal arsenal (gun
Captured by Robert E. Lee
10 raiders are killed by Lee's troops
and Brown
is captured!
In court:
Brown was found guilty of murder
and treason (actions against one's
Sentenced to Death!
Martyr: (willing to give up your life
for beliefs).
A Nation Divides
Section 5 Chapter 16
Election of 1860…
• Abraham Lincoln:
– Republican candidate
• Stephen Douglas:
– Northern Democrats
• John Breckinridge:
– Southern Democrats
• John Bell:
– The Constitutional Union
– (Moderate --still looking
for compromise between
the North and South)
Election of 1860 Results…
• Abraham Lincoln wins
the election!!!
• Last Effort to Save Union:
• Senator John Crittenden
– Kentucky.
– Tries to introduce bill that
would extend the
Missouri Compromise line
all the way to the Pacific.
• The South decides to
secede from the Union.
The Confederate States of
Seven states:
– South Carolina.
– Alabama.
– Florida.
– Georgia.
– Louisiana.
– Mississippi.
– Texas.
New President of Confederacy:
– Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.
The confederate troops began to seize
federal property in the South.(forts, post
offices, government buildings)
The Civil War Begins…
• The Confederates
attacked Fort Sumter
on April 11, 1861.
• The Union
commander, Major
Robert Anderson, was
forced to surrender on
April 13, 1861.
• This sparked the
beginning of the Civil
Essay Topics…
• 1. Explain how the
election of 1860 was the
final blow that started
the Civil War. (Provide
• Provide three examples
to support the following
• A series of compromises
delayed the Civil War for
40 years.
• 2. Describe the Dred
Scott Supreme Court
• --Three parts of decision
• --Two major results
• 3. Explain the four major
parts of the Compromise
of 1850.
Essay Topics…
• 4. List two ways in
which the LincolnDouglas debates
helped Abe Lincoln.
• 5. Explain Harriet
Beecher Stowe's novel
Uncle Tom's Cabin.
• --How did North react.
• --How did South react.
• --Impact of the novel