Insulati o n CI/SfB (57.9) In7 (M2) Second Issue December 2015 A Duct is for Life... AN INDEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF THE ‘WHOLE LIFE’ COSTS OF DIFFERING HVAC DUCT SPECIFICATIONS Contents Page Executive Summary 3 Current Practice & The Alternatives 4 urrent Practice C Assessing The Alternatives Review Of The Alternatives 4 4 4-5 Appendix 1 6 Appendix 2 7 Contact Details 8 Executive Summary The Kingspan KoolDuct® System should be an automatic consideration where “whole life” costing is a requirement as: l l installation of the Kingspan KoolDuct® System can save over 15% on capital cost; and over a 30 year life cycle the Kingspan KoolDuct® System can also make a saving of over 29% on operating costs. 3 Current Practice & The Alternatives Current Practice l Air conditioning and ventilation systems are a common feature of new build and refurbishment construction works; l Traditionally, HVAC ductwork is constructed from galvanised sheet steel, which is installed first and then insulated separately as a second operation; l The ductwork material is commonly not considered until late in a project’s design process; l Those who are not intimate with a project’s constraints commonly select the ductwork material; l Services design co-ordination commonly occurs concurrently with construction; and l Little or no attention is paid to the operating cost of the ductwork system or to its durability. ‘Whole life’ costing takes account of the total cost of an item over its life, including durability, energy savings and maintenance, as well as initial purchase price. The Kingspan KoolDuct® System reduces the capital and life cycle costs when compared with galvanised sheet steel, whilst, at the same time, offering additional advantages to the specifying engineer, the architect, the M&E contractor, the fabricator, the facilities manager, the property developer and the building owner. The Kingspan KoolDuct® System comprises premium performance Kingspan KoolDuct panels, fabrication methods, coupling systems and a complete line of accessories to produce pre-insulated rectangular ductwork in sections up to 2.95 m long. Assessing the Alternatives Kingspan KoolDuct® panels comprise a fibre-free rigid thermoset phenolic insulation core faced with silver aluminium foil on one side and either silver or black coated aluminium foil on the other side. The purpose of this independent report is to examine the relative ‘whole life’ costs of insulated sheet metal ductwork and The Kingspan KoolDuct® System, their relative performance with regards to ‘whole life’ costs and the benefits this can provide. *A copy of the Sweett (UK) Limited report is available upon request from the Kingspan Insulation Marketing Department (see rear cover). Traditionally the majority of ductwork is manufactured using galvanised sheet steel, which is installed first and then insulated separately as a second operation. The selection of ductwork material is therefore generally assumed. Additionally, the construction project client’s specification for ductwork is normally limited to a set of performance criteria rather than a specific material. Review of the Alternatives Kingspan Insulation commissioned independent consultants, Sweett (UK) Limited, to carry out an analysis of the capital and life cycle cost benefits of differing HVAC ductwork specifications*. The actual selection of the ductwork material is made by the mechanical service sub contactor, or more often, its ductwork sub-sub-contractor. Indeed, because of existing manufacturing set-ups, it may be disadvantageous to move away from the existing specification norms and use The Kingspan KoolDuct® System. Sweett’s work investigated a range of parameters associated with the use of the ductwork, including expected lifetime, maintenance and cleaning requirements, impact on energy consumption and replacement costs. The installed cost of ductwork fabricated from the Kingspan KoolDuct® System was found to be cheaper than that of galvanised sheet steel ductwork. However, the air-leakage of the ductwork system can have a significant impact on the Building Emission Rate (BER) of the building. The electrical consumption of the fan running a ductwork system can increase substantially if the air-leakage of the system is higher. On durability, they concluded that Kingspan KoolDuct® panels consist of a densely cross linked structure which does not readily break down. They also noted that independent testing (SGS United Kingdom Ltd.) has shown that the thermal performance of Kingspan KoolDuct® panels are not prone to long term degradation and maintain their designed performance throughout the ‘whole life’ 30 year period. Furthermore, The Kingspan KoolDuct® System can reduce airleakage rates to a fraction of those typical of rectangular sheet metal ductwork. This cutting edge System offers triple benefits of cutting energy use, cutting operational carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and cutting costs. 4 Thus The Kingspan KoolDuct® System can provide a capital cost saving of 15% (see Table 1 and Table 1a). On energy use, Sweett (UK) Limited endorsed the contents of a study carried out by independent consultants, Bucknall Austin, based on the results of research carried out by BSRIA to investigate the estimated effect on fan power of different duct air leakage rates. The research showed that The Kingspan KoolDuct® System can save over 30% on the annual electricity cost of running a fan compared with the performance of standard galvanised sheet steel ductwork. The energy consumption of the fan was based on air leakage rates conforming to air tightness Class D for The Kingspan KoolDuct® System and Class A for standard galvanised sheet steel ductwork. Refer to Appendix 1 for a detailed breakdown of capital costs. Sweett (UK) Limited then calculated the operating cost of the two technologies over a 30 year period, taking into account energy use, maintenance, cleaning and changes due to wear and tear (churn). Over a 30 year period, the system operating cost for lagged galvanised sheet steel technology was £36,536 versus £25,961 for The Kingspan KoolDuct® System. Thus The Kingspan KoolDuct® System can provide an operating cost saving of 29% (see Table 1 and Table 1a). On cleaning, Sweett’s research showed that ductwork fabricated from The Kingspan KoolDuct® System is marginally more expensive to clean than galvanised sheet steel ductwork. Refer to Appendix 2 for a detailed breakdown of the operating costs. Sweett’s own research into ducting maintenance showed that ductwork fabricated from The Kingspan KoolDuct® System suffers minimal damage and thus requires minimal repairs, particularly where ductwork is installed within a ceiling void. In circumstances where a repair is required, it concluded that ductwork fabricated from The Kingspan KoolDuct® System can be repaired quickly by simply replacing the damaged area, whereas the entire section of sheet metal ductwork would need to be replaced, with the lagging as a second operation. Combining capital and operating costs to give a ‘whole life cost’ yields a total saving of £12,527. Thus The Kingspan KoolDuct® System can provide an overall ‘whole life’ cost saving of 25%. 50000 Value £ 40000 Once the above data had been analysed, the capital, operating and ‘whole life’ costs were calculated. 30000 20000 10000 0 1 Results of the Analysis 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Year Sweett (UK) Limited based the comparison of capital cost on a system comprising 66 metres of ductwork of a wide variety of dimensions. The galvanised sheet steel ductwork was lagged with 50 mm mineral fibre. KoolDuct Sheet Metal Table 1: Whole Life cost comparison between The Kingspan KoolDuct® System and galvanised sheet steel ductwork insulated with mineral fibre. The capital cost of lagged galvanised sheet steel ductwork was £12,896 versus £10,944 for ductwork fabricated from The Kingspan KoolDuct® System. Note: the costs detailed in this report are based on the use of The Kingspan KoolDuct® System constructed of 30 mm Kingspan KoolDuct® Panels and the 4-bolt flange jointing system versus 50 mm mineral fibre insulated galvanised sheet steel ducting. Legend Technology Capital Saving Operating Cost Saving ‘Whole Life’ Cost (%) (Over 30 yrs) (%) Cost (£)(£) (£) Mineral Fibre Insulated Galvanised Sheet Steel 12,89636,53649,432 The Kingspan KoolDuct® System 10,944 Saving (£) 15 1,952 25,961 29 36,905 10,575 12,527 ‘Whole Life’ Saving (%) 25 Table 1a: Whole Life Cost, Capital Cost and Operating Cost comparison between The Kingspan KoolDuct® System and galvanised sheet steel ductwork insulated with mineral fibre. 5 Appendix 1 Capital Cost Comparison Between Galvanised Sheet Steel Ductwork and the Kingspan KoolDuct® System Research, conducted in the UK by independent consultants Rider Levett Bucknall, into the installed cost of differing insulated HVAC ductwork specifications, and subject to periodic updates, continues to show that the installed cost of ductwork fabricated from The Kingspan KoolDuct® System is less expensive than that of ductwork constructed from galvanised sheet steel and insulated with mineral fibre. The research utilises cost data submitted in 2010 from a number of ductwork and insulation contractors across the UK and based on the duct layout of a case study project. It compares ductwork fabricated from The Kingspan KoolDuct® System, comprising 30 mm Kingspan KoolDuct® panels and the 4–bolt coupling system, with galvanised sheet steel ductwork insulated with 50 mm thick mineral fibre. Kingspan KoolDuct® Galvanised Sheet Metal No. Name Size Quantity / Length Rate Ext’n Rate Ext’n 1 Straight 200 x 200 12 46.94 563.28 66.95 803.40 2 Shoe 200 x 200 1 54.6 54.6 44.6 44.6 3 45 sq. bend 200 x 200 1 57.32 57.32 60.71 60.71 4 Taper 200 x 200 1 65.93 65.93 58.63 58.63 5 Square bend 200 x 200 1 74.67 74.67 69.06 69.06 6 Special items (supports) 200 x 200 1 2.81 2.81 4.80 4.80 7 Straight 400 x 400 12 68.21 818.52 90.72 1088.64 8 Shoe 400 x 400 1 71.06 71.06 60.43 60.43 9 45 sq. bend 400 x 400 1 79.04 79.04 87.48 87.48 10 Square bend 400 x 400 1 90.5 90.5 107.34 107.34 11 Taper 600 x 600 1 79.26 79.26 80.49 80.49 12 Special items (supports) 600 x 600 1 3.05 3.05 6.62 6.62 13 Straight 600 x 600 12 96.38 1156.56 115.80 1389.60 14 Shoe 600 x 600 1 93.96 93.96 75.08 75.08 15 45 sq. bend 600 x 600 1 116.67 116.67 113.84 113.84 16 Square bend 600 x 600 1 135.69 135.69 143.81 143.81 17 Taper 600 x 600 1 105.24 105.24 98.67 98.67 18 Special items (supports) 600 x 600 1 3.23 3.23 5.19 5.19 19 Straight 800 x 800 12 119.05 1428.6 151.41 1816.92 20 Shoe 800 x 800 1 122.11 122.11 109.15 109.15 21 45 sq. bend 800 x 800 1 154.38 154.38 155.29 155.29 22 Square bend 800 x 800 1 188.11 188.11 201.43 201.43 23 Taper 800 x 800 1 137.37 137.37 137.56 137.56 24 Special items (supports) 800 x 800 1 3.6 3.6 7.22 7.22 19 Straight 1000 x 1000 12 142.40 1708.80 186.48 2237.76 20 Shoe 1000 x 1000 1 152.52 152.52 130.80 130.80 21 45 sq. bend 1000 x 1000 1 194.6 194.6 183.75 183.75 22 Square bend 1000 x 1000 1 241.25 241.25 243.83 243.83 23 Taper 1000 x 1000 1 156.48 156.48 152.03 152.03 24 Special items (supports) 1000 x 1000 1 3.79 3.79 11.73 11.73 19 Straight 1200 x 1200 6 194.63 1167.78 235.88 1415.28 20 Shoe 1200 x 1200 1 189.23 189.23 150.77 150.77 21 45 sq. bend 1200 x 1200 1 252.87 252.87 224.77 224.77 22 Square bend 1200 x 1200 1 313.72 313.72 314.70 314.70 23 Taper 1200 x 1200 1 193.07 193.07 197.86 197.86 24 Special items (supports) 1200 x 1200 1 4.41 4.41 10.93 10.93 Total £10,184 Total £12,000 2015 eq. £10,944 2015 eq. £12,896 Table 2: Installed cost comparison between The Kingspan KoolDuct® System and galvanised sheet steel ductwork insulated with mineral fibre. The cost data has been updated to 2015 equivalent by Sweett (UK) Limited. 6 Appendix 2 Estimated Whole Life Cost (30 years) Comparison Between Galvanised Sheet Steel Ducting and The Kingspan KoolDuct® System The table below shows the assumptions used in the ‘whole life’ cost model and ‘whole life’ cost graphs. Maintenance Start Frequencies (years) Cost Element Year KoolDuct®Sheet Metal In carrying out the ‘whole life’ cost analysis, Cyril Sweett made the following assumptions. l Life cycle (years) = 30 years l Life cycle preliminaries = 5% l Discount rate = 3.5% l Life cycle professional fees = 3%, M&E Consultancy fees @ 0% l M&E commissioning costs = 0.6% l Strip out / preparation = lump sum l BWIC with services installations = 5% l Access costs = lump sum, as necessary, with increased cost assumed for conventional ducting due to weight / material handling requirements l Interest rate (APR) = 0% l Rate of inflation = 0% l Energy assumptions: Changes to ducts due to churn (3%)1 10 22 Repairs to ducts – due to damage 2 2 1 (1%) 2 (2%) 2 2 (£5/m) 2 (£4.5/m) Cleaning costs 3 Energy costs (£256pa) 41 1Changes due to “churn” at 3%, starting after 10 years, on alternate years. 2 1% every year for Kingspan KoolDuct® and 2% alternate years for conventional. 3 £5/m for Kingspan KoolDuct® and £4.5/m conventional. 4The savings equate to 30% electrical power with the cost savings totaling £256 per annum. Table 2a − Floor area of room = 460m2 − Electricity consumption estimation2 = 128 kWh/m2 − Estimation of energy from fans = 10% −R eduction in fan energy required from The Kingspan KoolDuct® System = 30% − Price of electricity per kWh = 15p 7 Contact Details Customer Service Technical Advisory Service For quotations, order placement and details of despatches, please contact the Kingspan Insulation Customer Service Department: The Kingspan KoolDuct® System is supported by a complementary and comprehensive technical advisory service for designers, specifiers, fabricators, installers, building services managers and facilities managers. Expert guidance is provided to make specification and installation, operation and maintenance of ductwork fabricated from The Kingspan KoolDuct® System, as straightforward as possible. Project specific advice and solutions for non–standard applications and complex technical issues are also offered. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1544 388 601 Fax: +44 (0) 1544 388 888 email: [email protected] Ireland Tel: +353 (0) 42 979 5000 Fax: +353 (0) 42 975 4299 email: [email protected] Literature & Samples Amongst other services, heat loss / gain, condensation / dew point risk and required insulation thickness can be calculated. Kingspan Insulation produces a comprehensive range of technical literature for designers, specifiers, fabricators, installers, building services managers and facilities managers The literature contains clear ‘user friendly’ advice on design, design considerations, specification, fabrication, installation, maintenance and product data. Kingspan Insulation also provides a series of technical presentations specifically tailored for designers, specifiers, local authorities and developers. Additionally, site surveys and visits can also be undertaken, if required. Available as individual brochures, Kingspan Insulation technical literature is an essential specification tool. For copies please contact the Kingspan Insulation Marketing Department, or visit the Kingspan Insulation website: UK Tel: +44 (0) 1544 387 384 Fax: +44 (0) 1544 387 484 email: [email protected] Ireland Tel: +353 (0) 42 979 5000 Fax: +353 (0) 42 975 4299 email: [email protected] UK Tel: +44 (0) 1544 387 382 Fax: +44 (0) 1544 387 482 email: [email protected] Ireland Tel: +353 (0) 42 979 4297 Fax: +353 (0) 42 975 4296 email: [email protected] General Enquiries For all other enquiries: UK Tel: +44 (0) 1544 388 601 Fax: +44 (0) 1544 388 888 email: [email protected] Ireland Tel: +353 (0) 42 979 5000 Fax: +353 (0) 42 975 4299 email: ­[email protected] Kingspan Insulation Ltd reserves the right to amend product specifications without prior notice. Product thicknesses shown in this document should not be taken as being available ex–stock and reference should be made to the current Kingspan Insulation Ltd price list or advice sought directly from Kingspan Insulation Ltd. The information, technical details and fixing instructions etc. included in this literature are given in good faith and apply to uses described herein. Recommendations for use should be verified as to the suitability and compliance with actual requirements, specifications and any applicable codes, laws and regulations. For other applications or conditions of use, Kingspan Insulation Ltd offers a Technical Advisory Service, the advice of which should be sought for uses of Kingspan Insulation Ltd products that are not specifically described herein. The fire tests referenced in this literature and the assigned results are not intended to reflect hazards presented by the materials and products described herein under actual fire conditions. Please check that your copy of the literature is current by visiting www.kingspaninsulation.co.uk or www.kingspaninsulation.ie Kingspan Insulation Ltd Pembridge, Leominster, Herefordshire HR6 9LA, UK Castleblayney, County Monaghan, Ireland www.kingspaninsulation.co.uk www.kingspaninsulation.ie ® Kingspan, KoolDuct and the Lion Device are Registered Trademarks of the Kingspan Group plc in the UK, Ireland and other countries. All rights reserved. Registered in England & Wales, No. 01882722. Registered Office: Pembridge, Leominster, Herefordshire HR6 9LA, UK. VAT GB428602456. Registered in Ireland, No. 54621. Registered Office: Bree Industrial Estate, Castleblayney, Co. Monaghan, Ireland. VAT IE4575069I.