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CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................. 1
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 1
Background to the Study .................................................................................................. 1
Problem Statement ........................................................................................................... 4
General Objective ............................................................................................................. 4
Specific Objectives ........................................................................................................... 4
Significance of the Study ................................................................................................. 5
Scope and Limitations of the Study ................................................................................. 6
Definition of Terms .......................................................................................................... 6
Chapter Summary............................................................................................................. 7
CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................ 8
LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................... 8
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 8
Extent of Satisfaction with the Accuracy of Task Results of Interns............................... 8
Extent of Satisfaction with Compliance with Organization’s Code of Conduct............ 10
Extent of Satisfaction with Time Management Skills of Interns ................................... 12
Chapter summary ........................................................................................................... 14
CHAPTER THREE ...................................................................................................................... 15
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY....................................................................................... 15
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 15
Research Design ............................................................................................................. 15
Population and Sampling Design ................................................................................... 15
Research Procedure ........................................................................................................ 17
Data Analysis ................................................................................................................. 17
Chapter Summary........................................................................................................... 18
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 37
Background to the Study
In response to employers’ criticism of the lack of preparation of graduates for the world of work,
several higher education institutions are executing various initiatives to help students develop
employability skills, including internships (Kinash et al. 2016). The main aim of the internship
is to provide an opportunity for undergraduate students to learn from practical experience and
solve real-world problems in the workplace, as well as to foster mutually beneficial relationships
between the industry and the university (Staehr et al., 2014). A successful internship program
helps student interns to integrate their theoretical knowledge with practical experience gained
through internship programs.
According to the Employers’ Internship Toolkit (2005), internships are commonly used term in
experiential education. Internships takes take place during different times of the year: summer,
winter or spring. These may be part-time or full time internships over different durations. Typical
internships are entry-level, educational jobs that can be paid or unpaid and usually give you
college credit for your work (but not always). Usually, these internships last for one semester,
although sometimes you can find internships that last for two semesters. Internship also provides
companies with potential recruits. Rothman (2007) explained that internships are an essential
part of recruitment success for many companies where a specific department often manages the
internship program with the educational institutions. This ensured that internships are meaningful
experiences, which develop the human capital and will result with better learning experiences for
the interns.
Internships are well established in the US and are becoming more common in the UK (Holyoak,
2013). In the US, internships have become a popular way to bridge the transition from education
to work and in 2004, three out of four college students were competing for an internship which is
a significant increase since the 1980s. In Germany 55% of university, students completed an
internship in the past 12 months (Saniter & Siedler, 2014). For universities internships are
powerful vehicle for attracting students as well as fostering partnerships between academia and
industry (Hurst & Good, 2010).
Interns are generally viewed as a good source of low cost labour for industry (Galloway et al.,
2014; Green et al., 2011; McKenzie et al., 2015). Interns can undertake ‘back-burner’ or
valueadded projects, which might not otherwise be done (Maertz et al., 2014). Employers can
utilise interns as resources during busy periods. In addition, recruitment and training costs are
reduced if firms employ the interns after the internship is completed (Holyoak, 2013). The
internship acts as a trial period for both the employer and the student (Elarde & Chong, 2012).
Employers can assess the likelihood of a fit between a prospective employee and the organisation
(Dobratz et al., 2014). Extra labor capacity and the opportunity to try out a potential future staff
are the most common reason given by employer for using interns (HR Focus, 2005). Hiring
interns as full time employee after they graduated can reduce recruitment and selection cost.
Other than that it provides lower risk for employers as they already know the performance of the
students during internship period.
Hosts companies of internships ranging from large multinational corporations (MNCs) to small
and medium enterprises (SMEs) as well as those providing professional and financial services,
banking, hotel and real estate industries, can utilize this study to assess as to whether the factors
that contribute to student satisfactions are present in the jobs and work environment they
currently offer to interns. In addition, companies are better able to attract, recruit and retain top
talents through the usage of the outcomes of the study.
Nowadays in China, competition in job market is becoming more and fiercer. Against this
background, college students have started to compete for job opportunities much earlier before
graduation (Hussien & Lopa, 2018). Many students regard, internship as a bridge to employment
after graduation rather than a chance to learn practical skills. To organizations who provide
internships, they can get young students to help meet critical staffing needs and internships also
can be a potentially effective recruitment and selection tool. In Australia, industry wants to be
more involved in training and to ensure that graduates are work ready (Staehr, B. Martin, &
Ching Chan, 2014).
For Botswana, The Faculty of Business at the University of Botswana runs a ten-week internship
programme which places students with organisations during the vacation period (Mgaya &
Mbekomize, 2014). Students are assigned both a faculty supervisor who will visit them at the
workplace and a supervisor from the host organisation. Since 2005 the number of internships has
declined because there are fewer host organisations in the programme. A survey of 176 host
organisations revealed that 90% were willing to continue to participate in the programme, but
over 80% did not have capacity to take on more interns (Mgaya & Mbekomize, 2014). In
addition to cost savings, the following benefits for host organisations were identified: fulfilling
corporate social responsibility, enhancing corporate image and gaining new ideas. Host
organisations stated that while they enjoyed several benefits from interns such as new ideas and
recruitment costs, they also sacrificed time and resources by training the interns.
Employers desire more commitment and effort from the university, particularly in terms of
finding internship opportunities for students rather than encouraging students to solicit interest
from firms (Mgaya & Mbekomize, 2014). Employers averred that the ten-week internship was
too short to enable interns to acquire meaningful work experience.
Internship has been imbedded in many Kenyan universities as there is a common understanding
that it will help prepare graduates entering the workforce. Given its importance, internship has
been part of the curriculum with a certain amount of credit hours allocated. The internship
programs normally run between three to six months. Internship provides an opportunity for
interns to obtain a first-hand experience in the real working world. According to Calloway &
Beckstead (1995), the internship experience expose students to practical skills, improve their
social relationships, motivate future learning and enhances their social personality. Additionally,
these students will also have the opportunity to discover their job interests and objectives under a
professional mentor (Chen, Hu, Wang & Chen, 2011).
Internship program is compulsory for all senior students at United States International University
–Africa. The duration of the internship is 12 weeks (1 semester) and the students are compulsory
to return to the university and complete their final semester before they graduated.
university believes that internship program is useful to facilitate students learning opportunities
outside classroom. These experiences provide the opportunity to apply classroom theory into real
working environment thus enhancing students’ academic and career goals. The internship office
under the Careers and Placement Department assist students in preparing resume, interview skills
and guidance on how to survive during internship. The students need to find internship
placement on their own based on their preferred location. Students are allowed to choose any
organisations that are related to their field of study. However, over the past years, the university
has actively identified key players in various segments of the industry in pursuit of helping
secure attachment for students. The present study seeks to understand the perception of USIU
interns by the employers who offer them the internship opportunities.
Problem Statement
Internship programs provide valuable benefits to the sustenance and growth of the organization.
For instance, organizations are able to cut on human resources budget, employers can learn from
students’ fresh perspectives, and they can manage to evaluate upcoming talent (Lam & Ching,
2014). Based on these benefits, leading organizations have collaborated with top universities to
offer internship opportunities to the students. In addition, the high number of fresh graduates
joining labour market, estimated at 30,000 yearly, implies that the corporate sector devices
strategies contribute to the Kenyan government’s effort of combating unemployment crisis in the
country (Attanasio, Kugler, & Meghir, 2018). Fundamentally, organizations offering internship
opportunities are primarily concerned with getting the best out of the interns. For the
management of these organizations, a very important factor is gaining satisfaction from the work
of these interns. However, little is known about the level of satisfaction with these interns.
Therefore, the present study aims at establishing the level of satisfaction with the performance of
USIU-Africa students in the organizations where they undertake internship.
General Objective
The main objective of this study is to establish the level of satisfaction with the performance of
USIU-Africa students in the organizations where they undertake internship.
Specific Objectives
1.4.1 To determine the extents to which organizations which give USIU-Africa students’
internships are satisfied with the accuracy of task results.
1.4.2 To determine the extents to which organizations which give USIU-Africa students’
internships are satisfied with the compliance with organization’s codes of conduct.
1.4.3 To determine the extent to which organizations which give USIU-Africa students
internship are satisfied with the time management skills of the interns.
Significance of the Study
1.5.1 Employers and Internship providers
Comprehensive understanding by the university and host companies of the factors affecting
internship satisfaction will ultimately provide opportunities for better developmental experiences
for students, making their internship experience a satisfying and meaningful one loaded with a
wide-array of benefits that will assist them throughout their careers. It will also give direction to
employers in ensuring students are placed in companies with these good criteria besides fostering
relationships with outstanding companies towards fulfilling the objective of preparing students to
gain maximum potential benefits from their internship.
1.5.2 University and Career Placement Departments
This study is significant to the university’s team of educators who develop, incorporate and
administer internship programmes for the very first time into the Faculty of Business and
Finance’s curricula. Findings will provide pointers for a more effective structure of internship.
Employer’s feedback is important in preparing the students for the industry by developing a
better programme structure and subjects offered. It is indirectly improving the lecturers’ teaching
methods and skills.
1.5.3 Policy Makers
The government of Kenya through the department of labour and youth affairs might find this
study insightful in understanding on exactly what shapes employers’ satisfaction towards
industrial attachment and internship programs. Therefore, the government can be better placed in
adopting friendly policy framework that guides internship programs for better outcomes.
1.5.4 Academia and Future Researchers
Findings from this study will bridge the existing empirical gap on factors influencing employers’
satisfaction with internship programs. In addition, the study provokes direction for further
research in the same area.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study is focused on over 156 organizations that have partnered with USIU-Africa to offer
students with internship opportunities. The study was conducted between June 28 and July 15
and data was mobilized through online data collection tool of survey monkey. The study’s
limitations could emanate from demographics as it will focus on organizations that offer USIUAfrica students internship opportunities. The internship providers might have a range of
expectations prior to recruiting the interns; however, the study will only assess the three
variables of job accuracy, time management, and compliance with the code of conduct. Lastly,
biasness from the respondents could hamper the objectivity of the findings. The researcher plans
to control bias in this study through the actions of being neutral. The respondents will not be
asked to give identifying information.
Definition of Terms
1.7.1 Internship
The internship is a fixed period of time during which a newly recruited worker, employee or
student is trained practically in his/her specialty.
1.7.2 Internship Satisfaction
Internship satisfaction is defined as a set of psychological attitudes towards the work done by the
worker/trainee. In the process of professional adaptation and self-identification, an important role
is played by the labor activity motivation and the labor satisfaction. Satisfaction with the
internship depends on the correspondence of the outcome of the work with the trainee's internal
1.7.3 Job Accuracy
Job accuracy entails the quality of performing work assignment with correctness and precision in
relation to the set standards.
1.7.4 Time Management
TM is a process to managing time according to the requirements of different assignments and
activities with the goal of ensuring organisational success and maximizing benefits by utilising,
saving and not wasting time or energy (Sahito et. al, 2016). Effective TM involves using time in
an optimal way to increase productivity and success. It requires managing work schedules to
achieve organisational goals through advanced planning, organisation and implementation.
1.7.5 Code Conduct
An employee code of conduct is a legal document that provides guidelines on acceptable
behaviors of individuals in an organization. The employee code of conduct defines acceptable
behavior and social norms that individuals in an organization should adopt on a day-to-day basis.
Chapter Summary
This study will consist of five chapters. Chapter one is the introduction which revolves more on
the background, problem statement, research objectives, significance, and scope of this study.
Chapter two includes the literature review where relevant literatures were reviewed and
expressed clearly and understandably. Chapter three describes on the research methodology
which includes the research design, data collection method, sampling design, research
instrument, construct measurement, data processing and data analysis.
The chapter presents review of existing prevailing studies in line with the study’s research
objectives; first, it offers literature with regard to the extent of Satisfaction with the Accuracy of
Task Results of Interns. Next is literature about the extent of Satisfaction with compliance with
organization’s code of conduct; and lastly, literature entailing the extent of satisfaction with time
management skills of interns.
2.4 Extent of Satisfaction with the Accuracy of Task Results of Interns
Work characteristic are a set of variables related to employee activities at work. Lord and others
quote studies that found that an important predictor of job or traineeship satisfaction was the
similarity between trainees' skills and the associated task characteristics (Judge, Thoreson, Bono,
& Patton, 2012). Other factors influencing the satisfaction are the identity of the task, the skills,
the importance of the task, the autonomy and the feedback. Skills are related to a range of
activities and talent. Identifying the task is the extent to which the trainee manages to complete
the task from start to finish. The importance of a task affects the extent to which the performance
of the task is important to others, the autonomy is related to the freedom and relative
independence the trainee has in planning and performing the tasks assigned to him, and the
feedback - obtaining clear and direct information from the direct supervisor of how the employee
manages the tasks.
According to Gupta and Burns (2010), positive internship experience, positive work
environment, improved job prospects, new skills, comforts with work environment and
communication skills contribute to students’ satisfaction towards their internship experience. In
addition, Marinakou and Giousmpasoglou (2013) identified that professional environment,
learned a lot, interesting work, good supervision, made valuable contacts, felt like part of a team,
made good money, flexible schedule, new skills, self-knowledge and meaningful task do
influence interns’ satisfaction with the internship experience.
Marinakou and Giousmpasoglou (2013) study identified factors that contribute to student
satisfaction from this working and learning experience. In section two, students were asked to
evaluate work experience during their internships. There are meaningful tasks, relevancy to
students’ studies, relevancy to students’ interest, supervision, availability of staff, new
knowledge, new skills and self-knowledge. Section three examined the student’s employability
options and section four measured the overall internship experience, for example the students’
likes, dislikes and expectations from their internships. Furthermore, a study explored by Sassnett
and Ross (2016), found that internship performance, skills, preceptor responsibilities, faculty
coordination and quality of internship plays a crucial, important and significant role to
Gault, Leach, and Duey (2010) sought to determine the factors affecting hospitality students’
satisfaction with their internship programs. This study employed an online questionnaire as the
data-gathering instrument. The results of the study showed that feedback, autonomy, university
supervisor support, academic preparedness, flexible working hours, student self-initiatives,
location, and skills variety are imperative factors contributing towards internship satisfaction.
The findings of the current study provide important practical implications for both university and
internship host companies.
According to Jacob et al., (2006), the ability to benefit from on the job training, ability to work in
a team, motivation and problem solving skills are plus attributes sought after by employers thus
having them in place before an internship stint would be beneficial. Thus, it is important that the
university ensure that students going for the placement fulfil some minimum criteria in terms of
technical knowledge and soft skills in order that they are able to perform any assigned task.
Meeting competency requirements would enable the students to confidently shift from classroom
knowledge to the real world applications, thus making the internship stint more enriching. It is
important also that the university choice of placement sites fits the objectives of the internship
programs. Companies engaged in the placement programs at best would be those that are
committed in providing the experience.
2.5 Extent of Satisfaction with Compliance with Organization’s Code of Conduct
Every organization has a standard of conduct, whether it knows it or not (Kim & Miller, 2008).
One way or another, explicitly or implicitly, every organization communicates its values,
acceptable criteria for decision-making, and its ground rules for behavior. An increasing number
of organizations realize the importance and benefits of explicitly communicating their values and
guiding principles in a published code of conduct or ethics. Such a code, which helps build a
values-driven organization, typically deals with an organization’s underlying values,
commitment to employees, standards for doing business, and its relationship with wider society.
A well-designed code of conduct can provide the context for programs designed to improve
organizational performance. Organizations that fail to establish and implement a code of conduct
and to embed their organizational values could experience lower productivity, higher turnover,
increased transaction and agency costs, and increased exposure to legal action. This failure will
ultimately increase the cost of capital (Singh, 2017). Thus, successfully implementing a code of
conduct within a values-based organization is increasingly perceived as a competitive asset and
In a study by Somers (2008), the presence of corporate codes of ethics was associated with less
perceived wrongdoing in organizations, but not with an increased propensity to report observed
unethical behavior. Further, organizations that adopted formal codes of ethics exhibited value
orientations that went beyond financial performance to include responsibility to the
commonweal. In contrast to corporate codes of ethics, professional codes of ethical conduct had
no influence on perceived wrongdoing in organization nor these codes affect the propensity to
report observed unethical activities.
Professionalism is a critical component of compliance with the organization’s code of conducrt.it
ranges from the dress code of company, remaining prompt to work and remaining prepared for
the day, following through with plan, committing to the boss and the coworkers, and observing
organizations’ communication guidelines (Mowday & Steers, 2004). This includes
understanding and abiding by any confidentiality agreements at work at all times. Properly
scheduling your vacation days (in case your company grants you any) and notifying your
employer promptly when absence from work is required (i.e. sick days, vacation and personal
As an intern, the company’s code of conduct remains valid throughout the internship period
(Newman, Kinney, & Farr, 2004). This imply that the intern is able to live up to the standards set
by your home university including all rules and living up to its mission statement. Another
component is a statement regarding each employee’s personal responsibilities to uphold the
code of ethics (Mortensen, Smith, & Cavanagh, 2009). This may contain information regarding
both the legal and moral consequences if an employee violates the code. The requirement to
report any violators is normally a component of the ethics code’s personal responsibility. This is
meant to show that it is not sufficient to merely adhere to the values and principles but to help
ensure every employee supports the code of ethics by reporting violators.
Any laws or regulations may be referred as rules to adhere to as part of daily business
interactions. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act- which was enacted as a direct result of the Enron case, in
which executives falsified financial records to overstate the company’s worth- details what
financial reporting a company must do (Erwin, 2011). Compliance to all financial reporting and
any licensing requirements such as ISO 9000 by the International Organisation for
Standardization can be documented, along with the expectation that all licenses will be
maintained and legal regulations met (Holme, 2008).
Mortensen, Smith, and Cavanagh (2009) probed a crucial assumption underlying much of the
ethics theory and research: do managers perceive ethical behavior to be an important personal
job requirement? A large sample of managers from a cross-section of industries and job
functions indicated that, compared to other job duties, certain ethical behaviors were moderate to
somewhat major parts of their jobs. Some noteworthy differences by industry, organization size,
tenure and job function were also found. These findings underscore the importance of ethics for
business education. They also have implications for manager selection, training, and
development by organizations.
Erwin (2017) investigated the importance of code content in determining code effectiveness by
examining the relationship between code of conduct quality and ethical performance. Companies
maintaining high quality codes of conduct were significantly more represented among top CSR
ranking systems for corporate citizenship, sustainability, ethical behavior, and public perception.
Further, a significant relationship was observed between code quality and CSR performance,
across a full range of ethical rankings. These findings suggest code quality may play a crucial
role in the effectiveness of codes of conduct and their ability to transform organizational
Ogegah (2017) assessed the effects of organization ethical conducts on the employees
performance. The study concluded that the effects of work place ethics on organizational
performance such as; programs that promote good ethics in an organization, incentives that will
improve on employee’s ethical standards and aspects of ethics and performance.
2.6 Extent of Satisfaction with Time Management Skills of Interns
Time management is all about goal setting, careful planning and prioritizing tasks. These skills
are considered as very important for health science students as they are required to do
multitasking, acquire not only discipline-based knowledge and skills but also engage in other
academic activities and research as well (Saniter & Siedler, 2014). According to Arun and
Srikumar (2017), one of the most valuable tools for the hotel industry is efficient and effective
time management. This would include how they allocate and spend time for the regular as well
as adhoc tasks in each and every department. It is imperative that time management is a required
skill for any role in any department that will boost the productivity, ensure customer and
employee satisfaction. It is understood that time management is not an easy skill and there are
various factors influencing proper time management. The factors would include but not limited
to unplanned day, unpleasant tasks, employee drop-ins, lack of manpower and coordination,
social media, handling calls and mails etc., these issues are to be analyzed as it is crucial for any
organization to keep up the time management skills to complete tasks and achieve target on time.
Time management skills are considered as very important for internship students as they are
required to do multitasking, acquire not only discipline based knowledge and skills, but also
engage in other academic activities and research as well. Alzalet and Sandybayev (2015) sought
to find out the time management’s effect on the employee performance. The research was
conducted on National Oil Corporation (NOC) of Libya; it was done through handing out the
questionnaires to middle and line managers of the company. The results showed that there is
positive connection between the time management and performance of the employee.
Njagi and Malel (2017) examined the effects of time management strategies on the performance
of selected parastatals in Kenya. Further correlation coefficient revealed that there exists a
positive correlation of 0.674 between time management performances. Correlation also showed
that there is low positive relationship of 0.337 between the understanding of time bound
performance that is measurable. The researchers conclude that time management and work
performance are directly related and there is need. Ultimately, the effectiveness of organizations
comes down to the effectiveness of time usage, which is the concern of many managers. The
management of time is an issue which is fundamental to job performance. In the past attention to
the relationship between time and job performance was restricted to manual workers, and then,
by means of organization and methods, to clerical workers. The consideration of time utilization
for managerial and professional grades has not received much attention until recently.
Abraham, Velladath. Elman, and Sobri (2018) explored and compared time management skills of
first year undergraduate medical students and allied health science students. Analysis of the data
revealed that there was no statistical difference between the total mean scores of both groups
(MMMC: 3.2 (0.51); SOAHS: 3.2 (0.39), p-value >0.9). Comparison of mean score value of
domains between the groups indicated similar and the statistically insignificant values for TP and
TA domains for both groups whereas a high, however statistically insignificant mean score for
TW, for SOAHS students compared to MMMC students. Ten and nine items had a mean score
value below 3, for SOAHS and MMMC students respectively, out of which five items were
common for both groups (TP3, TP4, TA2, TA6, TW4).
Twehues (2018) explored how time management and the perception of control over time
contribute to undergraduates success in college. Extant literature suggests that students who are
more involved on-campus with academics, extracurricular activities and employment
opportunities achieve greater success in college due to higher levels of perceived time
management skills. Further, it suggests that college success does not rely solely on students' time
management behavior, but more on their perception of control over time, regardless of the
amount of involvement in both school-related and nonschool-related activities.
Adeojo (2016) sought to determine the effect of time management on high organizational
performance using Lasaco Assurance Plc. as a case company. The study brought out the
differences between effective time management and time management. It was discovered that the
organization has already implemented time management, but it was not effective enough. In
conclusion, effective time management is a great tool for obtaining high performance; thus
helping organizations to control their financial future and improve productivity.
2.7 Chapter summary
The chapter focused on literature review on skills development and the internship programme.
Furthermore, it provided a critique of the related literature on this study, to ensure that there is no
duplication of research studies as well as find out what other scholars are saying in investigating
a similar research problem. The next chapter presents the methodology, which was used, in
accomplishing the study.
3.1 Introduction
The central focus of this chapter is to outline the method to be used for the collection of data,
presentation and analysis of data. This chapter will also discuss more on population, sample,
sample size, sampling technique, source of data, research instruments, data analysis and
statistical tool employed to test for the strength of relationship. This chapter will also cover the
type of methodology to be used in this research work, the criteria for selecting the methodology
is solely based on the problem that is found in this research and structured research questions.
3.2 Research Design
According to Okezie (2008), research design is defined as a “scientific plan, drawing or scheme
indicating the picture and functioning or workings of the research process before it is engaged
in” while Asika (2013) sees it as “the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables
and their relationships to one another.” The first step in developing a research design is, of
course, to determine what it is that is to be explored, discussed, analysed and possibly explained.
This study explores the factors that influence the level of satisfaction of organizations which
offer internships to USIU-Africa students. It utilizes descriptive research design. Descriptive
research design offers several advantages; The possibility to observe the phenomenon in a
completely natural and unchanged natural environment. Secondly, the opportunity to integrate
the qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection.
3.3 Population and Sampling Design
3.3.1 Target Population
According to Asika (1991), a population is made up of all feasible elements, subject or
observation relating to a particular phenomenon of interest to the researcher. This will consist of
the management and staff of organizations offering internship opportunities to USIU-Africa
3.3.2 Sampling Design Sampling Frame
The sampling frame defines the portion of the population from which the sample is selected
(Pinilla, 2004). The sampling frame for the present study involves a list of organizations which
have partnered with USIU-Africa to offer the latter’s students with internship opportunities. The
list was provided by the University’s Internship Coordination Unit. Sampling Technique
Population sample according to Wimmer and Dominick (2000) is a subset of the population that
is the representative of the entire population. The sample size was limited to 156 employees of
organizations offering internship opportunities to USIU-Africa students. Simple Random
sampling was used to efficiently and carefully observe the population. This is to ensure equal
opportunity of everybody being represented considering that staff is homogenous in terms of
function. Sample Size
According to Greenstein (2011), a sample is the collection of elements drawn from the
population that is studied. The study used census, that is, all the organizations offering
internships opportunities will take part in the survey. The sample included members of the
Executive Management, Senior Management, Middle Management, Junior Management,
Operational Staff, Mentors and Graduate Interns. A study sample size was drawn from a list of
156 internship partners with USIU-Africa.
3.4 Data Collection Methods
Collection of data can be defined to be a technique used in gathering empirical research data.
This process typically stipulates how information is gathered and there are six major and
essential methods of collecting data which are as follows; Questionnaires, focus groups, tests,
observation, interviews and secondary data (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009). For the purpose of the
research, questionnaire was used. The questionnaire were close ended questions and had answer
options like (Strongly agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, Strongly Disagree). It was divided
into two sections which are as follows: Demographic data and Research questions. The main use
of questionnaire is acquiring more information about the intended project and it can be used for
various reasons in a research study. According to Wilson & Maclean (2009), questionnaire gives
researcher more insight into collecting data information from a vast amount of people and also
greatly useful in bringing about data that are numerical and can be well explained. Questionnaire
also has some disadvantages which are as follows; there is the aspect of time constraint because
they consumed a great amount of time to fully give an accurate outcome, the issue of fine tuning
is also in question because some data may fail to provide accurate answers in the aspect of
limited response so therefore they have to be refined (Cohen et al 2011). Questionnaires are
useful in the aspect of comparing results together, very easy to comprehend and they give a clear
picture of what has been researched and also the outcome. Recipients of questionnaire are forced
to provide accurate and truthful answers because there is no personal interaction with the
researcher; thus, they had the free will to give accurate responses. The questionnaire were sent
to the respondents electronically via respective organization’s official email address.’
3.5 Research Procedure
Before conducting the research, the researcher applied for research approval from Chandaria
School of Business’ Institution Research Board (IRB). After receiving approval from IRB to
conduct the study, the researcher sent the letter to the selected respondent organizations. Upon
receipt of the IRB approval, the chosen organization provided the researcher with contact
information for the individual employees. After obtaining the contact information for the staff,
the researcher prepared and email the individuals who represent the population and who meet the
criteria. The responses were using an Internet survey program named Survey Monkey and postal
mail. The surveys were returned via mail were placed into the Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS) for processing. Prior to the main study, a pilot survey was conducted, and a
critique sheet was used to increase the survey’s validity and reliability (Sawyer, 2008).
3.6 Data Analysis
Data analysis encompasses of all the aspect of showing or representing activities that are been
done (Coffey & Atkinson, 2005). Data information that are been collected through the process of
quantitative research methods are thoroughly examined and streamlined because of some errors
that may arise. The whole percentage of this data information is based on the questionnaires,
according to Yin (2003), data analysis entails the use of categorization, tabulation, examination;
all these tools helps in representing data information that are been collated. Data analysis has to
be carefully done so as not to make any unwanted mistakes. Before that, what to analyze and the
reason for it must be understood firstly. The method that was used for analysis of data through
questionnaire administration to the respondent involved the use of a statistical technique.
Descriptive statistics was carried out with the aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS)
to analyze the data collection. Crosstabluation helped to determine if a statistical correlation
between satisfaction with students on internship and internship involvement is present. The
findings and the analysis output was presented in the form of tables and figures.
The study observed ethical guidelines and principles that regulate social surveys. First,
permission to involve employees was obtained from the management of selected organizations
which offer USIU-Africa student internships. Babbie & Mouton (2011) explain that no one must
be forced to participate in the research. The researcher explained to all respondents that they
have the right not to participate in the study and that they can withdraw their participation at any
time if they feel uncomfortable with the direction taken by the study. The respondents were
informed that their confidentiality was respected. Babbie and Mouton (2001) explained
confidentiality as a situation where a researcher can identify a given person’s response but
promises not to do so publicly.
3.7 Chapter Summary
Chapter three explained the research methodology used and the type of data analysis. The
targeted sample size if 156 organizations which have partnered to offer USIU-Africa students
with internship opportunities. The study used descriptive research design and quantitative to
analyse collected data from the 156 research respondents. The chapter also outlined the ethical
consideration and protection of participants. The net chapter presents results and findings in line
with the specific objectives.
The chapter is about the results and findings regarding the
It begins by presenting the
demographic characteristics of the organizations that offer internship opportunities to USIUAfrica students.
The subsequent sections focus on research objectives as follows; Extent of
Satisfaction with Job Task Accuracy of Interns
Extent of Satisfaction with Compliance with
Organization’s Code of Conduct . Extent of Satisfaction with the Time Management Skills of
Interns . thereafter, the proceeding section present a correlation analysis before making summary
of the findings.
Response Rate
Table 4.1 indicates the response rate for the study. In total, 156 questionnaires were administered
via online google forms, out of which 115 were adequately filled and emailed back. This
translated into a response rate of 74%.
Table 4.1: The Study’s Response Rate
Target Sample Size
Response Rate
Background Characteristics
4.3.1 Type of the Organization
The results in Figure 4.1 indicates that majority of the organizations that offered USIU-Africa
students with internship opportunities were operating in the private sector (52%), this was
followed by those operating in the non-governmental sector (31%), and only 17% were linked to
the public sector.
Type of Organization
Private Sector
Public Sector
Figure 4.1: Type of the Organization
4.3.2 Sector of Operation
The results in Figure 4.2 demonstrates that nearly half of the organizations participating in the
study were operating in banking, insurance, and financial sector, 31% were from humanitarian
sector, 15% healthcare, and 7% were operating in immigration.
Sector of Operation
Banking, insurance, & Finance
Figure 4.2: Sector of Operation
4.3.3 Presence of Interns Policy
The findings in Figure 4.3 demonstrates that majority of the organizations had put the intern’s
policy in place. However, nearly a quarter of them lacked existing comprehensive policy to
guide internship programs.
Intern Policy
Figure 4.3: Intern Policy
4.3.4 Number of Years Interns Policy has been in Existence
The results in Figure 4.5 demonstrate the number of years that the intern policy had been in
place. It was revealed that the majority of the organizations (37%) had adopted the policy in the
past 1-5 years, followed by 33% of the organizations which had adopted the policy 6-10 years,
21% had the policy 11-15 years ago where only 10% had the policy for the past 16 years and
Number of Years of Intern Policy
Above 16
Figure 4.4: Number of Years Intern Policy has been in place
4.3.5 Period of Partnership
It was necessary to establish the number of years that organizations had partnered with USIUAfrica to offer students with internships. More than half of the organizations had established
partnership with USIU-Africa for the past 1-3 years, 24% had worked on the relationship 4-6
years, 14% had in partnership with USIU-Africa for the past 7-9 years while only 8% had the
relationship for more than 10 years as shown in Figure 4.5.
Number of Years of Partnership
10 and above
Figure 4.5: Number of Years of Partnership
4.3.6 Factors Considered in Recruitment of Interns
The study further determined the factors that recruiting organizations considered in selecting
students for internships. 54% of the organizations identified skills and competency as the major
determinant, 21% identified age, 18% stated gender while 7% were influenced by the
nationality of the internship applicant.
Factors Considered in Recruitment of Interns
Skills and Competency
Figure 4.6: Factors Considered in Recruitment of Interns
4.3.7 Availability of Capacity Building
The findings in Figure 4.6 demonstrate the availability of capacity building opportunities in
organizations offering internships to USIU-Africa students. 34% of the organization stated
scarce, followed by 28% who argued that the opportunities were moderately available, 11%
stated that they were readily available while only 6% stated that they were not available.
Opportunities For Capacity Building
Not Available
Figure 4.7: Opportunities For Capacity Development
Extent of Satisfaction with Job Task Accuracy of Interns
4.4.1 Tasks of interns
Performing clerical duties: It’s almost a guarantee you’ll be taking memos, maintaining files, organising,
sorting, creating PowerPoint presentations, drafting reports, and the like.
Managing social media and emails: You may be asked to handle the company’s social media accounts,
write emails to customers, talk to clients on the phone, and similar duties.
Event handling: Interns are often asked to oversee the scheduling of appointments, organising
conference rooms, and taking care of the food and drink.
Research: Interns fresh from a university education have a great deal of up-to-date knowledge. Your
organisation may put this knowledge to good use by placing you in a research role. You may be asked to
assist in streamlining an organisation’s work process in some way.
Measuring Accuracy of Tasks
Descriptive Statistics
The study aimed to establish the extent to which organizations providing internships were
satisfied with accuracy of interns on their job assignments. 38% of the respondents agreed that
interns performed their tasks within he assigned time frame. Secondly, 34% of the respondents
strongly agreed that interns fully conformed to the job assignment procedures and requirements.
Similarly, 33% of the respondents agreed that interns carried out quantitative tasks with high
degree accuracy. 28% of the respondents strongly agreed that interned developed feedback report
with least typo errors. Lastly, 41% of the respondents agreed that interns had always adhered to
accuracy standards set by the organization in their day to day assignment. The results are shown
in Table 4.2.
Table 4.2: Satisfaction with Job Task Accuracy of Interns
SA Total
Mean v
The interns perform their tasks within
the assigned time frame with limited
need for extension of deadlines
11% %
The interns fully conform to the job
The interns carry out quantitative tasks
with high degree accuracy
The interns develop feedback reports
with least typo erros
Interns are always adhering to accuracy
standards set by the organization in their
day to day assignment.
10% %
KEY: SD- Strongly Disagree, D- Disagree, N- Neutral, A- Agree, SA- Strongly Agree, STDev
Standard Deviation
Extent of Satisfaction with Compliance with Organization’s Code of Conduct
The study further aimed at establishing the extent of satisfaction with intern’s compliance with
the organization’s code of conduct. Majority of the respondents 36% strongly agreed that
internes strived to lead by example in their conduct of business within the organization.
However, 19% of the respondents disagreed that interns always reflected the ethical aspirations
of the organization. Thirdly, 43% of the respondents agreed that intern’s dress code reflected the
standards of the organization regarding the style of dress code. Majority of the respondents were
neutral when asked whether interns demonstrated high professionalism standards while
interacting with clients. Lastly, 25% of the respondents strongly agreed that interns were
sensitive to cross cultural values and respect for multiculturalism. The findings are demonstrated
in Table 4.3.
Table 4.3: Satisfaction with Compliance with Organization’s Code of Conduct
Interns strive to lead by example in
their conduct of business in the
organization premises
3.28 0.66
3.19 0.57
3.77 0.45
2.93 0.39
Interns are always reflecting the
ethical aspirations of the company
while interacting with the
organization’s stakeholders.
The intern’s dress code reflects the
standards of the organization about
dress code.
Interns are always demonstrating
high professionalism standards
while interacting with the clients
Interns are sensitive to cross
cultural values and respect for
6% 8% 23% % 25%
3.69 0.45
KEY: SD- Strongly Disagree, D- Disagree, N- Neutral, A- Agree, SA- Strongly Agree, STDev
Standard Deviation
Extent of Satisfaction with the Time Management Skills of Interns
On the last objective, the study sought to determine the extent of satisfaction with the with time
management skills of USIU-Africa student interns. Twenty seven percent of the respondents
strongly agreed that interns were less distracted by the work environment while on duty. In
addition, 21 % of the respondents agreed that interns strived to deliver quality work within
stipulated deadlines. Thirdly, 22% of the respondents strongly agreed that interns strived to
deliver quality with minimum instances from procrastination. Also, 32% of the respondents a
strongly agreed that interns always tracked time spent on each assignment while 38% remained
neutral when asked whether interns strived to prioritize their assignments on urgent tasks.
Moreover, 38% of the respondents indicated that at individual level, interns valued selforganization to help maximize job output. Lastly, 30% of the respondents strongly agreed that
interns tended to schedule their tasks to enhance peak performance. The findings are indicated in
Table 4.4.
Table 4.4: Satisfaction with the Time Management Skills of Interns
Interns are less distracted by the
work environment while on duty
% 19%
% 43%
7% 29%
% 17%
3.30 0.43
2.99 0.78
3.45 0.93
3.32 0.67
4% 38%
3.31 0.68
% 18%
6% 23%
Interns strive to deliver quality
work within the stipulated
Interns strive to deliver quality
with minimum instances for
Interns are always tracking time
spent on each individual job
Interns strive to prioritize their
assignments, evaluating their
responsibilities on important and
urgent tasks.
At individual level, interns value
self –organization to help
maximize on efficiency.
Interns tend to schedule their
3.64 0.72
3.57 0.53
tasks to enhance peak
KEY: SD- Strongly Disagree, D- Disagree, N- Neutral, A- Agree, SA- Strongly Agree, STDev
Standard Deviation
Correlation Analysis
The study performed a Pearson Correlation analysis between the independent variables, these
were the factors that influence the level of satisfaction with the interns and the actual satisfaction
levels among organizations offering internship opportunities to USIU-Africa students. The
findings in Table 4.5 illustrates that the correlations were all strong positive and significant. In
detail, task accuracy had the highest positive and significant correlation ( r= 0.913, p<0.05),
followed by compliance with the organization’s code of conduct (r= 0.895, p<0.05), and lastly,
time management ( r= 0.792, p<0.05).
Table 4.5: Multiple Correlation Analysis
Compliance Satisfaction
Accuracy Management with Code
of Conduct
Task Accuracy
Sig. (2-tailed)
Time Management
Sig. (2-tailed)
Compliance with
Sig. (2-tailed)
Code of Conduct
Satisfaction with
Sig. (2-tailed)
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Chapter Summary
The chapter provided the results and findings regarding the satisfaction of organizations with
interns from USIU-Africa. The findings revealed that all the three variables that were tasted;
accuracy of job tasks, compliance with the organization’s code of conduct, and time
management, all had strong positive influence on satisfaction level of the organizations offering
internship opportunities to USIU-Africa students.
The chapter is focused on the discussion of the findings in respect to the specific research
objectives. The chapter also makes conclusions on the obtained findings ad results before
making suggestions for improving the current status of satisfaction with USIU-Africa
students on internship.
Summary of the Findings
5.3.1 Extent of Satisfaction with Job Task Accuracy of Interns
On the first specific objective, the study aimed to establish the extent to which organizations
providing internships were satisfied with accuracy of interns on their job assignments. It
emerged that interns performed their tasks within he assigned time frame. Secondly, the study
revealed that interns fully conformed to the job assignment procedures and requirements. The
study further revealed that students agreed to perform all tasks assigned to them by the
employer as outlined in the job description. Students abided by posted work schedules and job
The study agrees with Sassnett and Ross (2016) who found that internship performance, skills,
preceptor responsibilities, faculty coordination and quality of internship plays a crucial,
important and significant role to satisfaction. It is vital that organizations offering internship
opportunities take time to train interns so they can know how to perform tasks. Training brings
about accuracy because practice makes perfect. Knowledge is crucial in performing any task,
and it instills focus and priority on the right action. Though training can be expensive, it is
important to note that trained employees grow the business and their career as well giving the
very best to the company.
Moreover, taking accurate productivity measurements can mean more than simply counting the
number of products made or sold, or services performed. Most interns perform several tasks,
some of which will be easier to measure than others. Employees should meet with their
supervisors at regular intervals to discuss their progress and to solve problems as they occur.
Measuring productivity throughout the year helps employees to stay focused on their goals.
Productivity can be quickly calculated with productivity software or on a spreadsheet, revealing
the number of products an employee produces or contributes to in a given time period. Those
numbers are then averaged out to reveal productivity gains or losses over time.
Job accuracy can be assessed on the basis of poor, needs improvement, meets requirments,
exceeds requirments. For poor job, the intern would have made frequent errors that are harmful
to business operations. In addition, The supervisor/department head has received numerous
complaints about the quality of work. The quality of work produced is unacceptable and it does
not complete required paperwork. On the contrary, an outstanding task has less than a 1% error
rate on work product. The level of accuracy is excellent., and quantity of work produced is
It is hard to think of a job where accuracy is irrelevant, so if you can think of one then please let
me know. Just take a moment and think about your job and duties that you perform on a daily
basis. How important is it that you are accurate at what you do? Chances are that your answer
would be ‘very important’... and if not, then maybe it’s time for you to start hitting the bullseye.
To be accurate and precise at work is what helps a company grow, profit, and function
efficiently. Accuracy can also help a company when it comes to knowing their budget,
employee expenses and projections for revenue. Delfgaauw and Souverijn (2014) assert that a
company can improve their image and brand when it comes to being accurate. Precision plays a
huge role when it comes to how the community views your ethics. If your company is providing
inaccurate information then some could have the perception that your company is being
unethical, unprofessional and/or not trustworthy. This is obviously not a good thing to have
reflected back on you and your company.
Delfgaauw, J., & Souverijn, J. (2014). Team Incentives, Task Assignment, and Performance:
A Field Experiment. Discussion Paper Series Iza DP No. 11228
Bloch (2013) prefers to measure productivity only by whether the work assigned actually gets
done. She believes that because personal and professional lives are increasingly blending and
overlapping, it's most accurate to base productivity measurements on completion of tasks, "not
minutes spent at the office." Bloch (2013) tracks productivity by breaking down projects down
into individual tasks. These are then assigned to employees best able to handle them. This
continues until the projects are complete. Berry (2017) agrees that the best productivity
measurements are about "keeping an eye on outcomes" and employee progress, instead of onthe-job habits and behavior.
Glendenning, T. (2017). Why Work Accuracy is Important and How OnTheClock's Time Cards
Can Help.
Buttner, E. E., Lowe, K., & Billings-Harris, L. (2012). An empirical test of diversity climate
dimensionality and relative effects on employee of color outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics,
110, 247–258.
Choudhary, A. I., Akhtar, S. A., & Zaheer, A. (2012). Impact of transformational and servant
leadership on organizational performance: A comparative analysis. Journal of Business Ethics,
116, 433–440.
Festing, M., & Schafer, L. (2014). Generational challenges to talent management: A framework
for talent retention based on the psychological-contract perspective. Journal of World Business,
49, 262–271.
Torstein, D.S. & Olsen K. (2015). The Role of Employee Task Performance and Learning
Effort in Determining Empowering Managerial Practices: Evidence From a Public Agency.
Review of Public Personnel Administration 36(1); 419- 452
Torstein and Olsen (2015) found that supervisor perceptions of subordinate task performance
and learning efforts are important in predicting their use of the two empowerment practices. In
particular, public managers are more likely to delegate work to employees they perceive as
higher performers but more likely to consult with employees who they perceive as exhibiting
greater learning effort.
Pradhan, R.K. (2016). Employee Performance at Workplace
Exploratory factor analysis revealed three distinct factors of employee performance that
constitute the new scale: task performance, adaptive performance, and contextual performance
(TAC). Reliability study on the sample reported significant internal consistency on the total
scale (a = 0.80) along with the three subscales (a ranging from 0.80 to 0.91).
An individual’s ability to acclimatize and provide necessary support to the job profile in a
dynamic work situation is referred to as adaptive performance (Hesketh, & Neal, 1999). Earlier
studies have found that once the employees derive a certain amount of perfection in their
assigned tasks, they try to adapt their attitude and behavior to the varied requirements of their
job roles (Huang et al., 2014; Pulakos et al., 2000). An effective adaptive performance
necessitates employees’ ability to efficiently deal with volatile work circumstances (Baard,
Rench, & Kozlowski, 2014), for example, technological transformations, changes in one’s core
job assignment, restructuring of organization and so on. Evolutions of various new occupations
as an offshoot of technological innovation need employees to engage in fresh learning and get
oneself adaptable with changes in an efficient manner (Griffin, Parker, & Mason, 2010;
Hollenbeck, LePine, & Ilgen, 1996). The employees are also expected to adjust their
interpersonal behavior in such changed circumstances to work successfully with a wide range
of peers and subordinates. In the context of wholesome work performance, Griffin, Neal, and
Parker (2007) cited that job proficiency may aid for task performance, but adaptability and
proactiveness to one’s job role is important to address uncertain business environments.
Zareen, M., Razzaq, K/ & Mujtaba, B.G. (2014). Job Design and Employee Performance: the
Moderating Role of Employee Psychological Perception. European Journal of Business and
Management, 5(5); 311-320
The findings of the study show that the internship could be made more effective, if synergy
is formed between the polytechnic and organizations that receive the students’ for training
in the areas of: working environment, knowledge transfer across context, organizational
participation and internship reporting. The findings of this study can be used by another
Polytechnic Malaysia. Besides that another variables can be included for future research
Yaakob, H., Mat Ail, K., & Radzi, N.F. (2018). The Effect of Internship on Job Performance:
An Assessment of Students’ Perception. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering
Research 9(7); 378- 392
5.3.2 Extent of Satisfaction with Compliance with Organization’s Code of Conduct
The study further aimed at establishing the extent of satisfaction with intern’s compliance with
the organization’s code of conduct. The findings revealed that internes strived to lead by
example in their conduct of business within the organization.
It was established that intern’s dress code reflected the standards of the organization regarding
the style of dress code.
However, to a lesser extent, interns reflected the ethical aspirations of the organization.
The study demonstrated that students agreed to abide by all policies, rules, and regulations of the
employer and by the policies outlined in the organization’s Professional Code of Conduct.
Interns are expected to show courtesy and respect for their fellow interns and employees in the
organization. Also, interns were expected no to take part in any facilitate discrimination of any
kind, including, but not limited to, discrimination based on gender, race, national origin,
ethnicity, age, religion, sexual orientation, disability, handicap, or intelligence.
Interns have a responsibility to be ethical from the moment they have their first job interview.
They must be honest about their capabilities and experience. Interns who comply with the
organziation’s code of conduct are perceived as team player rather than as individuals. They
develop positive relationships with coworkers. Their supervisors trust them with confidential
information and they are often given more autonomy as a result. Interns who are caught in lies
by their supervisors damage their chances of advancement within the organisation and may risk
being fired. An extreme case of poor ethics is employee’s theft. In some industries, this can cost
the business a significant amount of money, such as restaurants whose employees steal food
from the storage locker or freezer.
Interns shall not engage in any form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment includes sexual
conduct, or conduct with sexual overtones.
Second, good ethics codes can focus public servants on actions that result in doing the right
things for the right reasons. Ethical behavior should become a habit and effective codes allow
both bureaucrats and elected officials to test their actions against expected standards. Repeated
over time this kind of habit becomes inculcated in the individual and ingrained in the
Many organizations realize that good conduct and integrity contribute to marketplace success.
Facilitating ethical behavior in organizations can help both to safeguard reputation and to convey
a commitment to responsible practice to both society and regulators.
A well-designed code of conduct can provide the context for programs designed to improve
organizational performance. Organizations that fail to establish and implement a code of conduct
and to embed their organizational values could experience lower productivity, higher turnover,
increased transaction and agency costs, and increased exposure to legal action. This failure will
ultimately increase the cost of capital. Thus, successfully implementing a code of conduct within
a values-based organization is increasingly perceived as a competitive asset and advantage.
Maintaining your professionalism Professionalism is key throughout your stay here in
Germany. Again, we want you to enjoy your time, see new places, experience new things and
above all have a wonderful summer, but the highest priority of every intern throughout the
summer is learning and understanding the next phase of career-oriented maturity. • Learn the
proper dress code of your company. • Be prompt to work and prepared for what will often be
eight to nine hour work days. • Follow through with plans and commitments to your bosses and
co-workers. If you commit to an event or meeting and do not attend this will reflect poorly upon
you. • Communication is the biggest key to your success. Communicate when you have a
problem with a task. Communicate your plans and commitments. Listen to your co-workers. Be
respectful. Ask questions. Give your
5.3.3 Extent of Satisfaction with the Time Management Skills of Interns
On the last objective, the study sought to determine the extent of satisfaction with the with time
management skills of USIU-Africa student interns. The findings revealed that interns were less
distracted by the work environment while on duty. In addition, interns strived to deliver quality
work within stipulated deadlines. Also, interns strived to deliver quality with minimum instances
from procrastination.
The time management method determines employee productivity by recording how they use
their work time. Accurate measurement will reveal how much time is spent on accomplishing
work duties in a timely way, as well as how much time is lost to illness or excessive time off,
non-work-related conversations, and distractions such as texting and social media. Though this
method can help employees and managers set goals for reducing time losses, the bigger your
business gets, the harder it can be to accurately measure the time management of individual
Gault, J., Redington, J., Schlager, T., (2000). Undergraduate business internships and career
success: are they related? Journal of Marketing Education 22 (1), 45–53.
Abderrahman Hassi & Giovanna Storti, (2011). Organizational training across cultures:
variations in practices and attitudes. Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 35, Iss: 1,
pp.45 – 70.
Shaketange, L., Kanyimba, A., & Brown, E, (2015). Time Management's Effect on Efficiency of
Employees Performance. A Case of National Oil Corporation
The results have shown that there is positive connection between the time management and
performance of the intern.
The rating scale for Performance Planning and Review is made up of five factors: Poor, Needs
Improvement, Meets Requirements, Exceeds Requirements, and Outstanding. Any factor rated
poor or needs improvement MUST have performance comments. For any factor, performance
comments should support the rating given.
Dependability is the ability of being where he/she should be doing what he/she is supposed to
do. Interns with poor time management often calls in to work without prior approval, resulting
in excessive unscheduled absences. They also leave the work area unattended to run personal
errands, they are frequently late to work, they frequently leaves work early. There are those
nterns who need improvement on time management; they occasionally in to work without prior
approval, resulting in unscheduled absences, occasionally arrives late to work, Sometimes does
not make sure all work is completed before leaving for the day, Occasionally leaves work early.
For those who meet the time maangent reuirments; they consietly arrive to work on time., they
make sure work area is covered at all times. They have no unscheduled absences, except for
documented emergencies. For those who exceed time amangemennt requirments; have good
attendance record, they can always be counted on to work overtime when necessary without
complaint. Lastly, there are interns who are outstanding in time management, they are always at
work and on time, they never miss work without prior approval and appropriate notification, and
they have Has had no unscheduled absences during the rating period.
Nauman, S. & Hussain, N. (2018). Gauging the Effectiveness of Six-week Internship Duration
in Business Education in Pakistan: Implications for Policy and Practice. Journal of Education and
Educational Developement
It was revealed that even though the majority of the interns thought that a six-week time period
was not enough for them to achieve their learning objectives, the review of the literature and
intern interviews discovered that the internships were not designed effectively and therefore
could not deliver the desired results in the specified time.
Twehues, A. (2013). "Success and the Balance of Commitment and Time: Effects of Perceived
Time Management Control on College Student Performance" . Journal of Vocational Education
& Training, 63(4), 575-592.
Adapting time management techniques from the medical and nonmedical literature may improve
physician time management habits. These techniques can be divided into four categories: (1)
setting short and long-term goals; (2) setting priorities among competing responsibilities; (3)
planning and organising activities; and (4) minimising ‘time wasters’. Efforts to improve time
management can increase physician productivity and enhance career satisfaction.
5.4.1 Extent of Satisfaction with Job Task Accuracy of Interns
Job accuracy is the measure of intern’s performance and it directly affected the outcome of
employer’s satisfaction levels. Performing a task in a manner that meets required threshold is the
ingredient of high job accuracy. Organizations assess intern’s accuracy on the job by evaluating
their actions more often. The study concludes that interns demonstrated moderate level accuracy
on both qualitative and quantitative job tasks.
5.4.2 Extent of Satisfaction with Compliance with Organization’s Code of Conduct
A code is a central guide and reference for employees to support day-to-day decision making. A
code encourages discussions of ethics and compliance, empowering employees to handle ethical
dilemmas they encounter in everyday work. It can also serve as a valuable reference, helping
employees locate relevant documents, services and other resources related to ethics within the
organization. While interning at your site, you are representing not just yourself, but the
university and your fellow students, both current and future. Whether you do well or not at your
site may have implications far beyond your current situation. You are governed by the
employer's employment policies, practices, procedures, dress code, and/or standards of conduct.
5.4.3 Extent of Satisfaction with the Time Management Skills of Interns
Time management skill is considered very important for internship success and better quality of
life. An active lifestyle provides structure and purpose to daily schedules, which offers a need
for effective time management. Nearly half of the interns had inadequate time management. By
practicing time management skills, students gain higher levels of perceived control over time.
This perception enables students to handle requirements according to deadlines more effectively,
which leads to improved internship performance.
5.5 Recommendation
5.5.1 Recommendation For Improvement Extent of Satisfaction with Job Task Accuracy of Interns
On their part, interns should strive to take up more job responsibilities and tasks. The work may
feel uninspiring initially. That is understandable. But if you can demonstrate enthusiasm and
perform without complaining, you’ll slowly but surely work your way to the good stuff. It is
important for the interns to interact with people in many different branches of the company so
they can acquire a variety of skills to match their interests. It is thus recommended that the
educational institutes should work with the host organizations to make sure that the internships
that are offered to the interns are effective and fruitful. Therefore, the first and the foremost for
the educational institutes to do is to make sure that the interns are aware of the objectives of their
internship. Next, the educational institutes and the host organizations should exactly know what
will be the domain of work of the interns and how will the given objects be achieved in the sixweeks’ time period. Extent of Satisfaction with Compliance with Organization’s Code of Conduct
Organizations need to link all intern with mentors. Mentors will help interns in effective
transition into the organizational culture including compliance to the existing code of conduct
framework. Interns need to accept feedback and constructive criticism from the people around
them. They should never forget they are there to learn new ways of thinking, so they cannot
always count on previously conceived ideas to guide them. Learning new ideas is one of the
most important guiding principles of internship program. To avoid any misunderstanding, it is
recommended that you obtain clarification regarding such matters from your employer when you
begin your assignment. Extent of Satisfaction with the Time Management Skills of Interns
Interns need training on effective time management practices. Different organizations have
different approaches and tools for examining time management. Therefore, as part of the
induction training, interns should be tipped on the time management practices utilised by the
organizations they are in. also, interns need to take serious the assigned tasks, they should treat
internship as any other paying job since internship programs are vital in the building of their
future career prospects. Students must be self-motivated to be successful. They must
acknowledge their needs and wants, and then identify how they plan to achieve their goals. This
motivates students to success and the balance of commitment and time adapt their current
behavior, which enhances their perception of time. Through both the perception and practice of
time management, students are able to achieve a better internship performance while balancing
additional responsibilities. The interns must distinguish between important and unimportant
tasks, the interns should determine the goals before starting the work, the managers must
delegate some tasks to subordinates, and the interns pay attention to complete their work on time,
5.5.2 Recommendation For Future Research
The present study was limited to the interns from a single university. It is important to conduct a
study with a larger sample pool involving multiple universities to help validate the present
fidings. It must be emphasised that while the question of how long the internship needs to be to
be effective is an important policy question to address, the effectiveness of internship is not
reducible to its duration alone. The study’s use of the questionnaire method liited insghts from
the employers perpsectives, using mixed research design such as both interviews and
questionnaires will help elicit more information on exactly what factors influence employers’
satisfaction with students on internship programs.
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