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GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
1.
In its early years, psychology focused on the study of _____, but from the
1920s into the
1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ____.
A. environmental influences; hereditary influences
B.
maladaptive behavior; adaptive behavior
C. unconscious motives; conscious thoughts and feelings
D. mental life; observable behavior
2.
The young science of psychology developed from the more established fields
of
philosophy and
A. economics
B. biology
C. geo
graphy
D. sociology
3.
Janna has low self
esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciating
the complexity of Janna’s difficulties requires
A. introspection
B. psychoanalysis
C. massed practice
D. a biopsychosocial approach
4.
Professor Crism
an believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners
because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors’ genes. This
viewpoint best
illustrates the __ perspective.
A. social
cultural
B. cognitive
C. evolutionary
D. psychodynam
ic
5.
Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an
imbalanced diet
and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ___ perspective on
depression.
A. neuroscience
B. ps
ychodynamic
C. behavior genetics
D. cognitive
6.
Efforts to
discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by
their
biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate
regarding
A. structuralism vs. functionalism
B. evolution vs. natural selection
C. observation
vs. introspection
D. nature vs. nurture
7.
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science of
A. conscious and unconscious mental activity
B. observable responses to the environment
C. behavior and mental processes
D. maladaptive and adaptive behavio
rs
8.
Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people’s
A. childhood memories
B. genetic predispositions
C. unconscious thought processes
D. potential for healthy growth
9.
The first psychology laboratory was established by ___ in the yea
r ____.
A. Wundt; 1879
B. James; 1890
C. Freud; 1900
D. Watson; 1913
10.
Lissette wonders whether personality differences between her African
American and
Asian
American friends result from biological or cultural influences. In this instance,
Lissette is prim
arily concerned with the relative contributions of
A. neuroscience and cognition
B. nature and nurture
C. behavior and mental processes
D. conscious and unconscious thoughts
11.
The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
A.
natural selection
B. brain chemistry
C. unconscious conflicts
D. learned behaviors
12.
The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our
commonsense
understanding is most clearly facilitated by
A. critical thinking
B. hindsight bias
C. the
scientific attitude
D. curious skepticism
13.
Psychologists study animals because
A. animal behavior is just as complex as human behavior
B. experiments on people are generally considered to be unethical
C. the ethical treatment of animals is not mandated by p
rofessional guidelines
D. similar processes often underlie animal and human behavior
14.
The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of
people
constitutes their
A. culture
B. normal curve
C. wording effects
D. schemas
15.
Three key a
ttitudes of scientific inquiry are
A. pride, enthusiasm, and ingenuity
B. ingenuity, practicality, and certainty
C. certainty, creativity, and curiosity
D. curiosity, skepticism, and humility
16.
Psychological differences between the genders are
A. of little
interest to contemporary psychologists
B. simply reflections of biological differences between the sexes
C. no longer evident in contemporary Western societies
D. far outweighed by gender similarities
17.
A questioning attitude regarding psychologists’ assump
tions and hidden values best
illustrates
A. experimentation
B. critical thinking
C. hindsight bias
D. overconfidence
18.
The first major issue that emerges in debates over experimenting on animals
centers
around the
A. usefulness of studying biological proces
ses in animals
B. ethics of placing the well
being of humans above that of animals
C. obligation to treat information about individual animals with confidentiality
D. needs to obtain the informed consent of animals used in research
19.
To understand the unusua
l behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully
investigates the client’s current life situation and his physical, social
cultural, and
educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?
A. the survey
B. the case study
C
. experimentation
D. naturalistic observation
20.
Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support “welfare” than “aid
to the
needy.” These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the
importance of
A. random sampling
B. wording effects
C. the placebo effect
D. naturalistic observation
21.
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree
of
relationship between two variables?
A.
0.12
B.
0.99
C. +0.25
D.
0.50
22.
Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two va
riables
A. vary together
B. are random samples
C. influence each other
D. show statistically significant differences
23.
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their
marriages than
poor people are, this would indicate that weal
th and marital satisfaction are
A. causally related
B. negatively correlated
C. independent variables
D. positively correlated
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