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Nature of growth and development
Principles of development
Hereditary and Environmental:
… Physical characteristics are inherited; nutrition and learning are examples of environmental factors
… Predisposition to disease can be inherited, social responsibility, concern for others are examples of
environmental factors
Simple to complex:
… A child waves its arms before it grasps a toy
… Adolescents shift from using physical characteristics to describe themselves to using psychological
Rate of growth and development varies:
… Developmental milestones are reached at different ages
… Elderly people cope differently with their decline in functioning
Critical periods:
… Establishing a strong emotional bond between a child and the primary caregiver is essential to the ability to
form relationships in later life
… When children leave home, parents develop new roles
Predictable sequence:
… Children sit before they walk
… Adults undergo social development as they learn to parent
Laying foundations with each stage and area of development:
… Emotional deprivation can lead to an infant not reaching their growth potential
… Isolation and loneliness in seniors can mean that they do not bother to look after their mental health
… Describes the progression of body control from the head to the lower parts of the body. For example, an
infant will achieve head, upper trunk and arm control before lower trunk and leg control.
… Describes progress from the central portions of the body (I.e. the spinal cord) to the distal or peripheral
parts. In this developmental progression, gross motor skills and competencies precede fine motor skills.
Domains of development
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: is when the body changes in a physical manner. It can be the brain growing bigger,
the. head circumference increasing, the body getting heavier or longer, or the nails growing. It can be defined into
two categories – gross and fine motor
… Gross motor: is the development of larger skills and larger muscle movement such as walking, running,
skipping and jumping. These develop first
… Fine motor: is the development of smaller movements and more complicated skills. This can include
picking up small items with a pointer finger and thumb and how a pencil is held and coordinated. These
take longer to develop
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: is how a person understands about the people around them and how to interact and
acceptable behaviour when interacting with others. It is also how a child observes others; talking to people, listening
to people and understanding when it is their turn to talk. It is about learning behaviours that are acceptable with
other people, what is discussed and what is not discussed.
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: is how a person feels. These emotions can be happiness, sadness, anger, love, hate,
fear or hope. A child learns about these emotions and how to express themselves, and what is appropriate and what
is not. For example, when a child is angry it is not acceptable to hit out at people. When you are happy, it is good to
smile and laugh; it can make you feel good.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: is how a child understands about the world. This is how thoughts come together but
it is influenced by the environment of the child and how the brain develops. An example of this can include where
milk comes from. Initially milk comes from their mothers’ breast or from a bottle. Then they learn that milk can
come from a shop and then that milk can come from a cow then milk can also come from goats and other animals, or
that there are variations, for example, soy milk.
SPIRTUAL/MORAL DEVELOPMENT: is how a person feels about themselves and their values. This can take a
while to develop and understand. It does not need to be a religious understanding but more of an awareness of what
they value in their life and what they want to achieve – their values. In the beginning this is shaped a great deal by
their environment and to what they are exposed. As their environment changes this influences this developmental
area – the experiences that they have, the consequences of their actions and how this has an impact on their life.
Piage’s Theory of Cognitive Development:
The sensorimotor stage is composed of six sub-stages and lasts from birth through 24 months. The six substages are
1. Reflexes: the first substage (first month of life) is the stage of reflex acts. The neonate responds to external
stimulation with innate reflex actions. For example, if you brush a baby’s mouth or cheek with your finger
it will suck reflexively.
2. Primary circular reactions: the second substage is the stage of primary circular reactions. The baby will
repeat pleasurable actions centered on its own body. For example, babies from 1 – 4 months old will wiggle
their fingers, kick their legs and suck their thumbs. These are not reflex actions. They are done intentionally
– for the sake of the pleasurable stimulation produced.
3. Secondary circular reactions: next comes the stage of secondary circular reactions. It typically lasts from
about 4 – 8 months. Now babies repeat pleasurable actions that involve objects as well as actions involving
their own bodies. An example of this is the infant who shakes the rattle for the pleasure of hearing the
sound that it produces.
4. Of reactions: the fourth substage (from 8 – 12 months) is the stage of coordinating secondary schemes.
Instead of simply prolonging interesting events, babies now show signs of an ability to use their acquired
knowledge to reach a goal. For example, the infant will not just shake the rattle, but will reach out and
knock to one side an object that stands in the way of it getting hold of the rattle.
5. Tertiary circular reactions: fifth comes the stage of tertiary circular reactions. These differ from
secondary circular reactions in that they are intentional adaptations to specific situations. The infant who
once explored an object by taking it apart now tries to put it back together. For example, it stacks the bricks
it took out of its wooden truck back again or it puts back the nesting cups – one inside the other.
6. Representational thought: Finally, in substage six there is the beginning of symbolic thought. This is
transitional to the pre operational stage of cognitive development. Babies can now form mental
representations of objects. This means that they have developed the ability to visualize things that are not
physically present. This is crucial to the acquisition of object permanence – the most fundamental
achievement of the whole sensorimotor stage of development
Object Permanence: The main development during the sensorimotor stage is the understanding that objects exist
and events occur in the world independently of one's own actions ('the object concept', or 'object permanence').
For example, if you place a toy under a blanket, the child who has achieved object permanence knows it is there and
can actively seek it. At the beginning of this stage the child behaves as if the toy had simply disappeared.
The attainment of object permanence generally signals the transition to the next stage of development
The Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development
The child's thinking during this stage is pre (before) operations. This means the child cannot use logic or transform,
combine or separate ideas the child's development consists of building experiences about the world through
adaptation and working towards the (concrete) stage when it can use logical thought. During the end of this stage
children can mentally represent events and objects (the semiotic function) and engage in symbolic play.
Centration is the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation at one time. When a child can focus on more
than one aspect of a situation at the same time, they have the ability to decenter.
During this stage children have difficulties thinking about more than one aspect of any situation at the same time;
and they have trouble decentering in social situation just as they do in non-social contexts.
… Children’s' thoughts and communications are typically egocentric (i.e. about themselves). Egocentrism
refers to the child's inability to see a situation from another person's point of view.
… According to Piaget, the egocentric child assumes that other people see, hear, and feel exactly the same as
the child does.
… At the beginning of this stage you often find children engaging in parallel play. That is to say they often play
in the same room as other children, but they play next to others rather than with them.
… Each child is absorbed in its own private world and speech is egocentric. That is to say the main function of
speech at this stage is to externalize the child’s thinking rather than to communicate with others.
… As yet the child has not grasped the social function of either language or rules.
… The early preoperational period (ages 2-3) is marked by a dramatic increase in children’s use of the
symbolic function.
… This is the ability to make one thing - a word or an object - stand for something other than itself. Language
is perhaps the most obvious form of symbolism that young children display.
However, Piaget (1951) argues that language does not facilitate cognitive development, but merely reflects what the
child already knows and contributes little to new knowledge. He believed cognitive development promotes language
development, not vice versa.
… Toddlers often pretend to be people they are not (e.g. superheroes, policeman), and may play these roles
with props that symbolize real life objects. Children may also invent an imaginary playmate.
… In symbolic play, young children advance upon their cognitions about people, objects and actions and in this
way construct increasingly sophisticated representations of the world' (Bornstein, 1996, p. 293).
… As the pre-operational stage develops egocentrism declines and children begin to enjoy the participation of
another child in their games and “let’s pretend” play becomes more important.
… For this to work there is going to be a need for some way of regulating each child’s relations with the other
and out of this need we see the beginnings of an orientation to others in terms of rules.
… This is the belief that inanimate objects (such as toys and teddy bears) have human feelings and intentions.
By animism Piaget (1929) meant that for the pre-operational child the world of nature is alive, conscious
and has a purpose.
Piaget has identified four stages of animism:
1. Up to the ages 4 or 5 years, the child believes that almost everything is alive and has a purpose.
2. During the second stage (5-7 years) only objects that move have a purpose.
3. In the next stage (7-9 years), only objects that move spontaneously are thought to be alive.
4. In the last stage (9-12 years), the child understands that only plants and animals are alive.
… This is the belief that certain aspects of the environment are manufactured by people (e.g. clouds in the sky).
… This is the inability the reverse the direction of a sequence of events to their starting point.
Concrete Operational Stage
Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development, because it marks the
beginning of logical or operational thought. The child is now mature enough to use logical thought or operations (i.e.
rules) but can only apply logic to physical objects (hence concrete operational).
Children gain the abilities of conservation (number, area, volume, orientation), reversibility, seriation, transitivity
and class inclusion However, although children can solve problems in a logical fashion, they are typically not able to
think abstractly or hypothetically.
… Conservation is the understanding that something stays the same in
quantity even though its appearance changes. To be more technical
conservation is the ability to understand that redistributing material
does not affect its mass, number, volume or length.
… Piaget also studied children's ability to classify objects – put them
together on the basis of their colour, shape etc.
… Classification is the ability to identify the properties of categories, to
relate categories or classes to one another, and to use categorical
information to solve problems.
… One component of classification skills is the ability to group objects according to some dimension that they
share. The other ability to is order subgroups hierarchically, so that each new grouping will include all
share. The other ability to is order subgroups hierarchically, so that each new grouping will include all
previous subgroups.
… For example, he found that children in the pre-operational stage had difficulty in understanding that a class
can include a number of sub-classes. For example, a child is shown four red flowers and two white ones
and is asked 'are there more red flowers or more flowers?'. A typical five-year-old would say 'more red
… The cognitive operation of seriation (logical order) involves the ability to mentally arrange items along a
quantifiable dimension, such as height or weight.
… Formal Operational Stage
… The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve and lasts into adulthood. As adolescents
enter this stage, they gain the ability to think in an abstract manner by manipulate ideas in their head,
without any dependence on concrete manipulation.
… He/she can do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome
of particular actions.
… An example of the distinction between concrete and formal operational stages is the answer to the question
“If Kelly is taller than Ali and Ali is taller than Jo, who is tallest?” This is an example of inferential
reasoning, which is the ability to think about things which the child has not actually experienced and to
draw conclusions from its thinking.
… Reasoning is the ability to think scientifically through generating predictions, or hypotheses, about the world
to answer questions. The individual will approach problems in a systematic and organised manner, rather
than through trial-and-error.
… Concrete operations are carried out on things whereas formal operations are carried out on ideas. The
individual can think about hypothetical and abstract concepts they have yet to experience. Abstract thought
is important for planning regarding the future.
Theories of development
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS: these are biological requirements for human survival, e.g. air, food, drink, shelter,
clothing, warmth, sex, sleep.
… If these needs are not satisfied the human body cannot function optimally. Maslow considered physiological
needs the most important as all the other needs become secondary until these needs are met.
SAFETY NEEDS: protection from elements,
security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.
physiological and safety needs have been
fulfilled, the third level of human needs is social
and involves feelings of belongingness. The need
for interpersonal relationships motivates
… Examples include friendship, intimacy,
trust, and acceptance, receiving and
giving affection and love. Affiliating,
being part of a group (family, friends,
ESTEEM NEEDS: which Maslow classified into
two categories:
… esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence)
… the desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g., status, prestige).
Maslow indicated that the need for respect or reputation is most important for children and adolescents and precedes
real self-esteem or dignity.
SELF-ACTUALIZATION: realizing personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and peak
experiences. A desire “to become everything one is capable of becoming”
Applying: The first priority of workers is their survival. It's hard for them to be motivated if their pay is unfair and
if their jobs are always in jeopardy. Generally, a person beginning their career will be very concerned with
physiological needs such as adequate wages and stable income and security needs such as benefits and a safe work
environment. We all want a good salary to meet the needs of our family and we want to work in a stable
environment. Once these basic needs are met, the employee will want his "belongingness" (or social) needs met. The
environment. Once these basic needs are met, the employee will want his "belongingness" (or social) needs met. The
level of social interaction an employee desires will vary based on whether the employee is an introvert or extrovert.
The key point is that employees desire to work in an environment where they are accepted in the organization and
have some interaction with others. This means effective interpersonal relations are necessary. Managers can create
an environment where staff cooperation is rewarded. This will encourage interpersonal effectiveness. With these
needs satisfied, an employee will want his higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization met. Esteem needs are
tied to an employee’s image of himself and his desire for the respect and recognition of others. Even if an individual
does not want to move into management, he probably does not want to do the same exact work for 20 years. He may
want to be on a project team, complete a special task, learn other tasks or duties, or expand his duties in some
manner. Cross-training, job enrichment, and special assignments are popular methods for making work more
rewarding. Further, allowing employees to participate in decision making on operational matters is a powerful
method for meeting an employee’s esteem needs. Finally, symbols of accomplishment such as a meaningful job title,
job perks, awards, a nice office, business cards, work space, etc. are also important to an employee’s esteem. Finally,
while work assignments and rewards are important considerations to meeting employee esteem needs, workplace
fairness (equity) is also important. With self-actualization, the employee will be interested in growth and individual
development. He will also need to be skilled at what he does. He may want a challenging job, an opportunity to
complete further education, increased freedom from supervision, or autonomy to define his own processes for
meeting organizational objectives. At this highest level, managers focus on promoting an environment where an
employee can meet his own self-actualization needs.
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System:
MICROSYSTEM: The microsystem is the smallest and most
immediate environment in which the child lives. As such,
the microsystem comprises the daily home, school or daycare, peer group or community environment of the child.
Interactions within the microsystem typically involve
personal relationships with family members, classmates,
teachers and caregivers, in which influences go back and
forth. How these groups or individuals interact with the
child will affect how the child grows. Similarly, how the
child reacts to people in his microsystem will also influence
how they treat the child in return. More nurturing and more
supportive interactions and relationships will
understandably foster the child’s improved development.
Each child’s particular personality traits, such as temperament, which is influenced by unique genetic and biological
factors, ultimately have a hand in how he is treated by others.
MESOSYSTEM: The mesosystem encompasses the interaction of the different microsystems which the developing
child finds himself in. It is, in essence, a system of microsystems and as such, involves linkages between home and
school, between peer group and family, or between family and church. If a child’s parents are actively involved in
the friendships of their child, invite friends over to their house and spend time with them, then the child’s
development is affected positively through harmony and like-mindedness. However, if the child’s parents dislike
their child’s peers and openly criticize them, then the child experiences disequilibrium and conflicting emotions,
probably affecting his development negatively.
EXOSYSTEM: The exosystem pertains to the linkages that may exist between two or more settings, one of which
may not contain the developing child but affects him indirectly, nonetheless. Other people and places which the
child may not directly interact with but may still have an effect on the child, comprise the exosystem. Such places
and people may include the parents’ workplaces, the larger neighbourhood, and extended family members.
For example, a father who is continually passed up for promotion by an indifferent boss at the workplace may take it
out on his children and mistreat them at home.
MACROSYSTEM: The macrosystem is the largest and most distant collection of people and places to the child that
still exercises significant influence on the child. It is composed of the child’s cultural patterns and values,
specifically the child’s dominant beliefs and ideas, as well as political and economic systems. Children in war-torn
areas, for example, will experience a different kind of development than children in communities where peace
CHRONOSYSTEM: The chronosystem adds the useful dimension of time, which demonstrates the influence of both
change and constancy in the child’s environment. The chronosystem may thus include a change in family structure,
address, parent’s employment status, in addition to immense society changes such as economic cycles and wars. For
example, a child who frequently bullies smaller children at school may portray the role of a terrified victim at home.
Due to these variations, adults concerned with the care of a particular child should pay close attention to behaviour
in different settings or contexts and to the quality and type of connections that exist between these contexts.
Interrelationships (impact, consequences, influences): every section in the Bronfenbrenner theory revolves
Interrelationships (impact, consequences, influences): every section in the Bronfenbrenner theory revolves
around the child, if one section is influenced there are high chances that one or more of another section will be
influenced too. For example, if a parent loses a job and can’t afford much the child environment will change
(exosystem), their relationship with parents will change because the parents’ attitude will change (microsystem), the
parent may not be able to afford extra-curricular sporting teams influencing the child (mesosystem).
… Vygotsky has developed a sociocultural approach to cognitive development. He developed his theories at
around the same time as Jean Piaget was starting to develop his ideas (1920's and 30's), but he died at the
age of 38, and so his theories are incomplete - although some of his writings are still being translated from
… No single principle (such as Piaget's equilibration) can account for development. Individual development
cannot be understood without reference to the social and cultural context within which it is embedded.
Higher mental processes in the individual have their origin in social processes.
Vygotsky's theory differs from that of Piaget in a number of important ways:
1: Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture affecting cognitive development.
… This contradicts Piaget's view of universal stages and content of development (Vygotsky does not refer to
stages in the way that Piaget does).
… Hence Vygotsky assumes cognitive development varies across cultures, whereas Piaget states cognitive
development is mostly universal across cultures.
2: Vygotsky places considerably more emphasis on social factors contributing to cognitive development.
… Vygotsky states cognitive development stems from social interactions from guided learning within the zone
of proximal development as children and their partner's co-construct knowledge. In contrast, Piaget
maintains that cognitive development stems largely from independent explorations in which children
construct knowledge of their own.
… For Vygotsky, the environment in which children grow up will influence how they think and what they think
3: Vygotsky places more (and different) emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development.
… According to Piaget, language depends on thought for its development (i.e., thought comes before
language). For Vygotsky, thought and language are initially separate systems from the beginning of life,
merging at around three years of age, producing verbal thought (inner speech).
… For Vygotsky, cognitive development results from an internalization of language.
4: According to Vygotsky adults are an important source of cognitive development.
… Adults transmit their culture's tools of intellectual adaptation that children internalize. In contrast, Piaget
emphasizes the importance of peers as peer interaction promotes social perspective taking.
Effects of Culture: - Tools of intellectual adaptation
Like Piaget, Vygotsky claimed that infants are born with the basic materials/abilities for intellectual development Piaget focuses on motor reflexes and sensory abilities.
Lev Vygotsky refers to 'elementary mental functions' –
… Attention
… Sensation
… Perception
… Memory
… Eventually, through interaction within the sociocultural environment, these are developed into more
sophisticated and effective mental processes/strategies which he refers to as 'higher mental functions.'
sophisticated and effective mental processes/strategies which he refers to as 'higher mental functions.'
… For example, memory in young children this is limited by biological factors. However, culture determines
the type of memory strategy we develop. E.g., in our culture, we learn note-taking to aid memory, but in
pre-literate societies, other strategies must be developed, such as tying knots in a string to remember, or
carrying pebbles, or repetition of the names of ancestors until large numbers can be repeated.
… Vygotsky refers to tools of intellectual adaptation - these allow children to use the basic mental functions
more effectively/adaptively, and these are culturally determined (e.g., memory mnemonics, mind maps).
… Vygotsky, therefore, sees cognitive functions, even those carried out alone, as affected by the beliefs, values,
and tools of intellectual adaptation of the culture in which a person develops and therefore socio-culturally
determined. The tools of intellectual adaptation, therefore, vary from culture to culture - as in the memory
Social Influences on Cognitive Development
… Like Piaget, Vygotsky believes that young children are curious and actively involved in their own learning
and the discovery and development of new understandings/schema. However, Vygotsky placed more
emphasis on social contributions to the process of development, whereas Piaget emphasized self-initiated
… According to Vygotsky (1978), much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with
a skillful tutor. The tutor may model behaviors and/or provide verbal instructions for the child. Vygotsky
refers to this as cooperative or collaborative dialogue. The child seeks to understand the actions or
instructions provided by the tutor (often the parent or teacher) then internalizes the information, using it to
guide or regulate their own performance.
… Shaffer (1996) gives the example of a young girl who is given her first jigsaw. Alone, she performs poorly
in attempting to solve the puzzle. The father then sits with her and describes or demonstrates some basic
strategies, such as finding all the corner/edge pieces and provides a couple of pieces for the child to put
together herself and offers encouragement when she does so.
… As the child becomes more competent, the father allows the child to work more independently. According to
Vygotsky, this type of social interaction involving cooperative or collaborative dialogue promotes cognitive
… In order to gain an understanding of Vygotsky's theories on cognitive development, one must understand
two of the main principles of Vygotsky's work: the More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) and the Zone of
Proximal Development (ZPD).
More Knowledgeable Other
… The more knowledgeable other (MKO) is somewhat self-explanatory; it refers to someone who has a better
understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or
… Although the implication is that the MKO is a teacher or an older adult, this is not necessarily the case.
Many times, a child's peers or an adult's children may be the individuals with more knowledge or
… For example, who is more likely to know more about the newest teenage music groups, how to win at the
most recent PlayStation game, or how to correctly perform the newest dance craze - a child or their
… In fact, the MKO need not be a person at all. Some companies, to support employees in their learning
process, are now using electronic performance support systems.
… Electronic tutors have also been used in educational settings to facilitate and guide students through the
learning process. The key to MKOs is that they must have (or be programmed with) more knowledge about
the topic being learned than the learner does.
Zone of Proximal Development
… The concept of the More Knowledgeable Other is integrally related to the second important principle of
Vygotsky's work, the Zone of Proximal Development.
… This is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently
… This is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently
and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner.
… For example, the child could not solve the jigsaw puzzle (in the example above) by itself and would have
taken a long time to do so (if at all), but was able to solve it following interaction with the father, and has
developed competence at this skill that will be applied to future jigsaws.
… Vygotsky (1978) sees the Zone of Proximal Development as the area where the most sensitive instruction or
guidance should be given - allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own - developing
higher mental functions.
… Vygotsky also views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies. He
suggests that teachers use cooperative learning exercises where less competent children develop with help
from more skillful peers - within the zone of proximal development.
Evidence for Vygotsky and the ZPD
… Freund (1990) conducted a study in which children had to decide which items of furniture should be placed
in particular areas of a dolls house.
… Some children were allowed to play with their mother in a similar situation before they attempted it alone
(zone of proximal development) while others were allowed to work on this by themselves (Piaget's
discovery learning).
… Freund found that those who had previously worked with their mother (ZPD) showed the greatest
improvement compared with their first attempt at the task. The conclusion being that guided learning
within the ZPD led to greater understanding/performance than working alone (discovery learning).
Vygotsky and Language
… Vygotsky believed that language develops from social interactions, for communication purposes. Vygotsky
viewed language as man’s greatest tool, a means for communicating with the outside world.
… According to Vygotsky (1962) language plays two critical roles in cognitive development:
… 1: It is the main means by which adults transmit information to children.
… 2: Language itself becomes a very powerful tool of intellectual adaptation.
… Vygotsky (1987) differentiates between three forms of language: social speech which is external
communication used to talk to others (typical from the age of two); private speech (typical from the age of
three) which is directed to the self and serves an intellectual function; and finally private speech goes
underground, diminishing in audibility as it takes on a self-regulating function and is transformed into silent
inner speech (typical from the age of seven).
… For Vygotsky, thought and language are initially separate systems from the beginning of life, merging at
around three years of age. At this point speech and thought become interdependent: thought becomes
verbal, speech becomes representational. When this happens, children's monologues internalized to become
inner speech. The internalization of language is important as it drives cognitive development.
… 'Inner speech is not the interior aspect of external speech - it is a function in itself. It still remains speech,
i.e., thought connected with words. But while in external speech thought is embodied in words, in inner
speech words dies as they bring forth thought. Inner speech is to a large extent thinking in pure meanings.'
… (Vygotsky, 1962: p. 149)
… Vygotsky (1987) was the first psychologist to document the importance of private speech. He considered
private speech as the transition point between social and inner speech, the moment in development where
language and thought unite to constitute verbal thinking.
… Thus, private speech, in Vygotsky's view, was the earliest manifestation of inner speech. Indeed, private
speech is more similar (in its form and function) to inner speech than social speech.
… Private speech is 'typically defined, in contrast to social speech, as speech addressed to the self (not to
others) for the purpose of self-regulation (rather than communication).'
… (Diaz, 1992, p.62)
… Unlike inner speech which is covert (i.e., hidden), private speech is overt. In contrast to Piaget’s (1959)
notion of private speech representing a developmental dead-end, Vygotsky (1934, 1987) viewed private
speech as:
… 'A revolution in development which is triggered when preverbal thought and preintellectual language come
together to create fundamentally new forms of mental functioning.'
… (Fernyhough & Fradley, 2005: p. 1).
… In addition to disagreeing on the functional significance of private speech, Vygotsky and Piaget also offered
opposing views on the developmental course of private speech and the environmental circumstances in
which it occurs most often (Berk & Garvin, 1984).
… Through private speech, children begin to collaborate with themselves in the same way a more
knowledgeable other (e.g., adults) collaborate with them in the achievement of a given function.
… Vygotsky sees "private speech" as a means for children to plan activities and strategies and therefore aid
their development. Private speech is the use of language for self-regulation of behavior. Language is,
therefore, an accelerator to thinking/understanding (Jerome Bruner also views language in this way).
Vygotsky believed that children who engaged in large amounts of private speech are more socially
competent than children who do not use it extensively.
… Vygotsky (1987) notes that private speech does not merely accompany a child’s activity but acts as a tool
used by the developing child to facilitate cognitive processes, such as overcoming task obstacles, enhancing
imagination, thinking, and conscious awareness.
… Children use private speech most often during intermediate difficulty tasks because they are attempting to
self-regulate by verbally planning and organizing their thoughts (Winsler et al., 2007).
… The frequency and content of private speech are then correlated with behavior or performance. For example,
private speech appears to be functionally related to cognitive performance: It appears at times of difficulty
with a task.
… For example, tasks related to executive function (Fernyhough & Fradley, 2005), problem-solving tasks
(Behrend et al., 1992), schoolwork in both language (Berk & Landau, 1993), and mathematics (Ostad &
Sorensen, 2007).
… Berk (1986) provided empirical support for the notion of private speech. She found that most private speech
exhibited by children serves to describe or guide the child's actions.
… Berk also discovered than child engaged in private speech more often when working alone on challenging
tasks and also when their teacher was not immediately available to help them. Furthermore, Berk also
found that private speech develops similarly in all children regardless of cultural background.
… Vygotsky (1987) proposed that private speech is a product of an individual’s social environment. This
hypothesis is supported by the fact that there exist high positive correlations between rates of social
interaction and private speech in children.
… Children raised in cognitively and linguistically stimulating environments (situations more frequently
observed in higher socioeconomic status families) start using and internalizing private speech faster than
children from less privileged backgrounds. Indeed, children raised in environments characterized by low
verbal and social exchanges exhibit delays in private speech development.
… Children’s’ use of private speech diminishes as they grow older and follows a curvilinear trend. This is due
to changes in ontogenetic development whereby children are able to internalize language (through inner
speech) in order to self-regulate their behavior (Vygotsky, 1987).
… For example, research has shown that children’s’ private speech usually peaks at 3–4 years of age, decreases
at 6–7 years of age, and gradually fades out to be mostly internalized by age 10 (Diaz, 1992).
… Vygotsky proposed that private speech diminishes and disappears with age not because it becomes
socialized, as Piaget suggested, but rather because it goes underground to constitute inner speech or verbal
thought” (Frauenglass & Diaz, 1985).
Classroom Applications
… A contemporary educational application of Vygotsky's theories is "reciprocal teaching," used to improve
students' ability to learn from text. In this method, teachers and students collaborate in learning and
practicing four key skills: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher's role in the
process is reduced over time.
… Also, Vygotsky is relevant to instructional concepts such as "scaffolding" and "apprenticeship," in which a
teacher or more advanced peer helps to structure or arrange a task so that a novice can work on it
… Vygotsky's theories also feed into the current interest in collaborative learning, suggesting that group
members should have different levels of ability so more advanced peers can help less advanced members
operate within their ZPD.
Critical Evaluation
… Vygotsky's work has not received the same level of intense scrutiny that Piaget's has, partly due to the timeconsuming process of translating Vygotsky's work from Russian. Also, Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective
does not provide as many specific hypotheses to test as did Piaget's theory, making refutation difficult, if
not impossible.
… Perhaps the main criticism of Vygotsky's work concerns the assumption that it is relevant to all cultures.
Rogoff (1990) dismisses the idea that Vygotsky's ideas are culturally universal and instead states the
concept of scaffolding - which is heavily dependent on verbal instruction - may not be equally useful in all
cultures for all types of learning. Indeed, in some instances, observation and practice may be more effective
ways of learning certain skills.
Erik Erikson:
… Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order through eight stages of psychosocial
development, from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis
which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.
… For Erikson (1958, 1963), these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological
needs of the individual (i.e., psycho) conflicting with the needs of society (i.e., social).
… According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and the
acquisition of basic virtues. Basic virtues are characteristic strengths which the ego can use to resolve
subsequent crises.
… Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and
therefore an unhealthier personality and sense of self. These stages, however, can be resolved successfully
at a later time.
​Psychosocial Crisis
​Trust vs. Mistrust
​Autonomy vs. Shame
​Initiative vs. Guilt
​Industry vs. Inferiority
​Identity vs. Role Confusion
​Intimacy vs. Isolation
​Generativity vs. Stagnation
​Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Basic Virtue
0 - 1½
1½ - 3
5 - 12
12 - 18
18 - 40
40 - 65
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
… Trust vs. mistrust is the first stage in Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage begins
at birth continues to approximately 18 months of age. During this stage, the infant is uncertain about the
world in which they live and looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care.
… If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which
will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened.
… If these needs are not consistently met, mistrust, suspicion, and anxiety may develop.
… If the care has been inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant may develop a sense of
mistrust, suspicion, and anxiety. In this situation the infant will not have confidence in the world around
them or in their abilities to influence events.
… Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of hope. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can have hope
that as new crises arise, there is a real possibility that other people will be there as a source of support.
Failing to acquire the virtue of hope will lead to the development of fear.
… This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships. It may result in anxiety,
heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them.
… Consistent with Erikson's views on the importance of trust, research by Bowlby and Ainsworth has outlined
how the quality of the early experience of attachment can affect relationships with others in later life.
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
… Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage of Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial
development. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately 3 years. According to
Erikson, children at this stage are focused on developing a sense of personal control over physical skills
and a sense of independence.
… Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of will. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in
their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the
… If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to
feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack selfesteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their abilities.
What Happens During This Stage?
… The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile, and discovering that he or she has many
skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys, etc. Such skills illustrate the
child's growing sense of independence and autonomy.
… For example, during this stage children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their
mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.
What Can Parents Do to Encourage a Sense of Control?
… Erikson states it is critical that parents allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities within an
encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure.
… For example, rather than put on a child's clothes a supportive parent should have the patience to allow the
child to try until they succeed or ask for assistance. So, the parents need to encourage the child to become
more independent while at the same time protecting the child so that constant failure is avoided.
… A delicate balance is required from the parent. They must try not to do everything for the child, but if the
child fails at a particular task they must not criticize the child for failures and accidents (particularly when
toilet training).
… The aim has to be “self-control without a loss of self-esteem” (Gross, 1992).
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
… Initiative versus guilt is the third stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. During the
initiative versus guilt stage, children assert themselves more frequently.
… These are particularly lively, rapid-developing years in a child’s life. According to Bee (1992), it is a “time
of vigour of action and of behaviours that the parents may see as aggressive."
… During this period the primary feature involves the child regularly interacting with other children at school.
Central to this stage is play, as it provides children with the opportunity to explore their interpersonal skills
through initiating activities.
… Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this
opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make
Children Playing
… Conversely, if this tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of
guilt. The child will often overstep the mark in his forcefulness, and the danger is that the parents will tend
to punish the child and restrict his initiatives too much.
… It is at this stage that the child will begin to ask many questions as his thirst for knowledge grows. If the
parents treat the child’s questions as trivial, a nuisance or embarrassing or other aspects of their behaviour
as threatening then the child may have feelings of guilt for “being a nuisance”.
… Too much guilt can make the child slow to interact with others and may inhibit their creativity. Some guilt
is, of course, necessary; otherwise the child would not know how to exercise self-control or have a
… A healthy balance between initiative and guilt is important. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of
purpose, while failure results in a sense of guilt.
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
… Erikson's fourth psychosocial crisis, involving industry (competence) vs. inferiority occurs during childhood
between the ages of five and twelve.
… Children are at the stage where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to do things on their
own. Teachers begin to take an important role in the child’s life as they teach the child specific skills.
… It is at this stage that the child’s peer group will gain greater significance and will become a major source of
the child’s self-esteem. The child now feels the need to win approval by demonstrating specific
competencies that are valued by society and begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments.
… If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel industrious (competent) and
feel confident in their ability to achieve goals. If this initiative is not encouraged, if it is restricted by
parents or teacher, then the child begins to feel inferior, doubting his own abilities and therefore may not
reach his or her potential.
… If the child cannot develop the specific skill, they feel society is demanding (e.g., being athletic) then they
may develop a sense of inferiority.
… Some failure may be necessary so that the child can develop some modesty. Again, a balance between
competence and modesty is necessary. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of competence.
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
… The fifth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is identity vs. role confusion, and it
occurs during adolescence, from about 12-18 years. During this stage, adolescents search for a sense of self
and personal identity, through an intense exploration of personal values, beliefs, and goals.
… During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming
more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc.
The individual wants to belong to a society and fit in.
… The adolescent mind is essentially a mind or moratorium, a psychosocial stage between childhood and
adulthood, and between the morality learned by the child, and the ethics to be developed by the adult
(Erikson, 1963, p. 245)
… This is a major stage of development where the child has to learn the roles he will occupy as an adult. It is
during this stage that the adolescent will re-examine his identity and try to find out exactly who he or she is.
Erikson suggests that two identities are involved: the sexual and the occupational.
… According to Bee (1992), what should happen at the end of this stage is “a reintegrated sense of self, of what
one wants to do or be, and of one’s appropriate sex role”. During this stage the body image of the
adolescent changes.
… Erikson claims that the adolescent may feel uncomfortable about their body for a while until they can adapt
and “grow into” the changes. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of fidelity.
… Fidelity involves being able to commit one's self to others on the basis of accepting others, even when there
may be ideological differences.
… During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the outcome
of their explorations. Failure to establish a sense of identity within society ("I don’t know what I want to be
when I grow up") can lead to role confusion. Role confusion involves the individual not being sure about
themselves or their place in society.
… In response to role confusion or identity crisis, an adolescent may begin to experiment with different
lifestyles (e.g., work, education or political activities).
… Also pressuring someone into an identity can result in rebellion in the form of establishing a negative
identity, and in addition to this feeling of unhappiness.
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
… Intimacy versus isolation is the sixth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage
takes place during young adulthood between the ages of approximately 18 to 40 yrs.
… During this period, the major conflict centres on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people.
… During this period, we begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore relationships
leading toward longer-term commitments with someone other than a family member.
… Successful completion of this stage can result in happy relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and
care within a relationship.
… Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes
depression. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of love.
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
… Generativity versus stagnation is the seventh of eight stages of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial
development. This stage takes place during middle adulthood (ages 40 to 65 yrs.).
… Generativity refers to "making your mark" on the world through creating or nurturing things that will outlast
an individual.
… People experience a need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often having mentees or creating
positive changes that will benefit other people.
… We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in
community activities and organizations. Through generativity we develop a sense of being a part of the
community activities and organizations. Through generativity we develop a sense of being a part of the
bigger picture.
… Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in
the world.
… By failing to find a way to contribute, we become stagnant and feel unproductive. These individuals may
feel disconnected or uninvolved with their community and with society as a whole. Success in this stage
will lead to the virtue of care.
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair
… Ego integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of Erik Erikson’s stage theory of psychosocial
development. This stage begins at approximately age 65 and ends at death.
… It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and can develop integrity if we see ourselves
as leading a successful life.
… Erikson described ego integrity as “the acceptance of one’s one and only life cycle as something that had to
be” (1950, p. 268) and later as “a sense of coherence and wholeness” (1982, p. 65).
… As we grow older (65+ yrs.) and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity and explore
life as a retired person.
… Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilty about our past, or feel that we did not
accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression
and hopelessness.
… Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. Wisdom enables a person to look back on their life
with a sense of closure and completeness, and also accept death without fear.
… Wise people are not characterized by a continuous state of ego integrity, but they experience both ego
integrity and despair. Thus, late life is characterized by both integrity and despair as alternating states that
need to be balanced.
Critical Evaluation
… By extending the notion of personality development across the lifespan, Erikson outlines a more realistic
perspective of personality development (McAdams, 2001).
… Based on Erikson’s ideas, psychology has reconceptualized the way the later periods of life are viewed.
Middle and late adulthood are no longer viewed as irrelevant, because of Erikson, they are now considered
active and significant times of personal growth.
… Erikson’s theory has good face validity. Many people find that they can relate to his theories about various
stages of the life cycle through their own experiences.
… However, Erikson is rather vague about the causes of development. What kinds of experiences must people
have to successfully resolve various psychosocial conflicts and move from one stage to another? The theory
does not have a universal mechanism for crisis resolution.
Factors affecting development
Family Types and Structures in Contemporary Australian Society:
… A group consisting of two parents and their children living together as a unit
… A group of people who love, trust and care for each other – not always related by blood
ADOPTIVE FAMILY: Two parents who have adopted a child/children. Most common reason is if parents are unable
to conceive a child.
BLENDED/STEP FAMILY: a family consisting of a couple, the children they have had together, and their children
from previous relationships.
CHILDLESS FAMILY: a couple in a committed and caring relationship with no children. The couple may or may not
be married.
COMMUNAL FAMILY: a group of people who live together, share household duties but are not related by blood.
They don’t necessarily have to live together, they could be a sports team, close friend group etc.
EXTENDED FAMILY: comprises of a mother, father, children and relatives sharing a house or living in close
proximity to each other.
FOSTER FAMILY: these are families where a couple cares for a child that is not biologically their own.
NUCLEAR FAMILY: comprises of a mother, father and their children. The most common family structure.
SAME GENDER FAMILY: a couple of the same sex in a committed relationship with or without children.
SOLE PARENT FAMILY: a single parent family which comprises of a mother or father caring for a child or children.
The impact of change in family types and structures on the growth and development of individuals and
Experiencing the death of a parent is traumatic at any age, but it's particularly harrowing for young children. With
the death of a parent, young children are deprived not only of the guidance and love that that parent would have
provided as the children grew up but also the sense of security that the parent's ongoing presence in the home would
have bestowed. More often than not, the child feels terribly vulnerable, especially when the death is accompanied by
a relocation of the family.
Because one of the two people the child counted on being with him and supporting him (in all aspects) until
adulthood is now gone, it's not at all unusual for the child to cling to the surviving parent. The child can easily
become quite concerned with this parent's health, afraid that, should the parent fail to take care of himself or herself,
the child will be without anyone to support him and be truly orphaned.
Although they may never fully go away, these feelings of vulnerability are often alleviated to some extent by the
grieving process, especially if the child's able to share this process with his surviving parent and siblings. In
situations where the surviving parent has great difficulty grieving the loss of his or her spouse and continuing to
function as a parent, it's not unusual for the child to try to step in and care for the parent. This role reversal, of
course, puts an undue and unfair burden on the child, while running the risk of stifling the child's ability to grieve
the loss. In families with many siblings, the oldest child may also try to care for and parent the younger children in
an attempt to lighten the load on the surviving parent.
Integrating the grief as you mature
The grief that accompanies the loss of a parent as a child (as opposed to such a loss as an adult) is made more
complex by the fact that the child has to integrate this loss into his life as part of growing up and becoming an adult.
As the child reaches different plateaus in his life and experiences the rites of passage that mark the transition from
childhood to adulthood (such as graduations, communion, bar mitzvah, getting a driver's license, and proms), he
does so without the parent. In the face of the parent's absence, more often than not, the event becomes another
opportunity to revisit the grief and another challenge to integrate it into the child's life.
The events that a child doesn't get to share with the lost parent don't stop with adulthood. As the child moves
through adulthood, several salient events are opportunities to revisit the grief. Chief among them are marriage
(especially for girls who've lost their dads and have to ask someone else to give them away during the ceremony)
and the births of grandchildren.
Reaching the age of your deceased parent
Perhaps the most salient milestone for a person who's lost a parent as a child is reaching the same age that the parent
was when she or he died. For many people who've experienced parental loss as a child, this birthday is the most
poignant they've ever experienced. It often touches off a whole new round of longing for and reminiscing over the
lost parent, but, more importantly, it also initiates intense soul-searching about the future.
The introspection that accompanies reaching the age of the deceased parent seems to be particularly true for people
who are the same gender as the parent who died. In this case, many reports genuine surprise that they've lived as
long as their deceased parents. Some report even doubting they'll live beyond the age at which the parent passed
away and feeling apprehension over their own imminent death. Even when this fear isn't present, they still wonder
about their futures and take the anniversary as an occasion for taking stock of their lives and questioning the
direction of the next stage of their lives.
Factors impacting on growth and development of individuals and families:
… the quality, type and extent of the social interactions in a child’s environments, impact on a child. The trust
between child and caregivers (Erikson) impact on how the child is able to social/interact with others and is
key to forming positive relationships with others. Parents and significant others modelling of values,
positive behaviours. Richness of socialization on language development.
… What happens when we are unable to form rich meaningful bonds with others?
… Social and emotional development and the formation of connections in the brain are assisted by the
formation of secure attachments to a nurturing carer. Stress results in high levels of steroid hormone called
cortisol, which effects metabolism and depresses the immune system, and when chronic, can even destroy
neurons associated with learning and memory. However, school age children who developed secure
attachments to their carers during infancy and early childhoods have been found to be more resilient when
forced with stress or trauma, and to display fewer problems in behavior.
… Culture refers to the ideas, beliefs and social behaviours of a group; customs refers to the usual behaviour;
and traditions refer to beliefs or behaviours passed from one generation to the next. Parenting involves
satisfying the needs, building relationships and promoting wellbeing of the dependent. When fulfilling
these roles, parents may be influenced by their culture, customs and traditions. Parents may be influenced
in their parenting practices due to culture as there are expected beliefs and behaviours they must follow in
order to be a member of the cultural group. For example, some cultures expect parents to follow
authoritarian parenting practices. Following the expectations means the family will be accepted in the
cultural community giving them a sense of belonging. Similarly, customs can influence parenting practices
as a family may follow the usual behaviours of their community, so the children learn the socially
acceptable rules and are comfortable following those. Parents would therefore set limits of behaviour that
are in keeping with customs. For example, it might be the custom to go to church every week and so the
parents will insist on this with their children. In some families, it can be customary for the extended family
to live in the same home and care for grandchildren which influences parenting as the grandparents take on
caring roles. Traditions can also play a part in parenting as they can impact on parenting roles taken. For
example, a father’s traditional responsibility was to provide financial support and discipline the child while
the mother raised the child and was responsible for domestic duties which is a clear impact on parenting.
Alternatively, parents who have immigrated may wish to retain ethnic traditions such as language and food
choices meaning they would follow parenting practices that promote these traditions.
… Young children need a healthy physical environment in order to develop and thrive. It is vital for care givers
to provide suitable environments for children.
… Sufficient space
… Clean areas
… Appropriate health checks
… correct suitable supervision
… Our environment is changing – our family structure is changing due to major values of autonomy, intimacy,
aspiration and acceptance in our roles and this in turn impacts on our environments.
… Single parents are a more common family environment, with children living with their mother in 85% of
… As a result, mothers are employed outside the home and there has been a dramatic rise in center based child
care facilities (daycare centers).
… Strong supportive environments that richly promote learning, have a positive effect on stability of the child
but on their capacity to learn and succeed.
… Abusive and unsafe environments impact on all aspects of emotional development and formation of strong
relationships. The constant pressure of stress impacts on ability to remain at school and impacts on their
physical well-being.
… Environments that are located away from city resources can impact children on accessing services and
placing them at a disadvantage to other children. If a child has a disability and their environment is not
adequately set up to assist with their daily requirements this can impact on their learning and ability to
… Economic hardship can arise from drastic changes in circumstances – change from a nuclear family to a
single parent family. This can bring financial hardship and stress to all family members. The need for
government assistance (Centrelink for extra financial support can bring relief for an already stressed family.
… Lack of financial or economic security can impact on the delivery of basic needs including housing, food
(nutrition for school children can impact on concentration and learning ability and lack of nutrition can
impact on physical health or access to medical procedures including doctors and dentists)
… Political Government Parties and policies and laws can impact on families through their policies and
funding they provide for families.
… Government rebates, childcare options and laws for children.
… How the Government through their actions is able to protect and keep our communities safe.
… Extreme examples 1. The devastation of War and the impact of individuals and families in a country
… Disability Act 1986
… Framework when working with people with disabilities, including respect, human worth, dignity, having the
same rights as others allowing people to realize their individual capacities for physical, emotional,
cognitive and spiritual development. Provides the right to access the type of accommodation and
employment that they believe is most appropriate and an environment free from neglect, abuse,
intimidation and exploitation
Children and Community Services Act 2004 (WA)
Provides protection for children
Includes mandatory reporting of abuse and neglect, ill treatment or is at risk of being ill-treated or exposed
or subjected to behavior that psychologically harms the child.
The paramount principle of the act is of the best interests of the child and endorses the importance of
involving children and young people in decision making (to the extent that their age and their maturity
enables) and to consult and seek the views of children on issues affecting their lives. Provides protective
options for children deemed to be at risk of maltreatment.
Policies promote growth and development by
Offering legal protection and safety to families and individual reducing conflict violence and abuse.
Children, Family and Community
Taking Action
Communicating and advocating
Primary & Secondary Sources:
PRIMARY SOURCES: People use original, first-hand accounts as building blocks to create stories from the past.
These accounts are called primary sources, because they are the first evidence of something happening, or being
thought or said.
Primary sources are created at the time of an event, or very soon after something has happened. These sources are
often rare or one-of-a-kind. However, some primary sources can also exist in many copies, if they were popular and
widely available at the time that they were created.
All of the following can be primary sources:
… Diaries
… Letters
… Photographs
… Art
… Maps
… Video and film
… Sound recordings
… Interviews
… Newspapers
… Magazines
… Published first-hand accounts, or stories
SECONDARY SOURCES: Second-hand, published accounts are called secondary sources. They are called secondary
sources because they are created after primary sources and they often use or talk about primary sources. Secondary
sources can give additional opinions (sometimes called bias) on a past event or on a primary source. Secondary
sources often have many copies, found in libraries, schools or homes.
All of the following can be secondary sources, if they tell of an event that happened a while ago:
… History textbooks
… Biographies
… Published stories
… Movies of historical events
… Art
… Music recordings
When Is a Primary Source Not a Primary Source?
… You may have noticed that some things are on both the lists of primary and secondary sources. This isn't a
mistake. The difference between a primary and secondary source is often determined by how they were
originally created and how you use them.
… Here's an example: a painting or a photograph is often considered a primary source, because paintings and
photographs can illustrate past events as they happened and people as they were at a particular time.
However, not all artworks and photographs are considered primary sources. Read on!
… C.W. Jeffery’s was a talented artist who painted many scenes from Canada's past. His paintings and
drawings show the War of 1812, the Rebellions of 1837-38 and many of Canada's explorers from the 1600s
and 1700s. But C.W. Jeffery’s lived from 1869-1951, so he never saw the subjects of these paintings!
Instead, he did a lot of research using primary sources to create his illustrations. Some people would argue
that his illustrations are not primary sources. Although they illustrate past events, they were created long
after the events they show, and they tell you more about C.W. Jeffery’s' own ideas and research.
… Other people would argue that C.W. Jeffery’s' paintings and drawings are primary sources. They would say
that his perspective, his bias, and the way he illustrated historical events are reflections of what he thought
and what he believed. If you use C.W. Jeffery’s' paintings to talk about him, or the world he lived in, then
they can also be primary sources.
Processes for meeting needs:
The functional, social, cultural and economic features of products, services or systems developed for
individuals and families to meet their needs
Functional factors
… What it does.
… The services it provides.
… Is it effective?
… How many rooms, size of building?
… Number of offices
Social factors
… Impact on the people of the community
… Internal issues – amongst the staff
… Sporting teams
… Family impacts
… Relates to people
… Are people satisfied with the service?
… Beliefs of the company, service
Financial Factors
… Money related issues
… Turn-over
… Advertising
… Support
… Profit/not for profit
… Funding
… Budgets
… Costs
Cultural factors
… Accepting of a variety of cultures
… Accommodating of other cultures e.g. allows kosher food
… Values
Environmental factors
… Impact on the environment e.g. chemicals to wash nappies
… Recycling
Managing and Collaborating
self-management skills to effectively use resources:
self-management skills to effectively use resources:
Self-management skills are those characteristics that help an employee to feel and be more productive in the
workplace. Such skills as problem solving, resisting stress, communicating clearly, managing time, strengthening
memory, and exercising often are all key examples of self-management skills.
1. Stress-Resistance
… The first and foremost skill of self-management refers to a personal ability to resist any stressful situations.
When you develop this self-management skill, you can avoid many mistakes that people usually make
when being stressed out.
… Because a stressful situation usually blocks our ability to think and make rational decisions, we can’t cope
even with the simplest tasks at the workplace, so our productivity goes down and we get frustrated. That’s
why you need to develop this ability in order to be a productive employee able to offer resistance to a
stressful situation.
2. Problem Solving
… The second self-management skill requires you to use your brain as a mechanism for making right
decisions. Even the hardest tasks and challenges can be efficiently handled if the mental process in your
head is always in progress. Problem solving requires you to operate facts and make right assumptions to
analyze the situation, review problems, and find effective solutions. Keeping your mind sober allows you to
take right decisions even in the toughest situations.
3. Communication
… The way how you can communicate information to others will determine your success. Communication is
one of the key self-management skills required for both personal development and career advancement.
… Being able to efficient communicate any information to other people means that you can share information
with the minimized possible distortion and in the fastest possible way. Productive employees always can
efficiently communicate with their colleagues and management because they comprehensively understand
the value of clearly and timely delivered information. So be sure you work on developing this skill for selfmanagement.
4. Time Management
… Producing expected results in a timely manner determines the success of our effort. Time management is an
extremely important self-management skill that makes an employee be more productive. There’s a great
variety of time management techniques that show you how to develop this skill for self-management. Just
use the web search to find plenty of them.
5. Memory
… An ability to memorize events, names, facts, etc., allows an employee to remember about everything he/she
needs to do daily tasks and duties. Among other self-management skills examples, committing to memory
requires your personal effort for developing your mind abilities. There’s a lot of techniques for improving
memory, so use the web search to find them.
6. Physical Activity
… Keeping your body in good shape is a critical self-management skill example. When you feel healthy and
have a robust nervous system, you can do more things and cope with many challenges. Physical activity
(like jogging, fitness, different sorts of sports, etc.) allows you to strengthen your body, keep your muscles
up, and be more productive.
Self-set goals:
Eight Benefits of Goal Setting
1. Clearer Focus
… Properly thought out and stated, goals clearly set out your intentions and desires; the things you really want
to achieve.
2. Optimum Use of Resources
… There are never enough resources to do everything so setting goals can help you to prioritise. Place your
resources behind what you really want to do, rather than on things you are doing by default or by
3. Effective Use of Time
… Of course, time is a resource, but it deserves special consideration because it is so important. As Peter
Drucker says: “If you want to improve how you manage time – stop doing what doesn’t need to be done!”
4. Peace of Mind
… Too often you can have many things on your mind. Writing down your goals can help you take all of those
ideas, apply perspective and priority, then galvanize you into commitment and action
5. Clarity to Decision Making
… Knowing what you are trying to do means that you can now ask: “does this activity get me closer to my
6. Easier Measurement of What You Do
… Setting goals, especially SMART and SHARP goals, allows you to measure how well effectively you are
moving towards achieving them
7. More Freedom of Thought
… Setting goals can help to release your creative energies so you can focus on how to achieve them. You’ll
start to look for ways to make it happen.
8. Easier Communication with Others
… Setting goals enables you to clarify with other people what you are trying to do, and therefore what they
need to do to contribute or support.
Time management:
Benefits of Time Management
The ability to manage your time effectively is important. Good time management leads to improved efficiency and
productivity, less stress, and more success in life. Here are some benefits of managing time effectively:
1. Stress relief
… Making and following a task schedule reduces anxiety. As you check off items on your “to do” list, you can
see that you are making tangible progress. This helps you avoid feeling stressed out with worry about
whether you’re getting things done.
2. More time
… Good time management gives you extra time to spend in your daily life. People who can time manage
effectively enjoy having more time to spend on hobbies or other personal pursuits.
3. More opportunities
… Managing time well leads to more opportunities and less time wasted on trivial activities. Good time
management skills are key qualities that employers look for. The ability to prioritize and schedule work is
extremely desirable for any organization.
4. Ability to realize goals
… Individuals who practice good time management are able to better achieve goals and objectives, and to do so
in a shorter length of time.
List of Tips for Effective Time Management
1. Set goals correctly
… Set goals that are achievable and measurable. Use the SMART method when setting goals. In essence, make
sure the goals you set are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Timely.
2. Prioritise wisely
Prioritise tasks based on importance and urgency. For example, look at your daily tasks and determine which are:
… Important and urgent: Do these tasks right away.
… Important but not urgent: Decide when to do these tasks.
… Urgent but not important: Delegate these tasks if possible.
… Not urgent and not important: Set these aside to do later.
3. Set a time limit to complete a task
… Setting time constraints for completing tasks helps you be more focused and efficient. Making the small
… Setting time constraints for completing tasks helps you be more focused and efficient. Making the small
extra effort to decide on how much time you need to allot for each task can also help you recognize
potential problems before they arise. That way you can make plans for dealing with them.
4. Take a break between tasks
… When doing a lot of tasks without a break, it is harder to stay focused and motivated. Allow some downtime
between tasks to clear your head and refresh yourself. Consider grabbing a brief nap, going for a short
walk, or meditating.
5. Organize yourself
… Utilize your calendar for more long-term time management. Write down the deadlines for projects, or for
tasks that are part of completing the overall project. Think about which days might be best to dedicate to
specific tasks. For example, you might need to plan a meeting to discuss cash flow on a day when you
know the company CFO is available.
6. Remove non-essential tasks/activities
… It is important to remove excess activities or tasks. Determine what is significant and what deserves your
time. Removing non-essential tasks/activities frees up more of your time to be spent on genuinely
important things.
7. Plan ahead
… Make sure you start every day with a clear idea of what you need to do – what needs to get done THAT
DAY. Consider making it a habit to, at the end of each workday, going ahead and writing out your “to do”
list for the next workday. That way you can hit the ground running the next morning.
Implications of Poor Time Management
1. Poor workflow
… The inability to plan ahead and stick to goals means poor efficiency. For example, if there are several
important tasks to complete, an effective plan would be to complete related tasks together or sequentially.
… However, if you don’t plan ahead, you could end up having to jump back and forth, or backtrack, in doing
your work. That translates to reduced efficiency and lower productivity.
2. Wasted time
… Poor time management results in wasted time. For example, by talking to friends on social media while
doing an assignment, you are distracting yourself and wasting time.
3. Loss of control
… By not knowing what the next task is, you suffer from loss of control of your life. That can contribute to
higher stress levels and anxiety.
4. Poor quality of work
… Poor time management typically makes the quality of your work suffer. For example, having to rush to
complete tasks at the last minute usually compromises quality.
5. Poor reputation
… If clients or your employer cannot rely on you to complete tasks in a timely manner, their expectations and
perceptions of you are adversely affected. If a client cannot rely on you to get something done on time, they
will likely take their business elsewhere.
Reflection and Evaluation:
Reflection and evaluation are two separate, but related concepts.
… Reflection is the process of reflecting on your experience in order to learn from that experience.
… Evaluation is the process of making an assessment or judgement about an experience or a person.
It is possible to reflect on an experience, especially when reflecting at a shallow (recount or report) level, without
evaluating that experience. It is difficult (but not impossible) to evaluate an experience without reflecting on that
experience (Johnson, 2015).
Here is an example:
… All students (100%) in my class used the video annotation tool.
… All students (100%) in my class used the video annotation tool.
… The novelty, together with the user-friendly functionality, of the video annotation tool engaged all my
Reflective lenses
1. self-lense or autobiography
2. the lense of students
3. the lense of peers
4. the lense of the research literature.
When can you reflect?
Reflection in action
… Reflection can take place while you are in the act of teaching or supporting the teaching role. As an educator
you are working towards putting into action the theory of your discipline with the theory of pedagogy.
… Reflection in action can support you to make real-time decisions about what is the best practice for your
context while also evaluating that practice. You could do this by taking down quick reflective points to use
as prompts for later reflection on action.
Reflection on action
… Reflection on action takes places after the act of teaching or supporting teaching. This refers to reviewing
and evaluating past actions in order to learn from those actions and then apply the learning to future
actions. Many models and tools are available to support this reflection, for example, a ‘critical incident’
may have occurred that prompts or challenges your thinking and this can be a strong prompt for reflective
Why not?
So what?
Now what?
What worked well?
What did not work well?
What will I do the same next time?
What will I do differently next time?
Apply interpersonal skills when working collaboratively
Teamwork is the collaborative effort of a team to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and
efficient way. This concept is seen within the greater framework of a team, which is a group of interdependent individuals who
work together towards a common goal.
1. Communication:
… Effective communication is the most important part of teamwork and involves consistently updating each person and
never assuming that everyone has the same information. Being a good communicator also means being a good
… By listening to your colleagues, you show them respect, which is an essential trust-building method. Offering
encouragement also goes a long way to getting the best out of team members. Collaborating and being open to new
ideas are also essential ingredients for a harmonious team environment.
2. Delegation:
… Teams that work well together understand the strengths and weaknesses of each team member. One of the benefits of
strong teamwork is that team leaders and members are adept at identifying all aspects of a project and allocating tasks
to the most appropriate team members.
3. Efficiency:
… A strong and cohesive team develops systems that allow them to collaborate efficiently to complete tasks in a timely
manner. Through working together, colleagues will be aware of their own capabilities and the capabilities of the
group in general and can organise the workload accordingly.
4. Ideas:
… When a team works well together, colleagues feel more comfortable offering suggestions and ideas. A respectful and
trusting team environment will not only enable colleagues to think more creatively but will lead to more productive
and collaborative brainstorming sessions.
5. Support:
… All workplaces provide challenges but having a strong team environment in place can act as a support mechanism for
staff members. They can help each other improve their own performance as well as working together toward
staff members. They can help each other improve their own performance as well as working together toward
improving their professional development.
… Building bonds on trust and reliance on each other can be extremely important when facing a particularly difficult
challenge or if the group is forced to deal with the loss of a team member while continuing to maintain productivity.
Good teamwork means a synergistic way of working with each person committed and working towards a shared goal.
Teamwork maximises the individual strengths of team members to bring out their best. It is therefore a necessity that leaders
facilitate and build the teamwork skills of their people if they are to steer a company toward success.
Conflict Resolution:
Step 1:
… Identify the source of the conflict. The more information you have about the cause of the conflict, the more easily
you can help to resolve it. To get the information you need, use a series of questions to identify the cause, like,
“When did you feel upset?” “Do you see a relationship between that and this incident?” “How did this incident
… As a manager or supervisor, you need to give both parties the chance to share their side of the story. It will give
you a better understanding of the situation, as well as demonstrate your impartiality. As you listen to each disputant,
say, “I see” or “uh huh” to acknowledge the information and encourage them to continue to open up to you.
Step 2:
… Look beyond the incident. Often, it is not the situation but the perspective on the situation that causes anger to fester
and ultimately leads to a shouting match or other visible—and disruptive—evidence of a conflict.
… The source of the conflict might be a minor problem that occurred months before, but the level of stress has grown to
the point where the two parties have begun attacking each other personally instead of addressing the real problem. In
the calm of your office, you can get them to look beyond the triggering incident to see the real cause. Once again,
probing questions will help, like, “What do you think happened here?” or “When do you think the problem between
you first arose?”
Step 3:
… Request solutions. After getting each party’s viewpoint on the conflict, the next step is to get each to identify how the
situation could be changed. Again, question the parties to solicit their ideas: “How can you make things better
between you?”
… As mediator, you have to be an active listener, aware of every verbal nuance, as well as a good reader of body
… Just listen. You want to get the disputants to stop fighting and start cooperating, and that means steering the discussion
away from finger pointing and toward ways of resolving the conflict.
Step 4:
… Identify solutions both disputants can support. You are listening for the most acceptable course of action. Point out
the merits of various ideas, not only from each other’s perspective, but in terms of the benefits to the organization.
(For instance, you might point to the need for greater cooperation and collaboration to effectively address team issues
and departmental problems.)
Step 5:
… Agreement. The mediator needs to get the two parties to shake hands and agree to one of the alternatives identified in
Step 4. Some mediators go as far as to write up a contract in which actions and time frames are specified. However, it
might be sufficient to meet with the individuals and have them answer these questions: “What action plans will you
both put in place to prevent conflicts from arising in the future?” and “What will you do if problems arise in the
Assertiveness is a skill regularly referred to in social and communication skills training. Being assertive means being able to
stand up for your own or other people's rights in a calm and positive way, without being either aggressive, or passively
accepting 'wrong'.
How to Be Assertive
… Being assertive is associated with a number of benefits, ranging from less anxiety and depression to a greater sense of
agency and better relationships. Assertiveness is often confused with behaving aggressively, but they’re not the same
at all.
… A person who is assertive clearly communicates his or her wishes and sets boundaries but does not necessarily make
demands of other people or lash out if requests are not met. Recent research explores the pitfalls of not asserting
oneself, while offering practical advice for how best to do so.
Effective Communication:
Effective communication is therefore a key interpersonal skill and learning how to improve your communication has many
benefits. However, many people find it difficult to know where to start. This page sets out the most common 'problem areas'
and suggests where you might focus your attention. A Two-Way Process.
Focus fully on the speaker.
You can’t listen in an engaged way if you’re constantly checking your phone or thinking about something else. You need to
stay focused on the moment-to-moment experience in order to pick up the subtle nuances and important nonverbal cues in a
conversation. If you find it hard to concentrate on some speakers, try repeating their words over in your head—it’ll reinforce
their message and help you stay focused.
Favor your right ear.
As strange as it sounds, the left side of the brain contains the primary processing centers for both speech comprehension and
emotions. Since the left side of the brain is connected to the right side of the body, favoring your right ear can help you better
detect the emotional nuances of what someone is saying.
Avoid interrupting or trying to redirect the conversation to your concerns.
By saying something like, “If you think that’s bad, let me tell you what happened to me.” Listening is not the same as waiting
for your turn to talk. You can’t concentrate on what someone’s saying if you’re forming what you’re going to say next. Often,
the speaker can read your facial expressions and know that your mind’s elsewhere.
Show your interest in what’s being said.
Nod occasionally, smile at the person, and make sure your posture is open and inviting. Encourage the speaker to continue
with small verbal comments like “yes” or “uh huh.”
Try to set aside judgment.
In order to communicate effectively with someone, you don’t have to like them or agree with their ideas, values, or opinions.
However, you do need to set aside your judgment and withhold blame and criticism in order to fully understand them. The
most difficult communication, when successfully executed, can often lead to an unlikely connection with someone.
Provide feedback.
If there seems to be a disconnect, reflect what has been said by paraphrasing. “What I’m hearing is,” or “Sounds like you are
saying,” are great ways to reflect back. Don’t simply repeat what the speaker has said verbatim, though—you’ll sound
insincere or unintelligent. Instead, express what the speaker’s words mean to you. Ask questions to clarify certain points:
“What do you mean when you say…” or “Is this what you mean?”
Problem solving:
1. Identify the issues.
… Be clear about what the problem is.
… Remember that different people might have different views of what the issues are.
… Separate the listing of issues from the identification of interests (that's the next step!).
2. Understand everyone's interests.
… This is a critical step that is usually missing.
… Interests are the needs that you want satisfied by any given solution. We often ignore our true interests as we become
attached to one particular solution.
… The best solution is the one that satisfies everyone's interests.
… This is the time for active listening. Put down your differences for awhile and listen to each other with the intention to
… Separate the naming of interests from the listing of solutions.
3. List the possible solutions (options)
… This is the time to do some brainstorming. There may be lots of room for creativity.
… Separate the listing of options from the evaluation of the options.
4. Evaluate the options.
… What are the pluses and minuses?
… Separate the evaluation of options from the selection of options.
5. Select an option or options.
… What's the best option, in the balance?
… Is there a way to "bundle" a number of options together for a more satisfactory solution?
… Is there a way to "bundle" a number of options together for a more satisfactory solution?
6. Document the agreement(s).
… Don't rely on memory.
… Writing it down will help you think through all the details and implications.
7. Agree on contingencies, monitoring, and evaluation.
… Conditions may change. Make contingency agreements about foreseeable future circumstances (If-then!).
… How will you monitor compliance and follow-through?
… Create opportunities to evaluate the agreements and their implementation. ("Let's try it this way for three months and
then look at it.")
Effective problem solving does take some time and attention more of the latter than the former. But less time and attention
than is required by a problem not well solved. What it really takes is a willingness to slow down. A problem is like a curve in
the road. Take it right and you'll find yourself in good shape for the straightaway that follows. Take it too fast and you may not
be in as good shape.
Working through this process is not always a strictly linear exercise. You may have to cycle back to an earlier step. For
example, if you're having trouble selecting an option, you may have to go back to thinking about the interest
Children, Family & Community
Influences and Impacts
Social structures and systems
Roles and responsibilities of formal community networks and support services:
… Formal support for parents and carers includes support from a recognised agency or organisation.
Individuals can gain access to these types of support through different means.
… Government agencies
… Department of Family and Community Services
… Australian Government Department of Human Services that delivers Centrelink services.
… Community organisation
May receive financial support from the government, but they are administrated by the organisation itself, including:
Salvation Army, Anglicare, The Smith Family, Catholic Care of the Aged, St Vincent de Paul Society.
Government agencies
Explain how Government Agencies can assist parents and carers to:
Prepare for their role:
… Centrelink can provide information and payments for parental leave
… Centrelink can provide information and payments for carers allowance
… Department of health can provide antenatal information and care
… Commonwealth Home and Community Care (HACC) can provide information about available resources for
Fulfil their responsibilities:
… Paid Parental leave fulfils the financial responsibilities of the family whilst the parent is on leave
… The Family and Community Services can assist carers in accessing resources or information about where
they may need to go for treatment or care
… Parents with children who have special needs are able to, if they are eligible, access payment to assist them
to care for their child and their specific needs
Maintain their own wellbeing:
… Parents on parental leave can focus solely on nurturing their child, knowing they are on leave from their job
= increases emotional wellbeing
… Family and Community Services offer workshops and parent/child camps for foster families to allow them
to bond and understand aspects of their situation through discussions with the employees of the
organisation = increased emotional wellbeing
… The financial assistance available to carers = increased financial wellbeing
Roles and responsibilities of informal community networks and support services:
… Informal support for parents and carers is not backed by an organisation or service. Without informal
support, parents and carers may not be able to carry out their role successfully and fulfil their
responsibilities. Informal support can come from relatives, friends and neighbours.
… Relatives, friends, neighbours
Explain how relatives can assist parents and carers to:
Explain how relatives can assist parents and carers to:
Prepare for their role:
… Relatives who have had their own children can provide advice on how to prepare for a baby based on their
experiences with children in their family
… Relatives can play a role in assisting with financial difficulty where formal means of doing so are
… Relatives can support both parents and carers through changing their own health behaviours to show their
… Relatives may have connections to where an individual can be educated to become a carer
Fulfil their responsibilities:
… Relatives, particularly parents or grandparents of the new parent, can assist providing duty of care by acting
as a respite to ensure the parent gets adequate rest time now and then
… Relative can assist parents with discipline by upholding the discipline enforced by the parents such as not
letting the child go out if they’re babysitting because the parent grounded them.
… Relatives of carers can instill disciplinary qualities in the individual through their own upbringing that they
can then apply to their practice in disciplining their dependant/s
Maintain their own wellbeing:
… Relatives acting as a respite to allow for rest also maintain the new parent’s physical wellbeing
… Relatives of both parents and carers assisting via allowing the parent/carer to live with them or provide
some other form of financial assistance will improve both emotional and economic wellbeing as it takes the
stress out of monetary matters and allows money to be used elsewhere where needed.
… Relatives of carers may provide a means of letting off steam through being supportive in conversations
whereby the carer discusses difficulties they face at work, supporting the stability of their emotional health.
Explain how friends can assist parents and carers to:
Prepare for their role:
… Friends organising a baby shower to obtain the more expensive and necessary items for new parents can
take some of the strain of organising finances to be diverted to baby items.
… Friends can also provide hand-me-downs to use in modifying the environment such as cribs, baby gates,
baby locks, etc.
… Friends who are already carers can provide assistance in locating the best places to be trained and further
their education as well as provide support during this education
Fulfil their responsibilities:
… Friends can help by babysitting while parents go out and attend to necessary things such as groceries
without the hassle of a small child
… Friends can provide limits at their house for the parent’s child, teaching them that other peoples’ homes are
not like their own and have their own set of rules
… Friends within the same caring industry can provide advice on discipline techniques that have worked with
their dependants to ensure their safety and development.
Maintain their own wellbeing:
… Friends can drive them to the doctors to ensure their physical wellbeing as they may feel too ill to drive or
can babysit while the parent attends their appointment
… Friends who are in the same caring industry can uphold emotional health by sharing experiences and being a
source of support and comfort through mutual experience
… Friends can ensure the parent/carer stays grounded and in touch with their spiritual connections, should that
be an important factor in their life, promoting spiritual wellbeing
Explain how neighbours can assist parents and carers to:
Prepare for their role:
… Much like friends they can provide clothes and other items to modify the environment
… Neighbours with small children can provide a form of education by having the soon to be parent over to see
how their child behaves and interacts
… Neighbours can look after new carer’s own children or pets in order to allow for possible long shifts in
which their children/pets will be left alone and need someone to watch them
Fulfil their responsibilities:
… Neighbours can keep an eye on children who wander outside and ensure they stay within their limits (such
… Neighbours can keep an eye on children who wander outside and ensure they stay within their limits (such
as not getting too close to the road, not bringing certain toys outside, not talking to strangers, etc.)
Maintain their own wellbeing:
… Neighbours are also an option for providing a respite for new parents via babysitting to improve physical
and emotional wellbeing
… Neighbours, if they live in a culture-based community, can help parents stay in touch with their culture as
well as educate their children in their experience of the culture, maintaining both the parent and child’s
cultural wellbeing
… Neighbours can assist in a carer’s physical wellbeing by perhaps picking up some bread or milk from the
shops when they go so that the carer can spend a little time just relaxing