Riassunto book tesi An entire global industry of festivals and events has evolved and developed since the early 1990s. The phenomenal growth, coupled with increased consumer awareness and choice, requires the industry to manage the sector eﬀectively and eﬃciently to ensure sustained development and growth in the future. The characteristics of festivals and events are unique and as such, no one standard model of management ﬁts all. These characteristics include intangibility, production often taking place at the same time as consumption and perishability. Festivals and events have diﬀerent levels of operating costs and they fall into both the not-for-proﬁt and proﬁt-making categories. Their purpose varies – some have an entertainment and educational remit and can be used to bring diﬀerent communities together, others can be used for business promotion. The role of sponsorship is often an important one in deﬁning their objectives. Some festivals and events can be arts related, while others can focus on other forms of culture such as sport. They can range from small-scale, locally based events, to large international festivals. No matter what the reason is for hosting a festival or event, there is a wide range of customers, each with diﬀerent expectations, and this will impact on the management processes considered for each individual festival or event. The management model adopted needs to match the requirements of all those involved in each stage of the individual festival or event, and tools such as those employed in managing projects and quality are useful. Although festivals and events vary enormously in type and form, the management issues relating to this wide range are often surprisingly similar and include working within an increasingly competitive environment with decreasing resources and more discerning and sophisticated consumers. Culture economy: French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu championed the concept of cultural capital in the 1970s, and the economic signiﬁcance of the arts and cultural sector has long been overlooked. Cultural organizations have traditionally been seen as of little economic signiﬁcance and an underlying resource for education or business. As well as being sources of learning and knowledge, the cultural and creative industries are now increasingly recognized as an economic sector in their own right. According to research undertaken by the European Commission, around 7.2 million people are employed in the cultural sector. Between 1995 and 1999, employment in the sector grew by an average of 2.1% a year, making it one of the fastest growing areas of the European economy. Culture is central to promoting the continued renaissance of the city and has a role to play in creating a more inclusive and sustainable community. Culture creates jobs, attracts investment and enriches the lives of people who live and work in and visit the city. Culture brings distinction to the image and proﬁle of the city; it enriches the experience of the city centre and makes each community unique in its history or sense of place. Culture is an essential creative force in the new knowledge-based economy and helps to build skills and conﬁdence in people. While the character of culture itself is diﬀuse, the growth of theoretical approaches to it in relation to festival and events has been less so. O’Sullivan and Jackson (2002) comment that festival tourism literature has tended to include all elements of events and festivals, of all sizes and organizational purpose. They further opine that the growth of literature in these areas has not been commensurate with the growth of the industry itself, although the diﬀuse nature of the study perspectives has. Decision phase: Catalysis The person(s) who provide the original idea for the development of an event – the event catalyst(s) – are not necessarily event experts and may emanate from the public (government, local authority or agency), private (corporation, ﬁrm or individual) or voluntary sector. The organizational aﬃliation of the event catalyst is likely to impact on access to resources for event implementation. Specifying the event aims and objectives Event aims may fall into one of three main categories: economic, social and cultural, political. Event aims are usefully broken down into speciﬁc objectives – the steps required to achieve each aim. Objectives ideally should be ‘SMART’, i.e. Speciﬁc to the event, Measurable quantitatively, Agreed (or achievable) by those involved, Realistic (or relevant) to the resources available, Timed around the event schedule. SMART objectives help identify performance targets for the event which facilitate the later evaluation of the event, e.g. by specifying volumes of income or proﬁt, ticket sales, advertising revenue, merchandising sales, sponsorship, donations, subsidies or cash ﬂow, number of local or international visitors, or levels of investment Establishing the management board A management board usually plans, implements and evaluates the event. For complex events, speciﬁc tasks may be delegated to subgroups. The board needs to reﬂect a diverse range of skills and expertise, which may be vested in one or more individuals, covering all aspects of event management, marketing, ﬁnancial management and the law, although ‘titles are often used loosely’ (Getz, 1997: 12). Specialist consultants may be invited to undertake work as required. A board operating as a team is likely to be more eﬀective. Market research Market research can facilitate decision making, providing useful evidence of potential ﬁnancial success, ensuring it fulﬁls its aims by providing information about potential customer characteristics, motivations, preferences, promotional tools. Market research may inﬂuence sponsorship decisions, marketing, venue selection and dates for launching the event. Deﬁning the data required from market research, in primary or secondary terms, is a key issue. If secondary data is suﬃcient then appropriate data sources need identiﬁcation. Primary data collection is very costly and event managers must be convinced of its necessity, although it can be a vital part of implementing an event, facilitating later evaluation. Financial implications can lead to major or minor modiﬁcations to event features, notably the range of activities included, the choice of venue and, most commonly, ticket price. Decision making Decision making is the last substage in the decision phase and the stage at which the board needs to have collected enough information to decide whether the event should go ahead to the detailed planning stage. Perhaps there need to be some modiﬁcations to the original idea, e.g. scale, location, ticket price? Detailed planning phase: Following a positive outcome from the decision phase, the event moves into a detailed planning stage, which is the essence of managing the event. Detailed planning includes event product deﬁnition and development of a detailed ﬁnancial study, before moving on to development of strategies relating to human resource management, marketing, venue planning/ operations management and event scheduling. Event product definition The event product is a unique blend of activities, which are the tools for achieving the overall event aims and satisfying customer needs. Event design should be customer oriented, and event organizers should create a mix that satisﬁes the largest number of potential customers – Getz (1997: 251) points out that ‘many events suﬀer from a ‘‘product orientation’’ – that is, they try to sell their event with little or no regard for what potential customers need, want, and will pay for’. Core activities are determined by event nature and overall budget to reﬂect the event theme and may be supplemented by secondary attractions to give the event its overall shape. Theme The theme is an umbrella to unify the ﬁnal event image – it should be complementary and synergistic to the event aims. Historical and ethnic themes are common and ‘once the theme is established, the elements of the event must be designed to ﬁt in’ (McDonnell et al., 1999: 246), including the event name, logo, venue de´ cor, staﬀ uniforms, performers’ costumes, activities, entertainment, lights, music, special eﬀects, food and beverage, mascots and merchandise. Location and venue An event location diﬀers from an event venue. The term ‘location’ describes where the event will take place, e.g. a desert or open-air, whereas the venue denotes a speciﬁc place, e.g. the Luxor Temple, the Millennium Stadium or the Royal Albert Hall. ‘Location is everything’ (Allen, 2000: 37). Choosing an event location and venue goes beyond just ﬁnding an arena that will hold the crowd. An appropriate venue is of primary signiﬁcance to the overall success or failure of the event and should complement the theme of the event. In selecting the speciﬁc venue there are a number of speciﬁc issues for consideration: Size and capacity Facilities – the services and facilities are vital to an evaluation of suitability. Requisite technical facilities may include information and communication technology connectivity, power supply and sound/ audiovisual systems, as well as toilets, food and beverage facilities and first aid services. Visibility, centrality and clustering - Visibility is especially important when financial constraints preclude a major promotional campaign. Centrality relates to the proximity of services and other facilities, e.g. airport, bus or train station. Clustering is ‘the association of events with other attractions and services’ Venue cost History Personal preferences Ticket price Ticket price may cover entry alone or may include in-site services, e.g. parking or transportation. Ticket pricing has major implications for customer decision making and participation. There are a plethora of diﬀerent pricing strategies; however, those suitable for events include: Cost-oriented pricing, which bases‘pricingstructuresontheactual cost of providing the goods or services’ (Weaver and Oppermann, 2000: 231). Full-cost recovery aims to cover all costs with a margin for profit. Competition-oriented pricing (follow the leader), where ‘The emphasis here is on competitor behaviour as the major criterion Prestige pricing, where ‘the price is deliberately set higher than the competitors for positioning reasons – usually to suggest quality and attract higher-spending visitors’ Yield management recognizes that an event usually deals with multiple market segments and, for example, ringside seats can be sold at a premium. Yield management relates service quality to price and enables the event to deal with different economic segments Financial study The ﬁnancial analysis usually focuses on three issues: anticipated income and expenditure, budgeting and cash ﬂow. Source of income: grants or subsidies, donations, fund-raising and sponsorship (sometimes difficult), merchandising, broadcasting rights, catering etc. Marketing > marketing mix Hall (1992: 136) identiﬁes three important objectives of event marketing: ‘read their customer needs and motivations, develop products that meet these needs, and build a communication programme which expresses the event’s purpose and objectives’. Venue planning and operations management Using these techniques the organizers can plan how the event will ﬁt into the venue and how facilities, staﬀ, equipment services, etc., will be distributed. Signage external to the event requires consideration of the ﬂow of customers to the event and the diﬀerent potential modes of transport. Careful consideration needs to be made of where people are likely to come from to facilitate routes to car parks and minimize traﬃc problems. The venue, the nature of activities and the characteristics of potential customers can help deﬁne risks, e.g. crowd control issues. For some events ‘mobbing the stage, screaming and yelling’ are not part of the ‘crowd’s psyche’ (Ernst & Young et al., 1992: 81). Crowd control involves constraining a disorderly crowd Event scheduling An event schedule describes the timing of the diﬀerent elements of the event in minute detail. Event schedules are designed to help monitor event progress and as an evaluation tool. Shutting down activities Shutting down post-event ensures that everything is put back in place after the event and includes two tasks: dismantling and removing the equipment, and cleaning up. A timetable for suppliers to dismantle and remove hired equipment (e.g. sound and lighting systems; mobile toilets; temporary stages) should be identiﬁed in the hire contract. Selling oﬀ equipment after the event may generate additional back-end income. Industry analysis New music festivals may not see a lot of trouble while coming up with a festival as there are low barriers for the entry but because more mature festivals dominate the industry market. Growth, stakeout and maturity are the next stages in the industry lifecycle which makes it difficult as at this stage both mature and new up coming festivals would be competing. The case studies tell us that a central location does not really promotes success as two of these major festivals, T in the Park Festival and Glastonbury festival are organized in remote locations. But both of these festivals, as shown is strategic group analysis offer a mixed genre of music, which could be one of the important reasons for their success. Looking further on the geographical distribution of these festivals, there is a scope of successful music festival in the northern part of UK, as there are not certainly high number of music festivals there. Thus, the strategy would be to find a place where there are less or no successful festivals and which can also hold unto a large number of people attending the event. The aim should be offer a vast no of genre and artists, to attract more people. The new festival should focus on improving the customer experience. The analysis of the case study tells that new festival should incorporate the strengths of these festivals while weakness, opportunities and threats should be taken in record and worked on to gain advantage and have increased chance of success.