Uploaded by Deboria Coc

Chapter 1; Introduction Matter & Measurement Part 1

Chapter 1
Matter and Measurement
Adapted from: Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition.
Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten
In this science we
study matter and the
changes it undergoes.
Chemistry is the
study of the
properties and
behavior of matter.
The Study of Chemistry
• The science that deals with the materials of the
universe and the changes these materials
• The Central Science
• Understanding most other fields of science requires
an understanding of Chemistry
• Chemistry is central to a fundamental understanding
of governing principles in many science-related
The Central Science
The Scientific Method
The scientific method is simply a systematic
approach to solving problems.
The Scientific Method
• Make Observations
• Qualitative – Descriptions
• Quantitative – Measurements
• Formulate Hypotheses
• Possible (tentative) explanations for observed
characteristics or behaviors
• Perform Experiments
• Test Hypothesis
• Repeat the process until we get a well-tested
The Scientific Method
• Theory – an explanation of the general causes
of certain phenomena, with considerable
evidence or facts to support it.
• May need to be modified or discarded as new
information (observations) becomes known.
• Law – a generally observed behavior
• While experimenting we may observe the same
behavior all the time, and therefore be able to
predict this behavior will always occur in the future
We define matter as anything that has mass and
takes up space. Matter can be solid, liquid, or gas.
States of Matter
Pure Substances and Mixtures
• Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
• Each element is made of the same kind of atom.
• A compound is made of two or more different kinds
of elements.
Compounds and Composition
• Compounds have a definite composition. That
means that the relative number of atoms of each
element that makes up the compound is the same in
any sample.
• This is The Law of Constant Composition (or The
Law of Definite Proportions)
• Heterogeneous mixtures do not have the same
composition, properties, and appearance throughout.
• A homogenous mixture is uniform throughout and
have no visible boundaries.
Pure Substances and Mixtures
Classification of Matter
Exercise: Classification of Matter
1. “White gold” contains gold and a “white” metal, such as
palladium. Two samples of white gold differ in the relative
amounts of gold and palladium they contain. Both samples are
uniform in composition throughout. Use the figure to classify
white gold.
Solution: Because the material is uniform
throughout, it is homogeneous. Because its
composition differs for the two samples, it
cannot be a compound. Instead, it must be a
homogeneous mixture.
Exercise: Classification of Matter
2. When oil and water are combined, they do not mix evenly,
but instead form two separate layers. Use the figure to classify
a combination of oil and water.
Solution: It is a heterogeneous mixture because
it is not uniform throughout.
Exercise: Classification of Matter
3. Aspirin is composed of 60.0% carbon, 4.5% hydrogen, and
35.5% oxygen by mass, regardless of its source. Use the figure
to classify aspirin.
Solution: It is a compound because it has
constant composition and can be separated into
several elements.
Properties and Changes of Matter
Types of Properties
• Physical Properties…
• Can be observed without changing a substance
into another substance.
• Boiling point, density, mass, volume, etc.
• Chemical Properties…
• Can only be observed when a substance is
changed into another substance.
• Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acid,
Types of Properties
• Intensive Properties…
• Are independent of the amount of the substance
that is present.
• Density, boiling point, color, etc.
• Extensive Properties…
• Depend upon the amount of the substance
• Mass, volume, energy, etc.
Types of Changes
• Physical Changes
• These are changes in matter that do not change the
composition of a substance.
• Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc.
• Chemical Changes
• Chemical changes result in new substances.
• Combustion, oxidation, decomposition, etc.
Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions
Compounds can be
broken down into
more elemental
Separation of Mixtures
Separating Mixtures
• Mixtures can be separated based on physical
properties of the components of the mixture.
Some methods used are:
• Filtration
• Distillation
• Chromatography
Distillation uses
differences in the
boiling points of
substances to
separate a
mixture into its
In filtration solid
substances are
separated from liquids
and solutions.
This technique separates substances on the
basis of differences in solubility in a solvent.