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chapter 21 biotechnology

Gaugher disease--special enzyme missing
glucocerebroside build up in organs
Genetic engineering
Changing the genetic material of an
organism by removing, changing, or
inserting individual genes
Resistant to herbicide: Glyphosate
Cotton plants containing Bt-toxic to
Golden Rice (high Vitamin A content)
Biotechnology: using living organisms to carry out
processes that make substances that we want.
yeast--alcohol and bread
bacteria--yoghurt and cheese
It is used widely in food industry and our daily life.
Proteases break down the coloured, insoluble proteins that
cause stains to smaller, colourless soluble polypeptides.
haemoglobin----------------smaller molecules
( red colour)
(Insoluble protein)
Pectinase break down pectin and
enable greater juice extraction, make
clear juice rather than cloudy.
Lactase breaks down lactose in milk
into glucose and galactose.
This makes milk drinkable for lactose
intolerant people.
Lactose-intolerant individuals may tolerate
due to the fermentation of lactose to lactic
acid carried out by the bacteria present in
the yogurt.
Isomerase was used in converting glucose
which is not very sweet to fructose, the
most sweet of the natural sugars.